• Philosophy

An Introduction to Probability and Inductive Logic


Author: Ian Hacking
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139643614
Category: Philosophy
Page: N.A
View: 6813
This is an introductory 2001 textbook on probability and induction written by one of the world's foremost philosophers of science. The book has been designed to offer maximal accessibility to the widest range of students (not only those majoring in philosophy) and assumes no formal training in elementary symbolic logic. It offers a comprehensive course covering all basic definitions of induction and probability, and considers such topics as decision theory, Bayesianism, frequency ideas, and the philosophical problem of induction. The key features of this book are a lively and vigorous prose style; lucid and systematic organization and presentation of ideas; many practical applications; a rich supply of exercises drawing on examples from such fields as psychology, ecology, economics, bioethics, engineering, and political science; numerous brief historical accounts of how fundamental ideas of probability and induction developed; and a full bibliography of further reading.

    • Education

Choice and Chance

An Introduction to Inductive Logic
Author: Brian Skyrms
Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing Company
ISBN: 9780534557379
Category: Education
Page: 174
View: 1043
This definitive survey of the hottest issues in inductive logic sets the stage for further classroom discussion.

    • Philosophy

Argument and Inference

An Introduction to Inductive Logic
Author: Gregory Johnson
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262035251
Category: Philosophy
Page: 288
View: 6649
A thorough and practical introduction to inductive logic with a focus on arguments and the rules used for making inductive inferences.


    • Philosophy

Why Does Language Matter to Philosophy?


Author: Ian Hacking
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316582175
Category: Philosophy
Page: N.A
View: 6959
Many people find themselves dissatisfied with recent linguistic philosophy, and yet know that language has always mattered deeply to philosophy and must in some sense continue to do so. Ian Hacking considers here some dozen case studies in the history of philosophy to show the different ways in which language has been important, and the consequences for the development of the subject. There are chapters on, among others, Hobbes, Berkeley, Russell, Ayer, Wittgenstein, Chomsky, Feyerabend and Davidson. Dr Hacking ends by speculating about the directions in which philosophy and the study of language seem likely to go. The book will provide students with a stimulating, broad survey of problems in the theory of meaning and the development of philosophy, particularly in this century. The topics treated in the philosophy of language are among the central, current concerns of philosophers, and the historical framework makes it possible to introduce concretely and intelligibly all the main theoretical issues.

    • Philosophy

An Introduction to the Philosophy of Induction and Probability


Author: Laurence Jonathan Cohen
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: N.A
Category: Philosophy
Page: 217
View: 7439
Two new philosophical problems surrounding the gradation of certainty began to emerge in the 17th century and are still very much alive today. One is concerned with the evaluation of inductive reasoning, whether in science, jurisprudence, or elsewhere; the other with the interpretation of the mathematical calculus of change. This book, aimed at non-specialists, investigates both problems and the extent to which they are connected. Cohen demonstrates the diversity of logical structures that are available for judgements of probability, and explores the rationale for their appropriateness in different contexts of application. Thus his study deals with the complexity of the underlying philosophical issues without simply cataloging alternative conceptions or espousing a particular "favorite" theory.

Lectures on Inductive Logic


Author: Jon Williamson,Professor of Reasoning Inference and Scientific Method Jon Williamson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199666474
Category:
Page: 220
View: 3773
Logic is a field studied mainly by researchers and students of philosophy, mathematics and computing. Inductive logic seeks to determine the extent to which the premisses of an argument entail its conclusion, aiming to provide a theory of how one should reason in the face of uncertainty. It has applications to decision making and artificial intelligence, as well as how scientists should reason when not in possession of the full facts. In this book, Jon Williamson embarks on a quest to find a general, reasonable, applicable inductive logic (GRAIL), all the while examining why pioneers such as Ludwig Wittgenstein and Rudolf Carnap did not entirely succeed in this task. Along the way he presents a general framework for the field, and reaches a new inductive logic, which builds upon recent developments in Bayesian epistemology (a theory about how strongly one should believe the various propositions that one can express). The book explores this logic in detail, discusses some key criticisms, and considers how it might be justified. Is this truly the GRAIL? Although the book presents new research, this material is well suited to being delivered as a series of lectures to students of philosophy, mathematics, or computing and doubles as an introduction to the field of inductive logic

    • Psychology

Inductive Reasoning

Experimental, Developmental, and Computational Approaches
Author: Aidan Feeney,Evan Heit
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139465910
Category: Psychology
Page: N.A
View: 4236
Without inductive reasoning, we couldn't generalize from one instance to another, derive scientific hypotheses, or predict that the sun will rise again tomorrow morning. Despite the widespread nature of inductive reasoning, books on this topic are rare. Indeed, this is the first book on the psychology of inductive reasoning in twenty years. The chapters survey recent advances in the study of inductive reasoning and address questions about how it develops, the role of knowledge in induction, how best to model people's reasoning, and how induction relates to other forms of thinking. Written by experts in philosophy, developmental science, cognitive psychology, and computational modeling, the contributions here will be of interest to a general cognitive science audience as well as to those with a more specialized interest in the study of thinking.

    • Mathematics

Logic of Statistical Inference


Author: Ian Hacking
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107144957
Category: Mathematics
Page: 229
View: 9819
This book showcases Ian Hacking's early ideas on the central issues surrounding statistical reasoning. Presented in a fresh twenty-first-century series livery, and with a specially commissioned new preface, this influential work is now available for a new generation of readers in statistics, philosophy of science and philosophy of maths.

    • Computers

Modern Logic

A Text in Elementary Symbolic Logic
Author: Graeme Forbes
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780195080292
Category: Computers
Page: 397
View: 9936
Filling the need for an accessible, carefully structured introductory text in symbolic logic, Modern Logic has many features designed to improve students' comprehension of the subject, including a proof system that is the same as the award-winning computer program MacLogic, and a special appendix that shows how to use MacLogic as a teaching aid. There are graded exercises at the end of each chapter--more than 900 in all--with selected answers at the end of the book. Unlike competing texts, Modern Logic gives equal weight to semantics and proof theory and explains their relationship, and develops in detail techniques for symbolizing natural language in first-order logic. After a general introduction featuring the notion of logical form, the book offers sections on classical sentential logic, monadic predicate logic, and full first-order logic with identity. A concluding section deals with extensions of and alternatives to classical logic, including modal logic, intuitionistic logic, and fuzzy logic. For students of philosophy, mathematics, computer science, or linguistics, Modern Logic provides a thorough understanding of basic concepts and a sound basis for more advanced work.

    • Philosophy

Critical Thinking

An Introduction to Reasoning Well
Author: Robert Arp,Jamie Carlin Watson
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1472595696
Category: Philosophy
Page: 464
View: 7188
'You shouldn't drink too much. The Earth is round. Milk is good for your bones.' Are any of these claims true? How can you tell? Can you ever be certain you are right? For anyone tackling philosophical logic and critical thinking for the first time, Critical Thinking: An Introduction to Reasoning Well provides a practical guide to the skills required to think critically. From the basics of good reasoning to the difference between claims, evidence and arguments, Robert Arp and Jamie Carlin Watson cover the topics found in an introductory course. Now revised and fully updated, this Second Edition features a glossary, chapter summaries, more student-friendly exercises, study questions, diagrams, and suggestions for further reading. Topics include: the structure, formation, analysis and recognition of arguments deductive validity and soundness inductive strength and cogency inference to the best explanation truth tables tools for argument assessment informal and formal fallacies With real life examples, advice on graduate school entrance exams and an expanded companion website packed with additional exercises, an answer key and help with real life examples, this easy-to-follow introduction is a complete beginner's tool set to good reasoning, analyzing and arguing. Ideal for students in basic reasoning courses and students preparing for graduate school.

    • Mathematics

Introduction to Symbolic Logic and Its Applications


Author: Rudolf Carnap
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 048614349X
Category: Mathematics
Page: 272
View: 8480
Clear, comprehensive, and rigorous treatment develops the subject from elementary concepts to the construction and analysis of relatively complex logical languages. Hundreds of problems, examples, and exercises. 1958 edition.

    • Mathematics

An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Creativity

Think More, Think Better
Author: J. Y. F. Lau
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118033432
Category: Mathematics
Page: 272
View: 4349
A valuable guide on creativity and critical thinking to improve reasoning and decision-making skills Critical thinking skills are essential in virtually any field of study or practice where individuals need to communicate ideas, make decisions, and analyze and solve problems. An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Creativity: Think More, Think Better outlines the necessary tools for readers to become critical as well as creative thinkers. By gaining a practical and solid foundation in the basic principles that underlie critical thinking and creativity, readers will become equipped to think in a more systematic, logical, and imaginative manner. Creativity is needed to generate new ideas to solve problems, and critical thinking evaluates and improves an idea. These concepts are uniquely introduced as a unified whole due to their dependence on each other. Each chapter introduces relevant theories in conjunction with real-life examples and findings from cognitive science and psychology to illustrate how the theories can be applied in numerous fields and careers. An emphasis on how theoretical principles of reasoning can be practical and useful in everyday life is featured, and special sections on presentation techniques, the analysis of meaning, decision-making, and reasoning about personal and moral values are also highlighted. All chapters conclude with a set of exercises, and detailed solutions are provided at the end of the book. A companion website features online tutorials that further explore topics including meaning analysis, argument analysis, logic, statistics, and strategic thinking, along with additional exercises and multimedia resources for continued study. An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Creativity is an excellent book for courses on critical thinking and logic at the undergraduate and graduate levels. The book also serves as a self-contained study guide for readers interested in the topics of critical thinking and creativity as a unified whole.

    • Philosophy

Classical Logic and Its Rabbit-Holes

A First Course
Author: Nelson P. Lande
Publisher: Hackett Publishing
ISBN: 1624660452
Category: Philosophy
Page: 504
View: 1558
"Many students ask, 'What is the point of learning formal logic?' This book gives them the answer. Using the methods of deductive logic, Nelson Lande introduces each new element in exquisite detail, as he takes students through example after example, proof after proof, explaining the thinking behind each concept. Shaded areas and appendices throughout the book provide explanations and justifications that go beyond the main text, challenging those students who wish to delve deeper, and giving instructors the option of confining their course to the basics, or expanding it, when they wish, to more rigorous levels. Lande encourages students to think for themselves, while at the same time providing them with the level of explanation they need to succeed. It is a rigorous approach presented in a style that is informal, engaging, and accessible. Students will come away with a solid understanding of formal logic and why it is not only important, but also interesting and sometimes even fun. It is a text that brings the human element back into the teaching of logic." --Hans Halvorson, Princeton University

    • History

The Emergence of Probability

A Philosophical Study of Early Ideas about Probability, Induction and Statistical Inference
Author: Ian Hacking
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521685573
Category: History
Page: 209
View: 9756
Includes a new introduction, contextualizing his book in light of new work and philosophical trends.

    • History

The Taming of Chance


Author: Ian Hacking
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521388849
Category: History
Page: 264
View: 4504
This book combines detailed scientific historical research with characteristic philosophic breadth and verve.

    • Philosophy

Logic Made Easy: How to Know When Language Deceives You


Author: Deborah J. Bennett
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 0393347613
Category: Philosophy
Page: 256
View: 4934
"The best introduction to logic you will find."—Martin Gardner "Professor Bennett entertains as she instructs," writes Publishers Weekly about the penetrating yet practical Logic Made Easy. This brilliantly clear and gratifyingly concise treatment of the ancient Greek discipline identifies the illogical in everything from street signs to tax forms. Complete with puzzles you can try yourself, Logic Made Easy invites readers to identify and ultimately remedy logical slips in everyday life. Designed with dozens of visual examples, the book guides you through those hair-raising times when logic is at odds with our language and common sense. Logic Made Easy is indeed one of those rare books that will actually make you a more logical human being.

    • Philosophy

Deviant Logic, Fuzzy Logic

Beyond the Formalism
Author: Susan Haack
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226311340
Category: Philosophy
Page: 291
View: 8674
Initially proposed as rivals of classical logic, alternative logics have become increasingly important in areas such as computer science and artificial intelligence. Fuzzy logic, in particular, has motivated major technological developments in recent years. Susan Haack's Deviant Logic provided the first extended examination of the philosophical consequences of alternative logics. In this new volume, Haack includes the complete text of Deviant Logic, as well as five additional papers that expand and update it. Two of these essays critique fuzzy logic, while three augment Deviant Logic's treatment of deduction and logical truth. Haack also provides an extensive new foreword, brief introductions to the new essays, and an updated bibliography of recent work in these areas. Deviant Logic, Fuzzy Logic will be indispensable to students of philosophy, philosophy of science, linguistics, mathematics, and computer science, and will also prove invaluable to experienced scholars working in these fields.

    • Philosophy

Recipes for Science

An Introduction to Scientific Methods and Reasoning
Author: Angela Potochnik,Matteo Colombo,Cory Wright
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317416449
Category: Philosophy
Page: 336
View: 8491
Today, scientific literacy is an essential aspect of any undergraduate education. Recipes for Science responds to this need by providing an accessible introduction to the nature of science and scientific methods, reasoning, and concepts that is appropriate for any beginning college student. It is designed to be adaptable to a wide variety of different kinds of courses, such as introductions to scientific reasoning or critical thinking, philosophy of science, and science education. In any of these different uses, the book helps students better navigate our scientific, 21st-century world. Key Features Contemporary and historical examples of science from many fields of physical, life, and social sciences. Visual aids to clarify and illustrate ideas. Text boxes to explore related topics. Plenty of exercises to ensure full student engagement and mastery of the information. Annotated 'Further Reading' sections at the end of each chapter. Final glossary with helpful definitions of key terms. A companion website with author-developed and crowdsourced materials, including syllabi for courses using this textbook, bibliography of additional resources and online materials, sharable PowerPoint presentations and lecture notes, and additional exercises and extended projects.

    • Science

An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science


Author: Rudolf Carnap
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486140865
Category: Science
Page: 336
View: 8930
Stimulating, thought-provoking text by one of the 20th century's most creative philosophers makes accessible such topics as probability, measurement and quantitative language, causality and determinism, theoretical laws and concepts, more.