• Science

Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter


Author: Dennis A. Hansell,Craig A. Carlson
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0124071538
Category: Science
Page: 712
View: 8933
Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a complex mixture of molecules found throughout the world's oceans. It plays a key role in the export, distribution, and sequestration of carbon in the oceanic water column, posited to be a source of atmospheric climate regulation. Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, Second Edition, focuses on the chemical constituents of DOM and its biogeochemical, biological, and ecological significance in the global ocean, and provides a single, unique source for the references, information, and informed judgments of the community of marine biogeochemists. Presented by some of the world's leading scientists, this revised edition reports on the major advances in this area and includes new chapters covering the role of DOM in ancient ocean carbon cycles, the long term stability of marine DOM, the biophysical dynamics of DOM, fluvial DOM qualities and fate, and the Mediterranean Sea. Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, Second Edition, is an extremely useful resource that helps people interested in the largest pool of active carbon on the planet (DOC) get a firm grounding on the general paradigms and many of the relevant references on this topic. Features up-to-date knowledge of DOM, including five new chapters The only published work to synthesize recent research on dissolved organic carbon in the Mediterranean Sea Includes chapters that address inputs from freshwater terrestrial DOM

    • Science

Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter


Author: Dennis A. Hansell,Craig A. Carlson
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780123238412
Category: Science
Page: 774
View: 3224
"Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a complex mixture of molecules found throughout the world's oceans. It plays a key role in the export, distribution, and sequestration of carbon in the oceanic water column, posited to be a source of atmospheric climate regulation. Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, Second Edition, focuses on the chemical constituents of DOM and its biogeochemical, biological, and ecological significance in the global ocean, and provides a single, unique source for the references, information, and informed judgments of the community of marine biogeochemists. Presented by some of the world's leading scientists, this revised edition reports on the major advances in this area and includes new chapters covering the role of DOM in ancient ocean carbon cycles, the long term stability of marine DOM, the biophysical dynamics of DOM, fluvial DOM qualities and fate, and the Mediterranean Sea. Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, Second Edition, is an extremely useful resource that helps people interested in the largest pool of active carbon on the planet (DOC) get a firm grounding on the general paradigms and many of the relevant references on this topic"--

    • Science

Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter


Author: Dennis A. Hansell,Craig A. Carlson
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080500119
Category: Science
Page: 774
View: 3452
Interest in marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is very high because it plays an important role in oceanic and global carbon cycling, which in turn impacts weather. Understanding the processes involved in the transformations of carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen, and other major elements in the oceans has been a primary goal of marine biogeochemists and oceanographers over the past decade. This book, in 16 chapters with over 170 figures and tables, reports on the major advances in this area by a distinguished group of international chemical and biological oceanographers. Additionally, it focuses on the role of DOM in elemental cycling - where the greatest informational need currently exists. Biological cycling of the major elements through DOM is assessed throughout, with particular emphasis on the role of marine microbes as active agents in the processing of this material The ocean science community's advances for inclusion of DOM in both ecosystem and global circulation models are evaluated

    • Science

Aquatic Organic Matter Fluorescence


Author: Paula Coble,Jamie Lead,Andy Baker,Darren Reynolds,Robert G. M. Spencer
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521764610
Category: Science
Page: 418
View: 4925
Core text on principles, laboratory/field methodologies, and data interpretation for fluorescence applications in aquatic science, for advanced students and researchers.

    • Science

Biophysico-Chemical Processes Involving Natural Nonliving Organic Matter in Environmental Systems


Author: Nicola Senesi,Baoshan Xing,Pan Ming Huang
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470494943
Category: Science
Page: 784
View: 6705
An up-to-date resource on natural nonliving organic matter Bringing together world-renowned researchers to explore natural nonliving organic matter (NOM) and its chemical, biological, and ecological importance, Biophysico-Chemical Processes Involving Natural Nonliving Organic Matter in Environmental Systems offers an integrated view of the dynamics and processes of NOM. This multidisciplinary approach allows for a comprehensive treatment encompassing all the formation processes, properties, reactions, environments, and analytical techniques associated with the latest research on NOM. After briefly outlining the historical background, current ideas, and future prospects of the study of NOM, the coverage examines: The formation mechanisms of humic substances Organo-clay complexes The effects of organic matter amendment Black carbon in the environment Carbon sequestration and dynamics in soil Biological activities of humic substances Dissolved organic matter Humic substances in the rhizosphere Marine organic matter Organic matter in atmospheric particles In addition to the above topics, the coverage includes such relevant analytical techniques as separation technology; analytical pyrolysis and soft-ionization mass spectrometry; nuclear magnetic resonance; EPR, FTIR, Raman, UV-visible adsorption, fluorescence, and X-ray spectroscopies; and thermal analysis. Hundreds of illustrations and photographs further illuminate the various chapters. An essential resource for both students and professionals in environmental science, environmental engineering, water science, soil science, geology, and environmental chemistry, Biophysico-Chemical Processes Involving Natural Nonliving Organic Matter in Environmental Systems provides a unique combination of the latest discoveries, developments, and future prospects in this field.

Linking Optical and Chemical Properties of Dissolved Organic Matter in Natural Waters


Author: Christopher L. Osburn,Thomas S. Bianchi
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889450813
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 492
A substantial increase in the number of studies using the optical properties (absorbance and fluorescence) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) as a proxy for its chemical properties in estuaries and the coastal and open ocean has occurred during the last decade. We are making progress on finding the actual chemical compounds or phenomena responsible for DOM’s optical properties. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry, in particular, has made important progress in making the key connections between optics and chemistry. But serious questions remain and the last major special issue on DOM optics and chemistry occurred nearly 10 years ago. Controversies remain from the non-specific optical properties of DOM that are not linked to discrete sources, and sometimes provide conflicting information. The use of optics, which is relatively easier to employ in synoptic and high resolution sampling to determine chemistry, is a critical connection to make and can lead to major advances in our understanding of organic matter cycling in all aquatic ecosystems. The contentions and controversies raised by our poor understanding of the linkages between optics and chemistry of DOM are bottlenecks that need to be addressed and overcome.

    • Science

Aquatic Humic Substances

Ecology and Biogeochemistry
Author: Dag Hessen,Lars Tranvik
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 366203736X
Category: Science
Page: 346
View: 6944
Humic substances occur in all kinds of aquatic systems, but are particularly important in northern, coniferous areas. They strongly modify the aquatic ecosystems and also constitute a major problem in the drinking water supply. This volume covers all aspects of aquatic humic substances, from their origin and chemical properties, their effects on light and nutrient regimes and biogeochemical cycling, to their role regarding organisms, productivity and food web organization from bacteria to fish. Special emphasis is paid to carbon cycling and food web organization in humic lakes, but aspects of marine carbon cycling related to humus are treated as well.

    • Science

Nitrogen in the Marine Environment


Author: Douglas G. Capone,Deborah A. Bronk,Margaret R. Mulholland,Edward J. Carpenter
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080558925
Category: Science
Page: 1757
View: 2537
Since the first edition of Nitrogen in the Environment published in 1983, it has been recognized as the standard in the field. In the time since the book first appeared, there has been tremendous growth in the field with unprecedented discoveries over the past decade that have fundamentally changed the view of the marine nitrogen cycle. As a result, this Second Edition contains twice the amount of information as contained in the first edition. This updated edition is now available online, offering searchability and instant, multi-user access to this important information. *The classic text, fully updated to reflect the rapid pace of discovery*Provides researchers and students in oceanography, chemistry, and marine ecology an understanding of the marine nitrogen cycle*Available online with easy access and search - the information you need, when you need it

    • Science

Aquatic Organic Matter Fluorescence


Author: Paula Coble,Jamie Lead,Andy Baker,Darren Reynolds,Robert G. M. Spencer
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139915576
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 5277
This is the first comprehensive text on the theory and practice of aquatic organic matter fluorescence analysis, written by the experts who pioneered the research area. This book covers the topic in the broadest possible terms, providing a common reference for making measurements that are comparable across disciplines, and allowing consistent interpretation of data and results. The book includes the fundamental physics and chemistry of organic matter fluorescence, as well as the effects of environmental factors. All aspects of sample handling, data processing, and the operation of both field and laboratory instrumentation are included, providing the practical advice required for successful fluorescence analyses. Advanced methods for data interpretation and modeling, including parallel factor analysis, are also discussed. The book will interest those establishing field, laboratory, or industrial applications of fluorescence, including advanced students and researchers in environmental chemistry, marine science, environmental geosciences, environmental engineering, soil science, and physical geography.

    • Science

Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics


Author: Jorge L. Sarmiento
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400849071
Category: Science
Page: 528
View: 3414
Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics provides a broad theoretical framework upon which graduate students and upper-level undergraduates can formulate an understanding of the processes that control the mean concentration and distribution of biologically utilized elements and compounds in the ocean. Though it is written as a textbook, it will also be of interest to more advanced scientists as a wide-ranging synthesis of our present understanding of ocean biogeochemical processes. The first two chapters of the book provide an introductory overview of biogeochemical and physical oceanography. The next four chapters concentrate on processes at the air-sea interface, the production of organic matter in the upper ocean, the remineralization of organic matter in the water column, and the processing of organic matter in the sediments. The focus of these chapters is on analyzing the cycles of organic carbon, oxygen, and nutrients. The next three chapters round out the authors' coverage of ocean biogeochemical cycles with discussions of silica, dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity, and CaCO3. The final chapter discusses applications of ocean biogeochemistry to our understanding of the role of the ocean carbon cycle in interannual to decadal variability, paleoclimatology, and the anthropogenic carbon budget. The problem sets included at the end of each chapter encourage students to ask critical questions in this exciting new field. While much of the approach is mathematical, the math is at a level that should be accessible to students with a year or two of college level mathematics and/or physics.

    • Science

Aquatic Ecosystems

Interactivity of Dissolved Organic Matter
Author: Stuart Findlay,Robert L. Sinsabaugh
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0122563719
Category: Science
Page: 512
View: 2789
Aquatic Ecosystems explains the interplay between various movements of matter and energy through ecosystems mediated by Dissolved Organic Matter. This book provides information on how much DOM there is in a particular aquatic ecosystem and where it originates. It explains whether the DOM composition varies from time to time and place to place. It also details how DOM becomes incorporated into microbial food webs, and gives a better, clarifying, understanding to its significance of DOM. Dissolved Organic Matter (called DOM) is incredibly important in all aquatic ecosystems. Although it might seem that logs and leaves are more important, in fact the DOM is more crucial because the DOM is in a form that is available for use by all the organisms living in the the water. Furthermore, DOM influences complex food webs by mediating the availability of aquatic nutrients, metals, salts and minerals. DOM also affects water clarity, which of course has alters the way animals and plants live and feed in the water. There are many ways to study DOM and this book focuses on several central questions. How much DOM is there in a particular aquatic ecosytem? Where does it come from? Does the composition of the DOM vary from time to time and place to palce? How does DOM become incorporated into microbial food webs, which are the basis of plant, invertebrate and vertebrate food webs? How can the answers to these and other questions about DOM be considered together so that a better understanding of the significance of DOM can emerge?

    • Technology & Engineering

Diversity of Environmental Biogeochemistry


Author: J. Berthelin
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483291111
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 550
View: 1633
Biogeochemistry, still in its formative stage twenty years ago, is now a young, interdisciplinary subfield of earth sciences, life sciences and chemistry. An international scientific association (International Symposia on Environmental Biogeochemistry incorporated - ISEB) was founded to organize international symposia to bring together microbiologists, biologists, chemists, geochemists, soil scientists, oceanographers, ecologists and environmental engineers interested in the biogeochemistry of terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments. After the 8th ISEB held in Nancy, France, this volume was compiled. These fifty selected contributions from specialists of varying backgrounds and interests show the diversity and the common framework of the direct or indirect interactions of living organisms and their abiotic environments.

    • Science

Geochemistry of Marine Sediments


Author: David J. Burdige
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 069109506X
Category: Science
Page: 609
View: 1170
"This is undoubtedly a major contribution to the field. David Burdige's scholarship is cutting edge."--Bernard P. Boudreau, Dalhousie University "Burdige has written a wonderfully exhaustive review spanning all aspects of marine sedimentary geochemistry. Generous background welcomes the newcomer, while ample depth and breadth stimulate the savvy expert. The discussions are built from the latest work in biogeochemistry and microbial ecology. And in the tradition of Robert Berner's classic treatment of early diagenesis, Burdige handles reaction pathways and transport processes rigorously and quantitatively. This nicely written, well-illustrated survey suits both the reference shelf and the classroom."--Timothy W. Lyons, University of California, Riverside "This book fills a gaping hole in our field. While certain to be used by specialists, it also provides background and ancillary information so as to reach allied fields. Burdige has done a remarkable job in providing the right balance of background theory, real-world implementation, and examples from the literature."--Rick Murray, Boston University "David Burdige's book reviews and develops the ideas that emerged in the field of geochemistry over the last twenty-five years. It is a significant contribution. The scholarship is clearly sound, with excellent and comprehensive references to the latest work. I have no doubt it will be useful to any students who wish to learn the subject."--Michael Krom, Leeds University Earth and Biosphere Institute

    • Science

Dynamics and Characterization of Marine Organic Matter


Author: N. Handa,E. Tanoue,T. Hama
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401713197
Category: Science
Page: 562
View: 1252
Over the past decade the scientific activities of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), which focuses on the role of the oceans in controlling climate change via the transport and storage of greenhouse gases and organic matter, have led to an increased interest in the study of the biogeochemistry of organic matter. There is also a growing interest in global climate fluctuations. This, and the need for a precise assessment of the dynamics of carbon and other bio-elements, has led to a demand for an improved understanding of biogeochemical processes and the chemical characteristics of both particulate and dissolved organic matter in the ocean. A large amount of proxy data has been published describing the changes of the oceanic environment, but qualitative and quantitative estimates of the vertical flux of (proxy) organic compounds have not been well documented. There is thus an urgent need to pursue this line of study and, to this end, this book starts with several papers dealing with the primary production of organic matter in the upper ocean. Thereafter, the book goes on to follow the flux and characterization of particulate organic matter, discussed in relation to the primary production in the euphotic zone and resuspension in the deep waters, including the vertical flux of proxy organic compounds. It goes on to explain the decomposition and transformation of organic matter in the ocean environment due to photochemical and biological agents, and the reactivity of bulk and specific organic compounds, including the air-sea interaction of biogenic gases. The 22 papers in the book reflect the interests of JGOFS and will thus serve as a valuable reference source for future biogeochemical investigations of both bio-elements and organic matter in seawater, clarifying the role of the ocean in global climate change.

Integrative Research on Organic Matter Cycling Across Aquatic Gradients


Author: Nicholas D. Ward,Thomas S. Bianchi,atricia M. Medeiros,Michael Seidel,Richard G. Keil,Carol Robinson
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889452123
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 7670
The goal of this research topic was to motivate innovative research that blurs traditional disciplinary and geographical boundaries. As the scientific community continues to gain momentum and knowledge about how the natural world functions, it is increasingly important that we recognize the interconnected nature of earth systems and embrace the complexities of ecosystem transitions. We are pleased to present this body of work, which embodies the spirit of research spanning across the terrestrial-aquatic continuum, from mountains to the sea. Sincerely, The Editors


    • Nature

Biogeochemistry

An Analysis of Global Change
Author: William H. Schlesinger,Emily S. Bernhardt
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123858747
Category: Nature
Page: 672
View: 1015
"Biogeochemistry considers how the basic chemical conditions of the Earth-from atmosphere to soil to seawater-have been and are being affected by the existence of life. Human activities in particular, from the rapid consumption of resources to the destruction of the rainforests and the expansion of smog-covered cities, are leading to rapid changes in the basic chemistry of the Earth. This expansive text pulls together the numerous fields of study encompassed by biogeochemistry to analyze the increasing demands of the growing human population on limited resources and the resulting changes in the planet's chemical makeup. The book helps students extrapolate small-scale examples to the global level, and also discusses the instrumentation being used by NASA and its role in studies of global change. With extensive cross-referencing of chapters, figures and tables, and an interdisciplinary coverage of the topic at hand, this updated edition provides an excellent framework for courses examining global change and environmental chemistry, and is also a useful self-study guide."--Publisher's website.

    • Science

Chemical Reference Materials

Setting the Standards for Ocean Science
Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on Reference Materials for Ocean Science
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309182782
Category: Science
Page: 144
View: 4755
The accuracy of chemical oceanographic measurements depends on calibration against reference materials to ensure comparability over time and among laboratories. Several key parameters lack reference materials for measurements in seawater, particles in the water column, and sediments. Without reference materials it is difficult to produce the reliable data sets or long-term baseline studies that are essential to verify global change and oceanic stability. Chemical Reference Materials : Setting the Standards for Ocean Science identifies the most urgently required chemical reference materials based on key themes for oceanographic research and provides suggestions as to how they can be developed within realistic cost constraints. Chemical analyses of seawater are uniquely difficult given the poorly known speciation and the low concentration of many of the analytes of interest. Analyses of suspended and sedimentary marine particulate materials present their own distinct challenges, primarily due to potential interference by predominant mineral phases of different types. Of all the analytical methods applied to marine waters and particles, at present only a small fraction can be systematically evaluated via comparison to reference materials that represent the appropriate natural concentrations and matrices. Specifically, the committee was charged with the following tasks: - compile from available sources a list of important oceanographic research questions that may benefit from chemical reference standards; - create a comprehensive list of reference materials currently available for oceanographic studies; - identify and prioritize the reference materials needed to study the identified research questions; - determine for each priority analyte whether reference materials and/or analytic methods should be standardized; and - identify the most appropriate approaches for the development and future production of reference materials for ocean sciences.

    • Science

Biogeochemistry of the Ross Sea


Author: Giacomo R. DiTullio,Robert B. Dunbar
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
ISBN: N.A
Category: Science
Page: 358
View: 1421
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Antarctic Research Series, Volume 78. The seas surrounding Antarctica are the least-studied on Earth, yet they figure prominently in both the global climate system and the biogeochemical cycling of such key elements as C, N, Si, and P. The Southern Ocean affects climate directly through the sinking of surface waters via cooling and changes in salt content. Such water near Antarctica moves slowly northward through all major ocean basins. In doing so, it retains a long-lived signature of the physical and biological processes that occurred in Antarctic surface waters lasting many hundreds of years through all phases: sinking, northward flow, and mixing or upwelling into the sunlit ocean thousands of kilometers away. By this process, CO2 that dissolves into the Antarctic seas may be stored in the deep ocean for centuries. In fact, the Southern Ocean is one of the most important regions on Earth for the uptake and subsurface transport of fossil fuel CO2.