• Mathematics

Algebraic Geometry: From algebraic varieties to schemes


Author: 健爾·上野
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 9780821808627
Category: Mathematics
Page: 154
View: 5671
This is the first of three volumes on algebraic geometry. The second volume, Algebraic Geometry 2: Sheaves and Cohomology, is available from the AMS as Volume 197 in the Translations of Mathematical Monographs series. Early in the 20th century, algebraic geometry underwent a significant overhaul, as mathematicians, notably Zariski, introduced a much stronger emphasis on algebra and rigor into the subject. This was followed by another fundamental change in the 1960s with Grothendieck's introduction of schemes. Today, most algebraic geometers are well-versed in the language of schemes, but many newcomers are still initially hesitant about them. Ueno's book provides an inviting introduction to the theory, which should overcome any such impediment to learning this rich subject. The book begins with a description of the standard theory of algebraic varieties. Then, sheaves are introduced and studied, using as few prerequisites as possible. Once sheaf theory has been well understood, the next step is to see that an affine scheme can be defined in terms of a sheaf over the prime spectrum of a ring. By studying algebraic varieties over a field, Ueno demonstrates how the notion of schemes is necessary in algebraic geometry. This first volume gives a definition of schemes and describes some of their elementary properties. It is then possible, with only a little additional work, to discover their usefulness. Further properties of schemes will be discussed in the second volume. Ueno's book is a self-contained introduction to this important circle of ideas, assuming only a knowledge of basic notions from abstract algebra (such as prime ideals). It is suitable as a text for an introductory course on algebraic geometry.

    • Mathematics

An Introduction to Algebraic Geometry


Author: Kenji Ueno
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821811444
Category: Mathematics
Page: 246
View: 7326
This introduction to algebraic geometry allows readers to grasp the fundamentals of the subject with only linear algebra and calculus as prerequisites. After a brief history of the subject, the book introduces projective spaces and projective varieties, and explains plane curves and resolution of their singularities. The volume further develops the geometry of algebraic curves and treats congruence zeta functions of algebraic curves over a finite field. It concludes with a complex analytical discussion of algebraic curves. The author emphasizes computation of concrete examples rather than proofs, and these examples are discussed from various viewpoints. This approach allows readers to develop a deeper understanding of the theorems.

    • Mathematics

Algebraic Geometry: Sheaves and cohomology


Author: 健爾·上野
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 9780821813577
Category: Mathematics
Page: 184
View: 6453
Modern algebraic geometry is built upon two fundamental notions: schemes and sheaves. The theory of schemes is presented in the first part of this book (Algebraic Geometry 1: From Algebraic Varieties to Schemes, AMS, 1999, Translations of Mathematical Monographs, Volume 185). In the present book, the author turns to the theory of sheaves and their cohomology. Loosely speaking, a sheaf is a way of keeping track of local information defined on a topological space, such as the local algebraic functions on an algebraic manifold or the local sections of a vector bundle. Sheaf cohomology is a primary tool in understanding sheaves and using them to study properties of the corresponding manifolds. The text covers the important topics of the theory of sheaves on algebraic varieties, including types of sheaves and the fundamental operations on them, such as coherent and quasicoherent sheaves, direct and inverse images, behavior of sheaves under proper and projective morphisms, and Cech cohomology. The book contains numerous problems and exercises with solutions. It would be an excellent text for the second part of a course in algebraic geometry.

    • Mathematics

Analytic Number Theory

Exploring the Anatomy of Integers
Author: Jean-Marie De Koninck,Florian Luca
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821875779
Category: Mathematics
Page: 414
View: 8714
The authors assemble a fascinating collection of topics from analytic number theory that provides an introduction to the subject with a very clear and unique focus on the anatomy of integers, that is, on the study of the multiplicative structure of the integers. Some of the most important topics presented are the global and local behavior of arithmetic functions, an extensive study of smooth numbers, the Hardy-Ramanujan and Landau theorems, characters and the Dirichlet theorem, the $abc$ conjecture along with some of its applications, and sieve methods. The book concludes with a whole chapter on the index of composition of an integer. One of this book's best features is the collection of problems at the end of each chapter that have been chosen carefully to reinforce the material. The authors include solutions to the even-numbered problems, making this volume very appropriate for readers who want to test their understanding of the theory presented in the book.

    • Mathematics

Algebraic Curves and Riemann Surfaces


Author: Rick Miranda
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821802682
Category: Mathematics
Page: 390
View: 521
The book was easy to understand, with many examples. The exercises were well chosen, and served to give further examples and developments of the theory. --William Goldman, University of Maryland In this book, Miranda takes the approach that algebraic curves are best encountered for the first time over the complex numbers, where the reader's classical intuition about surfaces, integration, and other concepts can be brought into play. Therefore, many examples of algebraic curves are presented in the first chapters. In this way, the book begins as a primer on Riemann surfaces, with complex charts and meromorphic functions taking center stage. But the main examples come from projective curves, and slowly but surely the text moves toward the algebraic category. Proofs of the Riemann-Roch and Serre Duality Theorems are presented in an algebraic manner, via an adaptation of the adelic proof, expressed completely in terms of solving a Mittag-Leffler problem. Sheaves and cohomology are introduced as a unifying device in the latter chapters, so that their utility and naturalness are immediately obvious. Requiring a background of one semester of complex variable theory and a year of abstract algebra, this is an excellent graduate textbook for a second-semester course in complex variables or a year-long course in algebraic geometry.

    • Mathematics

The Resolution of Singular Algebraic Varieties


Author: David Ellwood,Herwig Hauser,Shigefumi Mori,Josef Schicho
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821889826
Category: Mathematics
Page: 340
View: 9467
Resolution of Singularities has long been considered as being a difficult to access area of mathematics. The more systematic and simpler proofs that have appeared in the last few years in zero characteristic now give us a much better understanding of singularities. They reveal the aesthetics of both the logical structure of the proof and the various methods used in it. The present volume is intended for readers who are not yet experts but always wondered about the intricacies of resolution. As such, it provides a gentle and quite comprehensive introduction to this amazing field. The book may tempt the reader to enter more deeply into a topic where many mysteries--especially the positive characteristic case--await to be disclosed. Titles in this series are co-published with the Clay Mathematics Institute (Cambridge, MA).

    • Mathematics

Algebraic Geometry


Author: Robin Hartshorne
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475738498
Category: Mathematics
Page: 496
View: 9055
An introduction to abstract algebraic geometry, with the only prerequisites being results from commutative algebra, which are stated as needed, and some elementary topology. More than 400 exercises distributed throughout the book offer specific examples as well as more specialised topics not treated in the main text, while three appendices present brief accounts of some areas of current research. This book can thus be used as textbook for an introductory course in algebraic geometry following a basic graduate course in algebra. Robin Hartshorne studied algebraic geometry with Oscar Zariski and David Mumford at Harvard, and with J.-P. Serre and A. Grothendieck in Paris. He is the author of "Residues and Duality", "Foundations of Projective Geometry", "Ample Subvarieties of Algebraic Varieties", and numerous research titles.

    • Mathematics

Complex Algebraic Curves


Author: Frances Clare Kirwan
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521423533
Category: Mathematics
Page: 264
View: 9419
This development of the theory of complex algebraic curves was one of the peaks of nineteenth century mathematics. They have many fascinating properties and arise in various areas of mathematics, from number theory to theoretical physics, and are the subject of much research. By using only the basic techniques acquired in most undergraduate courses in mathematics, Dr. Kirwan introduces the theory, observes the algebraic and topological properties of complex algebraic curves, and shows how they are related to complex analysis.

    • Mathematics

D-Modules, Perverse Sheaves, and Representation Theory


Author: Ryoshi Hotta,Toshiyuki Tanisaki
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 081764363X
Category: Mathematics
Page: 412
View: 4387
D-modules continues to be an active area of stimulating research in such mathematical areas as algebraic, analysis, differential equations, and representation theory. Key to D-modules, Perverse Sheaves, and Representation Theory is the authors' essential algebraic-analytic approach to the theory, which connects D-modules to representation theory and other areas of mathematics. To further aid the reader, and to make the work as self-contained as possible, appendices are provided as background for the theory of derived categories and algebraic varieties. The book is intended to serve graduate students in a classroom setting and as self-study for researchers in algebraic geometry, representation theory.

    • Mathematics

Motivic Homotopy Theory

Lectures at a Summer School in Nordfjordeid, Norway, August 2002
Author: Bjorn Ian Dundas
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540458956
Category: Mathematics
Page: 220
View: 5485
This book is based on lectures given at a summer school on motivic homotopy theory at the Sophus Lie Centre in Nordfjordeid, Norway, in August 2002. Vladimir Voevodsky is one of the founders of the theory and received the Fields medal for his work.

    • Mathematics

Fundamental Algebraic Geometry

Grothendieck's FGA Explained
Author: Barbara Fantechi
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821842455
Category: Mathematics
Page: 339
View: 5524
Alexander Grothendieck introduced many concepts into algebraic geometry; they turned out to be astoundingly powerful and productive and truly revolutionized the subject. Grothendieck sketched his new theories in a series of talks at the Seminaire Bourbaki between 1957 and 1962 and collected his write-ups in a volume entitled ``Fondements de la Geometrie Algebrique,'' known as FGA. Much of FGA is now common knowledge; however, some of FGA is less well known, and its full scope is familiar to few. The present book resulted from the 2003 ``Advanced School in Basic Algebraic Geometry'' at the ICTP in Trieste, Italy. The book aims to fill in Grothendieck's brief sketches. There are four themes: descent theory, Hilbert and Quot schemes, the formal existence theorem, and the Picard scheme. Most results are proved in full detail; furthermore, newer ideas are introduced to promote understanding, and many connections are drawn to newer developments. The main prerequisite is a thorough acquaintance with basic scheme theory. Thus this book is a valuable resource for anyone doing algebraic geometry.

Motivic Integration

Seminar Talks
Author: Herbert Kurke,A. Martin-Pizarro,Alexander B. Zheglov,I. Zhukov
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 149397887X
Category:
Page: 35
View: 7388

    • Science

Towards the Mathematics of Quantum Field Theory


Author: Frederic Paugam
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319045644
Category: Science
Page: 487
View: 1976
This ambitious and original book sets out to introduce to mathematicians (even including graduate students ) the mathematical methods of theoretical and experimental quantum field theory, with an emphasis on coordinate-free presentations of the mathematical objects in use. This in turn promotes the interaction between mathematicians and physicists by supplying a common and flexible language for the good of both communities, though mathematicians are the primary target. This reference work provides a coherent and complete mathematical toolbox for classical and quantum field theory, based on categorical and homotopical methods, representing an original contribution to the literature. The first part of the book introduces the mathematical methods needed to work with the physicists' spaces of fields, including parameterized and functional differential geometry, functorial analysis, and the homotopical geometric theory of non-linear partial differential equations, with applications to general gauge theories. The second part presents a large family of examples of classical field theories, both from experimental and theoretical physics, while the third part provides an introduction to quantum field theory, presents various renormalization methods, and discusses the quantization of factorization algebras.

    • Mathematics

The Arithmetic of Elliptic Curves


Author: Joseph H. Silverman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387094946
Category: Mathematics
Page: 513
View: 1786
The theory of elliptic curves is distinguished by its long history and by the diversity of the methods that have been used in its study. This book treats the arithmetic approach in its modern formulation, through the use of basic algebraic number theory and algebraic geometry. Following a brief discussion of the necessary algebro-geometric results, the book proceeds with an exposition of the geometry and the formal group of elliptic curves, elliptic curves over finite fields, the complex numbers, local fields, and global fields. Final chapters deal with integral and rational points, including Siegels theorem and explicit computations for the curve Y = X + DX, while three appendices conclude the whole: Elliptic Curves in Characteristics 2 and 3, Group Cohomology, and an overview of more advanced topics.

    • Mathematics

Basic Algebraic Geometry 2

Schemes and Complex Manifolds
Author: Igor R. Shafarevich
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642380107
Category: Mathematics
Page: 262
View: 3358
Shafarevich's Basic Algebraic Geometry has been a classic and universally used introduction to the subject since its first appearance over 40 years ago. As the translator writes in a prefatory note, ``For all [advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate] students, and for the many specialists in other branches of math who need a liberal education in algebraic geometry, Shafarevich’s book is a must.'' The second volume is in two parts: Book II is a gentle cultural introduction to scheme theory, with the first aim of putting abstract algebraic varieties on a firm foundation; a second aim is to introduce Hilbert schemes and moduli spaces, that serve as parameter spaces for other geometric constructions. Book III discusses complex manifolds and their relation with algebraic varieties, Kähler geometry and Hodge theory. The final section raises an important problem in uniformising higher dimensional varieties that has been widely studied as the ``Shafarevich conjecture''. The style of Basic Algebraic Geometry 2 and its minimal prerequisites make it to a large extent independent of Basic Algebraic Geometry 1, and accessible to beginning graduate students in mathematics and in theoretical physics.

    • Mathematics

Tensors

Geometry and Applications
Author: J. M. Landsberg
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821869078
Category: Mathematics
Page: 439
View: 2142
Tensors are ubiquitous in the sciences. The geometry of tensors is both a powerful tool for extracting information from data sets, and a beautiful subject in its own right. This book has three intended uses: a classroom textbook, a reference work for researchers in the sciences, and an account of classical and modern results in (aspects of) the theory that will be of interest to researchers in geometry. For classroom use, there is a modern introduction to multilinear algebra and to the geometry and representation theory needed to study tensors, including a large number of exercises. For researchers in the sciences, there is information on tensors in table format for easy reference and a summary of the state of the art in elementary language. This is the first book containing many classical results regarding tensors. Particular applications treated in the book include the complexity of matrix multiplication, P versus NP, signal processing, phylogenetics, and algebraic statistics. For geometers, there is material on secant varieties, G-varieties, spaces with finitely many orbits and how these objects arise in applications, discussions of numerous open questions in geometry arising in applications, and expositions of advanced topics such as the proof of the Alexander-Hirschowitz theorem and of the Weyman-Kempf method for computing syzygies.

    • Algebraic geometry -- Special varieties -- Toric varieties, Newton polyhedra

Introduction to Tropical Geometry


Author: Diane Maclagan,Bernd Sturmfels
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821851985
Category: Algebraic geometry -- Special varieties -- Toric varieties, Newton polyhedra
Page: 363
View: 1711
Tropical geometry is a combinatorial shadow of algebraic geometry, offering new polyhedral tools to compute invariants of algebraic varieties. It is based on tropical algebra, where the sum of two numbers is their minimum and the product is their sum. This turns polynomials into piecewise-linear functions, and their zero sets into polyhedral complexes. These tropical varieties retain a surprising amount of information about their classical counterparts. Tropical geometry is a young subject that has undergone a rapid development since the beginning of the 21st century. While establishing itself as an area in its own right, deep connections have been made to many branches of pure and applied mathematics. This book offers a self-contained introduction to tropical geometry, suitable as a course text for beginning graduate students. Proofs are provided for the main results, such as the Fundamental Theorem and the Structure Theorem. Numerous examples and explicit computations illustrate the main concepts. Each of the six chapters concludes with problems that will help the readers to practice their tropical skills, and to gain access to the research literature.

    • Mathematics

Computations in Algebraic Geometry with Macaulay 2


Author: David Eisenbud,Daniel R. Grayson,Mike Stillman,Bernd Sturmfels
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662048515
Category: Mathematics
Page: 329
View: 8129
This book presents algorithmic tools for algebraic geometry, with experimental applications. It also introduces Macaulay 2, a computer algebra system supporting research in algebraic geometry, commutative algebra, and their applications. The algorithmic tools presented here are designed to serve readers wishing to bring such tools to bear on their own problems. The first part of the book covers Macaulay 2 using concrete applications; the second emphasizes details of the mathematics.

    • Mathematics

Arithmetic Differential Equations


Author: Alexandru Buium
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821838628
Category: Mathematics
Page: 310
View: 6781
This research monograph develops an arithmetic analogue of the theory of ordinary differential equations: functions are replaced here by integer numbers, the derivative operator is replaced by a ``Fermat quotient operator'', and differential equations (viewed as functions on jet spaces) are replaced by ``arithmetic differential equations''. The main application of this theory concerns the construction and study of quotients of algebraic curves by correspondences with infinite orbits. Any such quotient reduces to a point in usual algebraic geometry. But many quotients as above cease to be trivial (and become quite interesting) if one enlarges algebraic geometry by using arithmetic differential equations in place of algebraic equations. The book partly follows a series of papers written by the author; however, a substantial part of the material presented here has never been published before. For most of the book the only prerequisites are the basic facts of algebraic geometry and number theory.

    • Mathematics

Real Solutions to Equations from Geometry


Author: Frank Sottile
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821853317
Category: Mathematics
Page: 200
View: 3836
Understanding, finding, or even deciding on the existence of real solutions to a system of equations is a difficult problem with many applications outside of mathematics. While it is hopeless to expect much in general, we know a surprising amount about these questions for systems which possess additional structure often coming from geometry. This book focuses on equations from toric varieties and Grassmannians. Not only is much known about these, but such equations are common in applications. There are three main themes: upper bounds on the number of real solutions, lower bounds on the number of real solutions, and geometric problems that can have all solutions be real. The book begins with an overview, giving background on real solutions to univariate polynomials and the geometry of sparse polynomial systems. The first half of the book concludes with fewnomial upper bounds and with lower bounds to sparse polynomial systems. The second half of the book begins by sampling some geometric problems for which all solutions can be real, before devoting the last five chapters to the Shapiro Conjecture, in which the relevant polynomial systems have only real solutions.