• Science

An Introduction to the Dynamics of El Nino and the Southern Oscillation


Author: Allan J. Clarke
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080560830
Category: Science
Page: 324
View: 7606
Many scientists either working on the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) problem or its many applications have not been trained in both the equatorial ocean and atmospheric dynamics necessary to understand it. This book seeks to overcome this difficulty by providing a step by step introduction to ENSO, helping the upper level graduate student or research scientist to learn quickly the ENSO basics and be up to date with the latest ENSO research. The text assumes that the reader has a knowledge of the equations of fluid mechanics on a rotating earth and emphasizes the observations and simple physical explanations of them. Following a history of ENSO and a discussion of ENSO observations in Chapters 1 and 2, Chapters 3-5 consider relevant equatorial ocean dynamics, Chapters 6 and 9 relevant atmospheric dynamics, and Chapters 7 and 8 the main paradigms for how the Pacific Ocean and atmosphere couple together to produce ENSO. Chapter 8 also discusses the old mystery of why ENSO tends to be locked in phase with the seasonal cycle. Successful dynamical and statistical approaches to ENSO prediction are discussed in Chapters 10 and 11 while Chapter 12 concludes the book with examples of how ENSO influences marine and bird life. Quick reference guide and step by step introduction to El Niño/Southern Oscillation dynamics Keep informed and up to date on El Niño/Southern Oscillation research and how El Niño and the Southern Oscillation can be predicted Understand how El Niño can affect marine and bird life

    • Science

An Introduction to the Dynamics of El Niño and the Southern Oscillation


Author: Allan J. Clarke
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780120885480
Category: Science
Page: 308
View: 2310
Many scientists either working on the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) problem or its many applications have not been trained in both the equatorial ocean and atmospheric dynamics necessary to understand it. This book seeks to overcome this difficulty by providing a step by step introduction to ENSO, helping the upper level graduate student or research scientist to learn quickly the ENSO basics and be up to date with the latest ENSO research. The text assumes that the reader has a knowledge of the equations of fluid mechanics on a rotating earth and emphasizes the observations and simple physical explanations of them. Following a history of ENSO and a discussion of ENSO observations in Chapters 1 and 2, Chapters 3-5 consider relevant equatorial ocean dynamics, Chapters 6 and 9 relevant atmospheric dynamics, and Chapters 7 and 8 the main paradigms for how the Pacific Ocean and atmosphere couple together to produce ENSO. Chapter 8 also discusses the old mystery of why ENSO tends to be locked in phase with the seasonal cycle. Successful dynamical and statistical approaches to ENSO prediction are discussed in Chapters 10 and 11 while Chapter 12 concludes the book with examples of how ENSO influences marine and bird life. * Quick reference guide and step by step introduction to El Niño/Southern Oscillation dynamics * Keep informed and up to date on El Niño/Southern Oscillation research and how El Niño and the Southern Oscillation can be predicted * Understand how El Niño can affect marine and bird life

    • Science

The El Niño-Southern Oscillation Phenomenon


Author: Edward S. Sarachik,Mark A. Cane
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139487019
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 8840
Many climatic extremes around the globe, such as severe droughts and floods, can be attributed to the periodic warming of the equatorial Pacific sea surface, termed the El Niño or Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Advances in our understanding of ENSO, in which Edward Sarachik and Mark Cane have been key participants, have led to marked improvements in our ability to predict its development months or seasons, allowing adaptation to global impacts. The book introduces basic concepts and builds to more detailed theoretical treatments. Chapters on the structure and dynamics of the tropical ocean and atmosphere place ENSO in a broader observational and theoretical context. Chapters on ENSO prediction, past and future, and impacts introduce broader implications of the phenomenon. This book provides an introduction to all aspects of this most important mode of global climate variability, for research workers and students of all levels in climate science, oceanography and related fields.

    • Science

Introduction to Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

Physical and Numerical Aspects
Author: Benoit Cushman-Roisin,Jean-Marie Beckers
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0080916783
Category: Science
Page: 875
View: 3937
This book provides an introductory-level exploration of geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD), the principles governing air and water flows on large terrestrial scales. Physical principles are illustrated with the aid of the simplest existing models, and the computer methods are shown in juxtaposition with the equations to which they apply. It explores contemporary topics of climate dynamics and equatorial dynamics, including the Greenhouse Effect, global warming, and the El Nino Southern Oscillation. Combines both physical and numerical aspects of geophysical fluid dynamics into a single affordable volume Explores contemporary topics such as the Greenhouse Effect, global warming and the El Nino Southern Oscillation Biographical and historical notes at the ends of chapters trace the intellectual development of the field Recipient of the 2010 Wernaers Prize, awarded each year by the National Fund for Scientific Research of Belgium (FNR-FNRS).

    • Science

Climate Dynamics

Why Does Climate Vary?
Author: De-Zheng Sun,Frank Bryan
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118671694
Category: Science
Page: 216
View: 961
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 189. Climate Dynamics: Why Does Climate Vary? presents the major climate phenomena within the climate system to underscore the potency of dynamics in giving rise to climate change and variability. These phenomena include deep convection over the Indo-Pacific warm pool and its planetary-scale organization: the Madden-Julian Oscillation, the monsoons, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and the low-frequency variability of extratropical circulations. The volume also has a chapter focusing on the discussion of the causes of the recent melting of Arctic sea ice and a chapter devoted to the discussion of the causes of recent changes in the frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones. On each topic, the basic material of climate dynamics is covered to aid the understanding of the forefront research, making the volume accessible to a broad spectrum of readers. The volume highlights include Diabatic and nonlinear aspects of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation Causes of sea ice melting in the Arctic Impact of global warming on tropical cyclone activity Origins of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Causes of climate variability of Asian monsoons The volume will be of particular interest to graduate students and young researchers in atmospheric and oceanic sciences and related disciplines such as geology and geography. The book will also be a good read for those who have a more general interest in the Earth's climate and why it varies.

    • Science

Coral Reefs of the Eastern Tropical Pacific

Persistence and Loss in a Dynamic Environment
Author: Peter W. Glynn,Derek P. Manzello,Ian C. Enochs
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401774994
Category: Science
Page: 657
View: 545
This book documents and examines the state of health of coral reefs in the eastern tropical Pacific region. It touches on the occurrence of coral reefs in the waters of surrounding countries, and it explores their biogeography, biodiversity and condition relative to the El Niño southern oscillation and human impacts. Additionally contained within is a field that presents information on many of the species presented in the preceding chapters.

    • Science

Changing Sea Levels

Effects of Tides, Weather and Climate
Author: David Pugh
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521532181
Category: Science
Page: 265
View: 7635
Flooding of coastal communities is one of the major causes of environmental disasters world-wide. This textbook explains at a basic level, how sea levels are affected by astronomical tides, by weather effects that generate extreme flooding events, and over the longer term by ocean circulation and climate trends. It also indicates how sea level changes are related to changing risks, coastal dynamics, geology and biology; and outlines some of the economic and legal implications. Based on courses taught by the author in the UK and the USA, this book is aimed at undergraduate students at all levels, with the text developed in such a way that non-basic mathematics is confined to Appendices and a web site (http://publishing.cambridge.org/resources/0521532183/). Changing Sea Levels will also interest and inform professionals in many fields including hydrography, coastal engineering, geology, biology and also coastal planning and economics.

    • Science

An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology


Author: Renata Dmowska
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0080959881
Category: Science
Page: 511
View: 7402
Dynamic meteorology is the study of those motions of the atmosphere that are associated with weather and climate. The science of dynamic meteorology continues its rapid advance, and its scope has broadened considerably. There continue to be important new developments in the analysis and prediction of extratropical synoptic-scale systems. Important progress has been made in the understanding of mesoscale storms, in tropical dynamics, in the dynamics of climate, and in the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, Third Edition reflects the full scope of modern dynamic meteorology, while providing a coherent presentation of the fundamentals. The text emphasizes physical principles rather than mathematical elegance. * Presents a cogent explanation of the fundamentals of meteorology * Explains storm dynamics for weather-oriented meteorologists * Discusses climate dynamics and the implications posed for global change * Features a new chapter on mesoscale dynamics * Includes updated treatments of climate dynamics, tropical meteorology, middle atmosphere dynamics, and numerical prediction * Instructor's manual is available

    • Science

El Niño

Fact and Fiction
Author: Bruno Voituriez,Guy Jacques
Publisher: UNESCO
ISBN: N.A
Category: Science
Page: 128
View: 7196
El Nino, caprice of the heavens, scapegoat for every calamity? The general public cannot really understand what is behind the El Nino phenomenon. The book offers a tour of the Earth's climate to understand one of its normal but extreme components.

    • Science

Regional Oceanography

An Introduction
Author: Matthias Tomczak,J. Stuart Godfrey
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483287610
Category: Science
Page: 437
View: 7954
Covers the traditional range of topics in regional oceanography. An important aspect of work is its novel approach to a description of the features which give each ocean region its character. The two core principles are the use of the most modern database for all maps of regional distributions of properties and a discussion of all observed features within a frame of reference developed from ocean dynamics, rather than based on the simple geographical approach. The ocean's role in climate variability and climate change is described in detail. The book also includes an evaluation of all major international research projects such as FGGE, IIOE and TOGA. The SI system is used throughout. The use of modern data and inclusion of the oceanographic literature up to 1992 and early 1993 make it a useful reference text.

    • Science

Global Physical Climatology


Author: Dennis L. Hartmann
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080571638
Category: Science
Page: 411
View: 7464
Global Physical Climatology is an introductory text devoted to the fundamental physical principles and problems of climate sensitivity and change. Addressing some of the most critical issues in climatology, this text features incisive coverage of topics that are central to understanding orbital parameter theory for past climate changes, and for anthropogenic and natural causes of near-future changes-- Key Features * Covers the physics of climate change * Examines the nature of the current climate and its previous changes * Explores the sensitivity of climate and the mechanisms by which humans are likely to produce near-future climate changes * Provides instructive end-of-chapter exercises and appendices

    • Nature

An Introduction to Three-dimensional Climate Modeling


Author: Warren M. Washington,Claire L. Parkinson
Publisher: University Science Books
ISBN: 9781891389351
Category: Nature
Page: 353
View: 8967
Warren M. Washington is consultant and advisor to a number of government officials and committees on climate-system modelling. Now along with Claire Parkinson (NASA) he gives the reader insight into the complex field of climate modelling.

    • Science

El Nino, La Nina, and the Southern Oscillation


Author: S. George Philander
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080570983
Category: Science
Page: 293
View: 9163
El Nino and the Southern Oscillation is by far the most striking phenomenon caused by the interplay of ocean and atmosphere. It can be explained neither in strictly oceanographic nor strictly meteorological terms. This volume provides a brief history of the subject, summarizes the oceanographic and meteorological observations and theories, and discusses the recent advances in computer modeling studies of the phenomenon. Includes a comprehensive and up-to-date research survey Discusses in detail sophisticated computer models Provides a clear exposition of the major problems which prevent more accurate predictions of El Nino

    • Technology & Engineering

The Fluid Dynamics of Climate


Author: Antonello Provenzale,Elisa Palazzi,Klaus Fraedrich
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 370911893X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 209
View: 8035
This volume provides an overview of the fluid aspects of the climate system, focusing on basic aspects as well as recent research developments. It will bring together contributions from diverse fields of the physical, mathematical and engineering sciences. The volume will be useful to doctorate students, postdocs and researchers working on different aspects of atmospheric, oceanic and environmental fluid dynamics. It will also be of interest to researchers interested in quantitatively understanding how fluid dynamics can be applied to the climate system, and to climate scientists willing to gain a deeper insight into the fluid mechanics underlying climate processes.

    • Science

Global Ecological Consequences of the 1982-83 El Niño-Southern Oscillation


Author: P.W. Glynn
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080870908
Category: Science
Page: 564
View: 8933
El Niño is a meteorologic/oceanographic phenomenon that occurs sporadically (every few years) at low latitudes. It is felt particularly strongly in the eastern Pacific region, notably from the equator southwards along the coasts of Ecuador and Peru. The El Niño is a component of the ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) which accentuates the intimate and causal connection between atmospheric and marine processes. Obvious manifestations of El Niño in the eastern Pacific are anomalous warming of the sea; reduced upwelling; a marked decline in fisheries, and high rainfall with frequent flooding. The 1982/83 El Niño was exceptionally severe, and was probably the strongest warming of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to occur during this century. The warming was intense and spread over large parts of the Pacific Ocean and penetrated to greater depths than usual. Many eastern Pacific coral reefs that had exhibited uninterrupted growth for several hundred years until 1983 were devasted by the disturbance and are now in an erosional mode. Marine species were adversely affected. The consequent depletion of the plant food base resulted in significant reductions in stocks of fish, squid etc. This led to a mass migration and near-total reproductive failure of marine birds at Christmas Island. Emphasis in this volume is placed on disturbances to benthic communities; littoral populations; terrestrial communities and extratropical regions.

    • Science

The Climate of the Mediterranean Region

From the Past to the Future
Author: P. Lionello
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0123914779
Category: Science
Page: 592
View: 9468
The Mediterranean region contains a diverse and interesting climate ranging from areas with permanent glaciers to areas of subtropical, semiarid regions. The region is potentially sensitive to climate change and its progress has environmental, social, and economic implications within and beyond the region. Produced by the Mediterranean Climate Variability and Predictability Research Networking Project, this book reviews the evolution of the Mediterranean climate over the past two millennia with projections further into the twenty-first century as well as examining in detail various aspects of the Mediterranean region’s climate including evolution, atmospheric variables, and oceanic and land elements. Integrated with this, the book also considers the social and economic problems or vulnerabilities associated with the region. Written and reviewed by multiple researchers to ensure a high level of information presented clearly, Mediterranean Climate Variables will be an invaluable source of information for geologists, oceanographers, and anyone interested in learning more about the Mediterranean climate. Written by leading experts in the field Presents clear, compelling, and concise evidence Includes the latest thinking in Mediterranean climate research

    • Science

Dynamics and Predictability of Large-Scale, High-Impact Weather and Climate Events


Author: Jianping Li,Richard Swinbank,Richard Grotjahn,Hans Volkert
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107071429
Category: Science
Page: 370
View: 6393
This book examines the dynamical processes between high-impact weather and climate events, and between atmospheric and ocean phenomena.

    • Science

An Introduction to Marine Ecology


Author: R. S. K. Barnes,R. N. Hughes
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781444313277
Category: Science
Page: 296
View: 9352
This established textbook continues to provide a comprehensive and stimulating introduction to marine ecological concepts and processes. Based on a wealth of international teaching expertise, An Introduction to Marine Ecology is written to be the basis for an entire undergraduate course in marine biology or ecology. It covers the trophic, environmental and competitive interactions of marine organisms, and the effects of these on the productivity, dynamics and structure of marine systems. The strength of the book lies in its discussion of core topics which remains at the heart of the majority of courses in the subject, despite an increasing emphasis on more applied aspects. The authors maintain the tradition of clarity and conciseness set by previous editions, and the text is extensively illustrated with colour plates, photographs and diagrams. Examples are drawn from all over the world. In this edition, the scientific content of the text has been fully revised and updated. An emphasis has been placed on human impacts, and completely new chapters have been added on fisheries, marine ecosystems, and human interference and conservation. Completely revised and updated with a twofold increase in the number of illustrations. Adopts a more applied approach in keeping with current teaching. New chapters on fisheries, the marine ecosystem, conservation and pollution. Based on a proven and successful course structure.

    • Science

El Niño and the Southern Oscillation

Multiscale Variability and Global and Regional Impacts
Author: Henry F. Diaz,Vera Markgraf
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521621380
Category: Science
Page: 496
View: 9500
The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon is a recurrent feature of the climate in tropical regions. In this volume leading experts summarize information gained over the past decade concerning diverse aspects of ENSO, which have led to marked improvements in our ability to forecast its development months or seasons in advance. This volume compares ENSO's modern morphology and variability with its recent historic and prehistoric behaviour. It expands and updates Diaz and Markgraf's earlier volume El Niño: Historical and Paleoclimatic Aspects of the Southern Oscillation (1992, Cambridge University Press). The volume will be of importance to a broad range of scientists in meteorology, oceanography, hydrology, geosciences, ecology, public health, emergency management response and mitigation, and decision-making. It will also be used as a supplementary textbook and reference source in graduate courses in environmental studies.

    • Science

Descriptive Physical Oceanography

An Introduction
Author: George L. Pickard,W. J. Emery
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483287262
Category: Science
Page: 343
View: 5625
The rapidly developing field of oceanography has necessitated the publication of a fifth edition of this classic textbook. The revised version provides an introduction to descriptive (synoptic) oceanography and contains updated information on topics such as the heat budget, instruments and in particular, the use of satellites. The sections on equatorial oceanography, sea-ice physics, distribution and El Nino have been completely rewritten. The book is further supplemented by text on thermohaline circulation, mixing and also coral reef oceanography.