• Mathematics

Automata Theory and its Applications


Author: Bakhadyr Khoussainov,Anil Nerode
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461201713
Category: Mathematics
Page: 432
View: 600
The theory of finite automata on finite stings, infinite strings, and trees has had a dis tinguished history. First, automata were introduced to represent idealized switching circuits augmented by unit delays. This was the period of Shannon, McCullouch and Pitts, and Howard Aiken, ending about 1950. Then in the 1950s there was the work of Kleene on representable events, of Myhill and Nerode on finite coset congruence relations on strings, of Rabin and Scott on power set automata. In the 1960s, there was the work of Btichi on automata on infinite strings and the second order theory of one successor, then Rabin's 1968 result on automata on infinite trees and the second order theory of two successors. The latter was a mystery until the introduction of forgetful determinacy games by Gurevich and Harrington in 1982. Each of these developments has successful and prospective applications in computer science. They should all be part of every computer scientist's toolbox. Suppose that we take a computer scientist's point of view. One can think of finite automata as the mathematical representation of programs that run us ing fixed finite resources. Then Btichi's SIS can be thought of as a theory of programs which run forever (like operating systems or banking systems) and are deterministic. Finally, Rabin's S2S is a theory of programs which run forever and are nondeterministic. Indeed many questions of verification can be decided in the decidable theories of these automata.

    • Computers

Automata, Logics, and Infinite Games

A Guide to Current Research
Author: Erich Grädel,Wolfgang Thomas,Thomas Wilke
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540363874
Category: Computers
Page: 392
View: 2385
A central aim and ever-lasting dream of computer science is to put the development of hardware and software systems on a mathematical basis which is both firm and practical. Such a scientific foundation is needed especially for the construction of reactive programs, like communication protocols or control systems. For the construction and analysis of reactive systems an elegant and powerful theory has been developed based on automata theory, logical systems for the specification of nonterminating behavior, and infinite two-person games. The 19 chapters presented in this multi-author monograph give a consolidated overview of the research results achieved in the theory of automata, logics, and infinite games during the past 10 years. Special emphasis is placed on coherent style, complete coverage of all relevant topics, motivation, examples, justification of constructions, and exercises.

    • Mathematics

Cryptographic Applications of Analytic Number Theory

Complexity Lower Bounds and Pseudorandomness
Author: Igor Shparlinski
Publisher: Birkhäuser
ISBN: 3034880375
Category: Mathematics
Page: 414
View: 4759
The book introduces new techniques that imply rigorous lower bounds on the com plexity of some number-theoretic and cryptographic problems. It also establishes certain attractive pseudorandom properties of various cryptographic primitives. These methods and techniques are based on bounds of character sums and num bers of solutions of some polynomial equations over finite fields and residue rings. Other number theoretic techniques such as sieve methods and lattice reduction algorithms are used as well. The book also contains a number of open problems and proposals for further research. The emphasis is on obtaining unconditional rigorously proved statements. The bright side of this approach is that the results do not depend on any assumptions or conjectures. On the downside, the results are much weaker than those which are widely believed to be true. We obtain several lower bounds, exponential in terms of logp, on the degrees and orders of o polynomials; o algebraic functions; o Boolean functions; o linear recurrence sequences; coinciding with values of the discrete logarithm modulo a prime p at sufficiently many points (the number of points can be as small as pI/2+O:). These functions are considered over the residue ring modulo p and over the residue ring modulo an arbitrary divisor d of p - 1. The case of d = 2 is of special interest since it corresponds to the representation of the rightmost bit of the discrete logarithm and defines whether the argument is a quadratic residue.

    • Technology & Engineering

Formal Languages, Automata and Numeration Systems


Author: Michel Rigo
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119042860
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 246
View: 5081
The interplay between words, computability, algebra and arithmetic has now proved its relevance and fruitfulness. Indeed, the cross-fertilization between formal logic and finite automata (such as that initiated by J.R. Büchi) or between combinatorics on words and number theory has paved the way to recent dramatic developments, for example, the transcendence results for the real numbers having a “simple” binary expansion, by B. Adamczewski and Y. Bugeaud. This book is at the heart of this interplay through a unified exposition. Objects are considered with a perspective that comes both from theoretical computer science and mathematics. Theoretical computer science offers here topics such as decision problems and recognizability issues, whereas mathematics offers concepts such as discrete dynamical systems. The main goal is to give a quick access, for students and researchers in mathematics or computer science, to actual research topics at the intersection between automata and formal language theory, number theory and combinatorics on words. The second of two volumes on this subject, this book covers regular languages, numeration systems, formal methods applied to decidability issues about infinite words and sets of numbers.

    • Computers

Formal Languages, Automata and Numeration Systems


Author: Michel Rigo
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119008220
Category: Computers
Page: 338
View: 8817
Formal Languages, Automaton and Numeration Systems presents readers with a review of research related to formal language theory, combinatorics on words or numeration systems, such as Words, DLT (Developments in Language Theory), ICALP, MFCS (Mathematical Foundation of Computer Science), Mons Theoretical Computer Science Days, Numeration, CANT (Combinatorics, Automata and Number Theory). Combinatorics on words deals with problems that can be stated in a non-commutative monoid, such as subword complexity of finite or infinite words, construction and properties of infinite words, unavoidable regularities or patterns. When considering some numeration systems, any integer can be represented as a finite word over an alphabet of digits. This simple observation leads to the study of the relationship between the arithmetical properties of the integers and the syntactical properties of the corresponding representations. One of the most profound results in this direction is given by the celebrated theorem by Cobham. Surprisingly, a recent extension of this result to complex numbers led to the famous Four Exponentials Conjecture. This is just one example of the fruitful relationship between formal language theory (including the theory of automata) and number theory. Contents to include: • algebraic structures, homomorphisms, relations, free monoid • finite words, prefixes, suffixes, factors, palindromes • periodicity and Fine–Wilf theorem • infinite words are sequences over a finite alphabet • properties of an ultrametric distance, example of the p-adic norm • topology of the set of infinite words • converging sequences of infinite and finite words, compactness argument • iterated morphism, coding, substitutive or morphic words • the typical example of the Thue–Morse word • the Fibonacci word, the Mex operator, the n-bonacci words • wordscomingfromnumbertheory(baseexpansions,continuedfractions,...) • the taxonomy of Lindenmayer systems • S-adic sequences, Kolakoski word • repetition in words, avoiding repetition, repetition threshold • (complete) de Bruijn graphs • concepts from computability theory and decidability issues • Post correspondence problem and application to mortality of matrices • origins of combinatorics on words • bibliographic notes • languages of finite words, regular languages • factorial, prefix/suffix closed languages, trees and codes • unambiguous and deterministic automata, Kleene’s theorem • growth function of regular languages • non-deterministic automata and determinization • radix order, first word of each length and decimation of a regular language • the theory of the minimal automata • an introduction to algebraic automata theory, the syntactic monoid and the syntactic complexity • star-free languages and a theorem of Schu ̈tzenberger • rational formal series and weighted automata • context-free languages, pushdown automata and grammars • growth function of context-free languages, Parikh’s theorem • some decidable and undecidable problems in formal language theory • bibliographic notes • factor complexity, Morse–Hedlund theorem • arithmetic complexity, Van Der Waerden theorem, pattern complexity • recurrence, uniform recurrence, return words • Sturmian words, coding of rotations, Kronecker’s theorem • frequencies of letters, factors and primitive morphism • critical exponent • factor complexity of automatic sequences • factor complexity of purely morphic sequences • primitive words, conjugacy, Lyndon word • abelianisation and abelian complexity • bibliographic notes • automatic sequences, equivalent definitions • a theorem of Cobham, equivalence of automatic sequences with constant length morphic sequences • a few examples of well-known automatic sequences • about Derksen’s theorem • some morphic sequences are not automatic • abstract numeration system and S-automatic sequences • k − ∞-automatic sequences • bibliographic notes • numeration systems, greedy algorithm • positional numeration systems, recognizable sets of integers • divisibility criterion and recognizability of N • properties of k-recognizable sets of integers, ratio and difference of consec- utive elements: syndeticity • integer base and Cobham’s theorem on the base dependence of the recog- nizability • non-standard numeration systems based on sequence of integers • linear recurrent sequences, Loraud and Hollander results • Frougny’s normalization result and addition • morphic numeration systems/sets of integers whose characteristic sequence is morphic • towards a generalization of Cobham’s theorem • a few words on the representation of real numbers, β-integers, finiteness properties • automata associated with Parry numbers and numeration systems • bibliographic notes First order logic • Presburger arithmetic and decidable theory • Muchnik’s characterization of semi-linear sets • Bu ̈chi’s theorem: k-recognizable sets are k-definable • extension to Pisot numeration systems • extension to real numbers • decidability issues for numeration systems • applications in combinatorics on words

    • Mathematics

Handbook of Logic and Language


Author: Johan F.A.K. van Benthem,Alice ter Meulen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780444537270
Category: Mathematics
Page: 1168
View: 3890
The logical study of language is becoming more interdisciplinary, playing a role in fields such as computer science, artificial intelligence, cognitive science and game theory. This new edition, written by the leading experts in the field, presents an overview of the latest developments at the interface of logic and linguistics as well as a historical perspective. It is divided into three parts covering Frameworks, General Topics and Descriptive Themes. Completely revised and updated - includes over 25% new material Discusses the interface between logic and language Many of the authors are creators or active developers of the theories

    • Computers

Neural Networks and Analog Computation

Beyond the Turing Limit
Author: Hava T. Siegelmann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 146120707X
Category: Computers
Page: 181
View: 6208
The theoretical foundations of Neural Networks and Analog Computation conceptualize neural networks as a particular type of computer consisting of multiple assemblies of basic processors interconnected in an intricate structure. Examining these networks under various resource constraints reveals a continuum of computational devices, several of which coincide with well-known classical models. On a mathematical level, the treatment of neural computations enriches the theory of computation but also explicated the computational complexity associated with biological networks, adaptive engineering tools, and related models from the fields of control theory and nonlinear dynamics. The material in this book will be of interest to researchers in a variety of engineering and applied sciences disciplines. In addition, the work may provide the base of a graduate-level seminar in neural networks for computer science students.

    • Mathematics

Algebraic Automata Theory


Author: M. Holcombe,W. M. L. Holcombe
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521604925
Category: Mathematics
Page: 244
View: 7711
A self-contained, modern treatment of the algebraic theory of machines based on fundamental ideas from modern algebra.

    • Computers

An Introduction to Data Structures and Algorithms


Author: J.A. Storer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 146120075X
Category: Computers
Page: 599
View: 2390
Data structures and algorithms are presented at the college level in a highly accessible format that presents material with one-page displays in a way that will appeal to both teachers and students. The thirteen chapters cover: Models of Computation, Lists, Induction and Recursion, Trees, Algorithm Design, Hashing, Heaps, Balanced Trees, Sets Over a Small Universe, Graphs, Strings, Discrete Fourier Transform, Parallel Computation. Key features: Complicated concepts are expressed clearly in a single page with minimal notation and without the "clutter" of the syntax of a particular programming language; algorithms are presented with self-explanatory "pseudo-code." * Chapters 1-4 focus on elementary concepts, the exposition unfolding at a slower pace. Sample exercises with solutions are provided. Sections that may be skipped for an introductory course are starred. Requires only some basic mathematics background and some computer programming experience. * Chapters 5-13 progress at a faster pace. The material is suitable for undergraduates or first-year graduates who need only review Chapters 1 -4. * This book may be used for a one-semester introductory course (based on Chapters 1-4 and portions of the chapters on algorithm design, hashing, and graph algorithms) and for a one-semester advanced course that starts at Chapter 5. A year-long course may be based on the entire book. * Sorting, often perceived as rather technical, is not treated as a separate chapter, but is used in many examples (including bubble sort, merge sort, tree sort, heap sort, quick sort, and several parallel algorithms). Also, lower bounds on sorting by comparisons are included with the presentation of heaps in the context of lower bounds for comparison-based structures. * Chapter 13 on parallel models of computation is something of a mini-book itself, and a good way to end a course. Although it is not clear what parallel

    • Reference

Computability, Complexity, and Languages

Fundamentals of Theoretical Computer Science
Author: Martin D. Davis,Elaine J. Weyuker
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 1483264580
Category: Reference
Page: 446
View: 3471
Computability, Complexity, and Languages: Fundamentals of Theoretical Computer Science provides an introduction to the various aspects of theoretical computer science. Theoretical computer science is the mathematical study of models of computation. This text is composed of five parts encompassing 17 chapters, and begins with an introduction to the use of proofs in mathematics and the development of computability theory in the context of an extremely simple abstract programming language. The succeeding parts demonstrate the performance of abstract programming language using a macro expansion technique, along with presentations of the regular and context-free languages. Other parts deal with the aspects of logic that are important for computer science and the important theory of computational complexity, as well as the theory of NP-completeness. The closing part introduces the advanced recursion and polynomial-time computability theories, including the priority constructions for recursively enumerable Turing degrees. This book is intended primarily for undergraduate and graduate mathematics students.



    • Technology & Engineering

Computer Science and Multiple-Valued Logic

Theory and Applications
Author: David C. Rine
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483257924
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 562
View: 4529
Computer Science and Multiple-Valued Logic: Theory and Applications focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in multiple-valued logic and its relationship to computer science. The selection first tackles an introduction to multiple-valued logic, lattice theory of post algebras, multiple-valued logic design and applications in binary computers, smallest many-valued logic for the treatment of complemented and uncomplemented error signals, and chain based lattices. Discussions focus on formulation, representation theory, theory and circuit design, logical tables, and unary operations. The text then examines multiple-valued signal processing with limiting, development of multiple-valued logic as related to computer science, p-algebras, and an algorithm for axiomatizing every finite logic. The book takes a look at completeness properties of multiple-valued logic algebras, computer simplification of multi-valued switching functions, and minimization of multivalued functions. Topics include generation of prime implicants, realizations, minimization algorithms, decomposition algorithm for multi-valued switching functions, and relation between the sum-of-products form and array of cubes. The selection is aimed at computer engineers, computer scientists, applied mathematicians, and physicists interested in multiple-valued logic as the discipline relates to computer engineering and computer science.

    • Mathematics

Mathematical Reviews


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Mathematics
Page: N.A
View: 3315

    • Computers

Intelligent Technologies and Techniques for Pervasive Computing


Author: Kolomvatsos, Kostas
Publisher: IGI Global
ISBN: 1466640391
Category: Computers
Page: 351
View: 1564
Pervasive computing enables users to interact with information resources in their everyday lives. The development of computational technologies that can exist in ever smaller devices while simultaneously increasing processing power allows such devices to blend seamlessly into tangible environments. Intelligent Technologies and Techniques for Pervasive Computing provides an extensive discussion of such technologies, theories and practices in an attempt to shed light on current trends and issues in the adaption of pervasive systems. Within its pages, students and practitioners of computer science will find both recent developments and practical applications—an overview of the field and how intelligent techniques can help to improve user experience in the distribution and consumption of pertinent, timely information. This book is part of the Advances in Computational Intelligence and Robotics series collection.

    • Computers

Finite Automata, Formal Logic, and Circuit Complexity


Author: Howard Straubing
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461202892
Category: Computers
Page: 227
View: 804
The study of the connections between mathematical automata and for mal logic is as old as theoretical computer science itself. In the founding paper of the subject, published in 1936, Turing showed how to describe the behavior of a universal computing machine with a formula of first order predicate logic, and thereby concluded that there is no algorithm for deciding the validity of sentences in this logic. Research on the log ical aspects of the theory of finite-state automata, which is the subject of this book, began in the early 1960's with the work of J. Richard Biichi on monadic second-order logic. Biichi's investigations were extended in several directions. One of these, explored by McNaughton and Papert in their 1971 monograph Counter-free Automata, was the characterization of automata that admit first-order behavioral descriptions, in terms of the semigroup theoretic approach to automata that had recently been developed in the work of Krohn and Rhodes and of Schiitzenberger. In the more than twenty years that have passed since the appearance of McNaughton and Papert's book, the underlying semigroup theory has grown enor mously, permitting a considerable extension of their results. During the same period, however, fundamental investigations in the theory of finite automata by and large fell out of fashion in the theoretical com puter science community, which moved to other concerns.

    • Sequential machine theory

Switching and Finite Automata Theory


Author: Zvi Kohavi
Publisher: Tata McGraw-Hill Education
ISBN: 9780070993877
Category: Sequential machine theory
Page: 658
View: 2030
Number systems and codes; Sets, relations and lattices; Combinational logic; Switching algebra its applications; Minimization of switching functions; Logical design; Functional decomposition and symmetric functions; Threshold logic; Reliable design and fault diagnosis; Finite-state machines; Introduction to synchronous sequential circuits and iterative networks; Capabilities, minimization and transformation of sequential machines; Asynchronous sequential circuits; Structure of sequential machines; Statae-identification and fault-detection experiments; Memory, definiteness, and information losslessness of finite automata; Linear sequential machines; Finite-state recognizers; Index.

    • Mathematics

Methods of Mathematical Modelling

Continuous Systems and Differential Equations
Author: Thomas Witelski,Mark Bowen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319230425
Category: Mathematics
Page: 305
View: 5064
This book presents mathematical modelling and the integrated process of formulating sets of equations to describe real-world problems. It describes methods for obtaining solutions of challenging differential equations stemming from problems in areas such as chemical reactions, population dynamics, mechanical systems, and fluid mechanics. Chapters 1 to 4 cover essential topics in ordinary differential equations, transport equations and the calculus of variations that are important for formulating models. Chapters 5 to 11 then develop more advanced techniques including similarity solutions, matched asymptotic expansions, multiple scale analysis, long-wave models, and fast/slow dynamical systems. Methods of Mathematical Modelling will be useful for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students in applied mathematics, engineering and other applied sciences.

    • Mathematics

Advances in Computer Science and its Applications

CSA 2013
Author: Hwa-Young Jeong,Mohammad S. Obaidat,Neil Y. Yen,James J. Jong Hyuk Park
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642416748
Category: Mathematics
Page: 749
View: 5503
These proceedings focus on various aspects of computer science and its applications, thus providing an opportunity for academic and industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in this and related areas. The book includes theory and applications alike.

    • Computers

Introduction to the Theory of Computation


Author: Michael Sipser
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1285401069
Category: Computers
Page: 504
View: 6526
Now you can clearly present even the most complex computational theory topics to your students with Sipser's distinct, market-leading INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF COMPUTATION, 3E. The number one choice for today's computational theory course, this highly anticipated revision retains the unmatched clarity and thorough coverage that make it a leading text for upper-level undergraduate and introductory graduate students. This edition continues author Michael Sipser's well-known, approachable style with timely revisions, additional exercises, and more memorable examples in key areas. A new first-of-its-kind theoretical treatment of deterministic context-free languages is ideal for a better understanding of parsing and LR(k) grammars. This edition's refined presentation ensures a trusted accuracy and clarity that make the challenging study of computational theory accessible and intuitive to students while maintaining the subject's rigor and formalism. Readers gain a solid understanding of the fundamental mathematical properties of computer hardware, software, and applications with a blend of practical and philosophical coverage and mathematical treatments, including advanced theorems and proofs. INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF COMPUTATION, 3E's comprehensive coverage makes this an ideal ongoing reference tool for those studying theoretical computing. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.