• Social Science

A Global Perspective on Young People as Offenders and Victims

First Results from the ISRD3 Study
Author: Dirk Enzmann,Janne Kivivuori,Ineke Haen Marshall,Majone Steketee,Mike Hough,Martin Killias
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319632337
Category: Social Science
Page: 85
View: 2704
This Brief presents the first major release of findings from the Third International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD3). ISRD is a major international research collaboration that now covers some 35 countries. It surveys young people aged 12 to 16 in their schools, asking about their experience of crime – both as offenders and as victims – and about their attitudes to crime and justice and about their home and school life. ISRD1 was carried out in 1991-1992 and ISRD2 in 2006-2008. ISRD findings presented here cover the 27 ISRD3 countries for which data are already available, with a total sample approaching 63,000 young people. For most of these countries, the samples are drawn from two major cities. This volume provides key findings on self-reported offending and on victimization.Chapter 1 set the scene, and describes the background to ISRD3. Chapter 2describes the methods used in the survey; respondents complete the ISRD questionnaire either in paper format or – increasingly – using a standardized internet program. Chapter 3 covers key findings on self-reported offending, including the important finding that preparedness to disclose offending varies according to cultural context. Chapter 4 presents findings on victimization, including important new findings on hate crime and the use of parental violence, as well as coverage of more conventional forms of crime. A final chapter summarizes the results and draws out their implications. This Brief will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice,as well as related fields such as sociology, public policy, and psychology. Due tothe groundbreaking methodological analyses provided, this Brief is essential reading to all who conduct or use internationally comparative and global survey research.

    • Social Science

Comparative Criminal Justice

Making Sense of Difference
Author: David Nelken
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 144624833X
Category: Social Science
Page: 136
View: 2770
David Nelken is the 2013 laureate of the Association for Law and Society International Prize The increasingly important topic of comparative criminal justice is examined from an original and insightful perspective by David Nelken, one of the top scholars in the field. The author looks at why we should study crime and criminal justice in a comparative and international context, and the difficulties we encounter when we do. Drawing on experience of teaching and research in a variety of countries, the author offers multiple illustrations of striking differences in the roles of criminal justice actors and ways of handling crime problems. The book includes in-depth discussions of such key issues as how we can learn from other jurisdictions, compare 'like with like', and balance explanation with understanding – for example, in making sense of national differences in prison rates. Careful attention is given to the question of how far globalisation challenges traditional ways of comparing units. The book also offers a number of helpful tips on methodology, showing why method and substance cannot and should not be separated when it comes to understanding other people's systems of justice. Students and academics in criminology and criminal justice will find this book an invaluable resource. Compact Criminology is an exciting series that invigorates and challenges the international field of criminology. Books in the series are short, authoritative, innovative assessments of emerging issues in criminology and criminal justice – offering critical, accessible introductions to important topics. They take a global rather than a narrowly national approach. Eminently readable and first-rate in quality, each book is written by a leading specialist. Compact Criminology provides a new type of tool for teaching, learning and research, one that is flexible and light on its feet. The series addresses fundamental needs in the growing and increasingly differentiated field of criminology.

    • Social Science

Discovery of Hidden Crime

Self-Report Delinquency Surveys in Criminal Policy Context
Author: Janne Kivivuori
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780199639199
Category: Social Science
Page: 216
View: 8857
Presents a history of the self-report crime survey as a method of criminological inquiry, describing how, during the 1930s and 1940s, a handful of US and European criminologists discovered the method, thus providing researchers with a powerful analytical tool and changing the way crime itself was seen.

    • Social Science

Migrating and Settling in a Mobile World

Albanian Migrants and Their Children in Europe
Author: Zana Vathi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319130242
Category: Social Science
Page: 216
View: 7098
This open access book draws on award-winning cross-generational research comparing the complex and life-changing processes of settlement among Albanian migrants and their adolescent children in three European cities: London (UK), Thessaloniki (Greece), and Florence (Italy). Building on key concepts from the social sciences and migration studies, such as identity, integration and transnationalism, the author links these with emerging theoretical notions, such as mobility, translocality and cosmopolitanism. Ethnic identities, transnational ties and integration pathways of the youngsters and adults are compared, focusing on intergenerational transmission in particular and recognizing mobility as an inherent characteristic of contemporary lives. Departing from the traditional focus on the adult children of settled migrants and the main immigration countries of continental North-Western Europe, this study centres on Southern Europe and Great Britain and a very recently settled immigrant group. The result is an illuminating early look at a second generation “in-the-making”. Indeed, the findings provide ample grounds for pragmatic and forward-looking policy to enable these migrant-origin youngsters, and others like them, to more fully attain their potential. The book ends with a call to reassess the term “second generation” as it is currently used in policy and scholarly works. Children of migrants seldom see themselves as a particular and homogeneous group with ethnicity as an intrinsic identifying quality. More importantly, they make use of all the limited resources at their disposal, and view their integration processes through broader geographies – showing sometimes a cosmopolitan orientation, but also using localized reference points, such as the school, city, or urban neighbourhood.

    • Social Science

Population Aging and International Health-Caregiver Migration to Japan


Author: Gabriele Vogt
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319680129
Category: Social Science
Page: 103
View: 2478
This book introduces Japan’s current policy initiatives directed at eldercare and international labor migration, and, wherever appropriate,it adds a comparative perspective from Germany. The book shows how eldercare is currently being organized and discusses integration policies for foreigners. It studies the policy-making process behind the system, and contextualizes the migration avenue within the strong roots of Japan’s eldercare in local communities and the non-preparedness of the nation to grant local citizenship to international newcomers. Through applying an approach of multi-level policy making, putting a strong focus on the local level and introducing new approaches, this book is of interest to policy makers and scholars in aging, migration, health care, and contemporary Japan.

    • Social Science

Negotiating the Boundaries of Belonging

The Intricacies of Naturalisation in Germany
Author: Nils Witte
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3658197870
Category: Social Science
Page: 209
View: 385
Nils Witte explores Turkish migrants’ destigmatization strategies and investigates their legal and symbolic motives for naturalisation. Using mixed methods and unique data the author shows that Turkish migrants’ inclination to naturalise would be stronger if they were allowed to retain their former citizenship and if they were recognized as symbolic members of German society. Minority members enjoy expansive rights as permanent residents and many are entitled to hold German citizenship. However, they often experience symbolic exclusion making symbolic membership a rare motive for naturalisation.

    • Social Science

The International Handbook of the Demography of Race and Ethnicity


Author: Rogelio Sáenz,David G. Embrick,Néstor P. Rodríguez
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9048188911
Category: Social Science
Page: 629
View: 7546
Examining key countries in every region of world, this handbook presents population profiles and analyses concerning racial/ethnic disparities and changing intergroup relations. Inside, prominent scholars from various parts of the world and disciplines address the links between stratification, demography, and conflict across the globe. Organized by region/continent, coverage for each profiled country includes demographic information; a historical overview that addresses past racial/ethnic conflict; identification of the most salient demographic trends and issues that the country faces; theoretical issues related to the linkages between stratification, demography, and conflict; methodological issues including quality of data and cutting-edge methods to better understand the issue at hand; and details on the possible future of the existing trends and issues with particular emphasis on public policy and human rights. This handbook will help readers to better understand the commonalities and differences that exist globally in the interplay between stratification, demography, and conflict. In addition, it also provides an excellent inventory of theoretical perspectives and methodological approaches that are needed to better comprehend this issue. This handbook will appeal to students, researchers, and policy analysts in the areas of race and ethnic relations, demography, inequality, international sociology, international relations, foreign studies, social geography, and social development.

    • Social Science

Coping with Demographic Change: A Comparative View on Education and Local Government in Germany and Poland


Author: Reinhold Sackmann,Walter Bartl,Bernadette Jonda,Katarzyna Kopycka,Christian Rademacher
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319103016
Category: Social Science
Page: 281
View: 4567
With many OECD countries experiencing a decline in their populations, this book offers a theoretical model of coping with demographic change and examines different strategies that societies have used to come to terms with demographic change. In particular, it details the different ways that Germany and Poland have tried to cope with this challenge and reveals three conflicting strategies: expansion, reduction, and phasing out. Coverage includes: · How and why demographic change was used in Poland to expand the education system · The variance of linkage between demographic change and growth rates in different fields of education in a German Bundesland · Modes of reflexivity and personnel policy in German and Polish municipalities · Effects of demographic change and forms of coping on fiscal capacity and unemployment rates in German municipalities Coping with Demographic Change examines how and why societies cope with these detrimental effects. It conceptualizes the challenges a society faces as a result of demographic change and focuses on the processes by which actors, organizations and nation-states try to cope with this new situation.

    • Social Science

Colonization and Development in New Zealand between 1769 and 1900

The Seeds of Rangiatea
Author: Ian Pool
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319169041
Category: Social Science
Page: 335
View: 5965
This book details the interactions between the Seeds of Rangiatea, New Zealand’s Maori people of Polynesian origin, and Europe from 1769 to 1900. It provides a case-study of the way Imperial era contact and colonization negatively affected naturally evolving demographic/epidemiologic transitions and imposed economic conditions that thwarted development by precursor peoples, wherever European expansion occurred. In doing so, it questions the applicability of conventional models for analyses of colonial histories of population/health and of development. The book focuses on, and synthesizes, the most critical parts of the story, the health and population trends, and the economic and social development of Maori. It adopts demographic methodologies, most typically used in developing countries, which allow the mapping of broad changes in Maori society, particularly their survival as a people. The book raises general theoretical questions about how populations react to the introduction of diseases to which they have no natural immunity. Another more general theoretical issue is what happens when one society’s development processes are superseded by those of some more powerful force, whether an imperial power or a modern-day agency, which has ingrained ideas about objectives and strategies for development. Finally, it explores how health and development interact. The Maori experience of contact and colonization, lasting from 1769 to circa 1900, narrated here, is an all too familiar story for many other territories and populations, Natives and former colonists. This book provides a case-study with wider ramifications for theory in colonial history, development studies, demography, anthropology and other fields.

    • Social Science

The Many Faces of Youth Crime

Contrasting Theoretical Perspectives on Juvenile Delinquency across Countries and Cultures
Author: Josine Junger-Tas,Ineke Haen Marshall,Dirk Enzmann,Martin Killias,Majone Steketee,Beata Gruszczynska
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441994554
Category: Social Science
Page: 367
View: 1180
This book presents the first comprehensive analysis of the second International Self-Report Delinquency study (ISRD-2). An earlier volume, Juvenile Delinquency in Europe and Beyond (Springer, 2010) focused mainly on the findings with regard to delinquency, victimization and substance use in each of the individual participating ISRD-2 countries. The Many Faces of Youth Crime is based on analysis of the merged data set and has a number of unique features:  The analyses are based on an unusually large number of respondents (about 67,000 7th, 8th and 9th graders) collected by researchers from 31 countries;  It includes reports on the characteristics, experiences and behaviour of first and second generation migrant youth from a variety of cultures;  It is one of the first large-scale international studies asking 12-16 year olds about their victimization experiences (bullying, assault, robbery, theft);  It describes both intriguing differences between young people from different countries and country clusters in the nature and extent of delinquency, victimization and substance use, as well as remarkable cross-national uniformities in delinquency, victimization, and substance use patterns;  A careful comparative analysis of the social responses to offending and victimization adds to our limited knowledge on this important issue;  Detailed chapters on the family, school, neighbourhood, lifestyle and peers provide a rich comparative description of these institutions and their impact on delinquency;  It tests a number of theoretical perspectives (social control, self-control, social disorganization, routine activities/opportunity theory) on a large international sample from a variety of national contexts;  It combines a theoretical focus with a thoughtful consideration of the policy implications of the findings;  An extensive discussion of the ISRD methodology of ‘flexible standardization’ details the challenges of comparative research. The book consists of 12 chapters, which also may be read individually by those interested in particular special topics (for instance, the last chapter should be of special interest to policy makers). The material is presented in such a way that it is accessible to more advanced students, researchers and scholars in a variety of fields, such as criminology, sociology, deviance, social work, comparative methodology, youth studies, substance use studies, and victimology.

    • Social Science

Probation Round the World


Author: Koichi Hamai,Robert Harris,Mike Hough,Renaud Ville,Ugljesa Zvekic
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134821417
Category: Social Science
Page: 256
View: 3061
Whilst they retain a recognisable common core, probation systems round the world are enormously varied, and many are in a state of rapid change. Probation Round the World is a study of probation in ten countries, ranging from the well-resourced and heavily professionalised services of Britain and the old Commonwealth to the reliance on lay-supervisors in Japan and the community-based system which has recently been set up in Papua new Guinea. Probation Round the World resulted from collaborative research conducted by the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) and the British Home Office. The first part of the book comprises a review of the development and convergence of probation within the Civil Law and Common Law traditions. The second part describes the origins and functions of systems in the ten countries, drawing out salient differences and similarities. It will provide invaluable reading for students of criminal justice and criminology and for professionals working in probation managment and government.

    • Medical

Color Atlas of Dental Implant Surgery


Author: Michael S. Block
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0323228100
Category: Medical
Page: 488
View: 9577
Use this atlas-style guide to master implant procedures and techniques! Written by leading expert Michael S. Block, DMD, Color Atlas of Dental Implant Surgery, 3rd Edition provides clear, full-color clinical photos and practical instructions covering a wide range of implant challenges. It takes you through treatment planning, presurgical guidelines, detailed surgical techniques, and postoperative follow-up. This edition adds more case studies and coverage of computed tomography. With this book, you’ll be able to address any implant-related situation and achieve optimal results! This title includes additional digital media when purchased in print format. For this digital book edition, media content is not included. Clear step-by-step procedures include indications, contraindications, and treatment results for each procedure. Over 1,400 full-color photographs and drawings depict important concepts and techniques, and show treatment from beginning to end. Indications and contraindications for each procedure provide details of why a procedure is performed. A discussion of the result of prosthodontic treatment is provided for each case, explaining how implant placement factors into successful therapy. Chapters are organized by oral anatomy and surgical technique, with each chapter presenting a different area of the mouth or a specific surgical technique. The Mandible section covers various approaches to augmentation of the atrophic mandible, including a case that utilizes distraction osteogenesis. Detailed cases of posterior mandible surgery demonstrate onlay bone harvesting and grafting the deficient ridge. The Maxilla section features sinus grafting, hard and soft tissue procedures, and the relatively new zygomaticus implant procedure. References are provided at the end of every chapter for additional reading and research.

    • Social Science

Juvenile Delinquency in Europe and Beyond

Results of the Second International Self-Report Delinquency Study
Author: Josine Junger-Tas,Ineke Haen Marshall,Dirk Enzmann,Martin Killias,Majone Steketee,Beata Gruszczynska
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387959825
Category: Social Science
Page: 434
View: 4091
Juvenile Delinquency in Europe and Beyond: Results of the Second International Self-Report Delinquency Study presents the status of juvenile crime and delinquency and its backgrounds in many of the European Union member states as well as in the United States, Canada, Venezuela and Surinam. The book includes information on key issues in juvenile delinquency such as victimization of young people, alcohol and drug use and its relation to juvenile crime, involvement in youth gangs, immigration, family and school and neighborhood situations. It provides insight into different views on what can be considered juvenile crime; what acts are subsumed in its definition and when we can speak about structural delinquent behavior. These insights are based on self-reported information systematically and simultaneously collected from about 70,000 12-15 year old youths in 28 countries. Until recently, the self-report methodology has not been applied on such a large scale in an international context. The results of this survey provide new and unexpected data about those young people who structurally commit criminal acts, as well as on the frequency of the behavior and the conditions that have an impact on offending. The wealth of descriptions and insights in delinquency of all these countries will be of great interest to scholars, students and practitioners because of the special character of the publication; it is a book of reference to everyone interested in the backgrounds of juvenile delinquency.

    • Law

Escape Routes: Contemporary Perspectives on Life After Punishment


Author: Senior Research Fellow Institute of Stephen Farrall,Stephen Farrall,Richard Sparks,Shadd Maruna,Mike Hough,Professor of Social Policy Mike Hough
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136859594
Category: Law
Page: 288
View: 5682
Escape Routes: Contemporary Perspectives on Life After Punishment addresses the reasons why people stop offending, and the processes by which they are rehabilitated or resettled back into the community. Engaging with, and building upon, renewed criminological interest in this area, Escape Routes nevertheless broadens and enlivens the current debate. First, its scope goes beyond a narrowly-defined notion of crime and includes, for example, essays on religious redemption, the lives of ex-war criminals, and the relationship between ethnicity and desistance from crime. Second, contributors to this volume draw upon a number of areas of contemporary research, including urban studies, philosophy, history, religious studies, and ethics, as well as criminology. Examining new theoretical work in the study of desistance and exploring the experiences of a number of groups whose experiences of life after punishment do not usually attract much attention, Escape Routes provides new insights about the processes associated with reform, resettlement and forgiveness. Intended to drive our understanding of life after punishment forward, its rich array of theoretical and substantive papers will be of considerable interest to criminologists, lawyers, and sociologists.

    • Medical

Bioceramic Coatings for Medical Implants

Trends and Techniques
Author: Robert B. Heimann,Hans D. Lehmann
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527337431
Category: Medical
Page: 496
View: 610
Reflecting the progress in recent years, this book provides in-depth information on the preparation, chemistry, and engineering of bioceramic coatings for medical implants. It is authored by two renowned experts with over 30 years of experience in industry and academia, who know the potentials and pitfalls of the techniques concerned. Following an introduction to the principles of biocompatibility, they present the structures and properties of various bioceramics from alumina to zirconia to calcium phosphates. The main part of the work focuses on coating technologies, such as biomimetic deposition, sol-gel deposition, magnetron sputtering, and thermal spraying. Then follows a discussion of the major interactions of bioceramics with bone and connective tissue cells, complemented by an overview of the "in-vitro "testing methods of the biomineralization properties of bioceramics. The text is rounded off by chapters on the functionalization of bioceramic coatings and a look at future trends. As a result, the authors bring together all aspects of the latest techniques for designing, depositing, testing, and implementing improved and novel bioceramic coating compositions, providing a full yet concise overview for beginners and professionals.

    • Social Science

Delinquent Behavior Among Young People in the Western World

First Results of the International Self-report Delinquency Study
Author: J. Junger-Tas,G. J. Terlouw
Publisher: Kugler Publications
ISBN: 9789062991082
Category: Social Science
Page: 441
View: 793

    • Medical

Mineral Trioxide Aggregate in Dentistry

From Preparation to Application
Author: Josette Camilleri
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642551572
Category: Medical
Page: 206
View: 4888
Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was invented in the mid-1990s at Loma Linda University, USA, with the aim of introducing a material for use as a root-end filler that would set and develop its properties in the presence of moisture. MTA is a mixture of Portland cement and bismuth oxide, which is added to enhance the radiopacity of the material. These two components are mixed with water to produce hydrated cement. This book concisely presents information on diverse aspects of MTA and its use with a view to making it more widely available to clinicians and researchers. The topics covered include the development of MTA and its introduction into clinical dentistry, its chemical composition and setting characteristics, manipulation and placement, material properties, reactivity and the influence of environmental factors. The clinical applications are clearly explained and related innovations and further materials currently available on the market are also discussed.

    • Social Science

Organized Crime, Corruption and Crime Prevention

Essays in Honor of Ernesto U. Savona
Author: Stefano Caneppele,Francesco Calderoni
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319018396
Category: Social Science
Page: 337
View: 9075
​​​This volume collects new contributions to research on mafias, organized crime, money laundering, and other forms of complex crimes, gathering some of the most authoritative and well-known scholars in the field. The chapters for this volume are original peices written in honor of the retirement of Dr. Ernesto U. Savona, highlighting his research and legacy. Throughout his academic career, Professor Ernesto U. Savona has investigated complex crimes ranging from organized crime, to economic crime, to money laundering. In his work, he has tried to bring together academics, policy makers, and practitioners to bring understanding for crime problems and innovative solutions. His passion towards the practical application of the findings of scientific research led him to found Transcrime in 1994, which is today among the most important criminological think-tanks in Europe.This important book is aimed at scholars studying criminal policy and research, particularly in the areas of criminal networks, organized crime, white collar crime, the history of criminology.

    • Social Science

Comparative Methods in the Social Sciences


Author: Neil J. Smelser
Publisher: Quid Pro Books
ISBN: 1610271777
Category: Social Science
Page: 270
View: 6468
Even after teaching generations of social scientists, Neil Smelser's classic book remains the most definitive statement of methodological issues for all comparative scholars and in political science, anthropology, sociology, economics and psychology. Such issues are timeless and therefore Smelser's lucid analysis remains timely and relevant. Smelser posits a methodological continuity between the comparative studies of past masters and the more recent flow of contemporary comparative work. To that end, he takes a pragmatic, critical look at the classic studies of Alexis de Tocqueville, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber. His analyses respect the historical specifics and contexts of their work, but at the same time raise general issues such as cross-unit comparability, empirical representation of theoretical concepts and measures, and historical causality. The book also deals with the ongoing flows of comparative study in the social sciences, which, while methodologically more self-conscious than past work, nevertheless face a common set of issues, including causation and classification. The book's unique clarity makes it particularly useful for working scholars as well as students fighting their way through the methodological thickets of comparative studies.

    • Medical

Plastics in Dentistry and Estrogenicity

A Guide to Safe Practice
Author: Theodore Eliades,George Eliades
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642296874
Category: Medical
Page: 149
View: 2333
This book provides a timely and comprehensive review of our current knowledge of BPA release from dental polymers and the potential endocrinological consequences. After a review of the history and evolution of the issue within the broader biomedical context, the estrogenicity of BPA is explained. The basic chemistry of the polymers used in dentistry is then presented in a simplified and clinically relevant manner. Key chapters in the book carefully evaluate the release of BPA from polycarbonate products and composite resins and the estrogenicity of these materials. Currently available evidence on the potential estrogenic action of dental composities, sealants, and adhesives is presented, and means are suggested by which adverse health effects can be minimized. The entire dental community will find this book to be an excellent source of information on the true risks posed by BPA, and an invaluable aid to safe practice.