• Science

Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems


Author: Thomas S. Bianchi,Elizabeth A. Canuel
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400839100
Category: Science
Page: 392
View: 5030
This textbook provides a unique and thorough look at the application of chemical biomarkers to aquatic ecosystems. Defining a chemical biomarker as a compound that can be linked to particular sources of organic matter identified in the sediment record, the book indicates that the application of these biomarkers for an understanding of aquatic ecosystems consists of a biogeochemical approach that has been quite successful but underused. This book offers a wide-ranging guide to the broad diversity of these chemical biomarkers, is the first to be structured around the compounds themselves, and examines them in a connected and comprehensive way. This timely book is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate students seeking training in this area; researchers in biochemistry, organic geochemistry, and biogeochemistry; researchers working on aspects of organic cycling in aquatic ecosystems; and paleoceanographers, petroleum geologists, and ecologists. Provides a guide to the broad diversity of chemical biomarkers in aquatic environments The first textbook to be structured around the compounds themselves Describes the structure, biochemical synthesis, analysis, and reactivity of each class of biomarkers Offers a selection of relevant applications to aquatic systems, including lakes, rivers, estuaries, oceans, and paleoenvironments Demonstrates the utility of using organic molecules as tracers of processes occurring in aquatic ecosystems, both modern and ancient

    • Science

Oxidative Stress in Aquatic Ecosystems


Author: Doris Abele,Jose Pablo Vazquez-Medina,Tania Zenteno-Savin
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444345966
Category: Science
Page: 548
View: 7437
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increasingly appreciated as down-stream effectors of cellular damage and dysfunction under natural and anthropogenic stress scenarios in aquatic systems. This comprehensive volume describes oxidative stress phenomena in different climatic zones and groups of organisms, taking into account specific habitat conditions and how they affect susceptibility to ROS damage. A comprehensive and detailed methods section is included which supplies complete protocols for analyzing ROS production, oxidative damage, and antioxidant systems. Methods are also evaluated with respect to applicability and constraints for different types of research. The authors are all internationally recognized experts in particular fields of oxidative stress research. This comprehensive reference volume is essential for students, researchers, and technicians in the field of ROS research, and also contains information useful for veterinarians, environmental health professionals, and decision makers.

    • Technology & Engineering

Biomarkers in Marine Organisms

A Practical Approach
Author: Ph. Garrigues,H. Barth,C.H. Walker,J.-F. Narbonne
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080528045
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 572
View: 7053
Many previous studies and books have been dedicated to fundamental and developmental aspects of biomarkers. The purpose of this book is to provide, through various case studies, an overview of the practical use of biological markers in marine animals to evaluate the health effects of environmental contamination in marine ecosystems. More precisely, the book presents the results obtained during the development and application of biological markers as indicators of exposure/effect to toxic chemicals in marine environments, using diverse sentinel species such as fish, bivalves and crustaceans. An important aspect is also the publication of technical annexes that describe in detail the experimental procedures developed for both chemical and biochemical measurement.

    • Science

Lipids in Aquatic Ecosystems


Author: Michael T. Arts,Michael T. Brett,Martin Kainz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387893662
Category: Science
Page: 380
View: 6316
Evidence now suggests that the roles of essential fatty acids as growth promoters and as indices of health and nutrition are fundamentally similar in freshwater and marine ecosystems. Lipids in Aquatic Ecosystems integrates this divergent literature into a coordinated, digestible form. Chapters are organized so as to discuss and synthesize the flow of lipids from lower to higher trophic levels, up to and including humans. Linkages between the production, distribution and pathways of these essential compounds within the various levels of the aquatic food webs, and their ultimate uptake by humans and other terrestrial organisms, are highlighted throughout the book. This book will be of interest to researchers and resource managers working with aquatic ecosystems.

    • Science

Aquatic Ecotoxicology

Advancing Tools for Dealing with Emerging Risks
Author: Claude Amiard-Triquet,Jean-Claude Amiard,Catherine Mouneyrac
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128011769
Category: Science
Page: 518
View: 9533
Aquatic Ecotoxicology: Advancing Tools for Dealing with Emerging Risks presents a thorough look at recent advances in aquatic ecotoxicology and their application in assessing the risk of well-known and emerging environmental contaminants. This essential reference, brought together by leading experts in the field, guides users through existing and novel approaches to environmental risk assessment, then presenting recent advances in the field of ecotoxicology, including omics-based technologies, biomarkers, and reference species. The book then demonstrates how these advances can be used to design and perform assays to discover the toxicological endpoints of emerging risks within the aquatic environment, such as nanomaterials, personal care products, PFOS and chemical mixtures. The text is an invaluable reference for any scientist who studies the effects of contaminants on organisms that live within aquatic environments. Provides the latest perspectives on emerging toxic risks to aquatic environments, such as nanomaterials, pharmaceuticals, chemical mixtures, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) Offers practical guidance on recent advances to help in choosing the most appropriate toxicological assay Presents case studies and information on a variety of reference species to help put the ecotoxicological theory into practical risk assess

    • Science

Pollution and Fish Health in Tropical Ecosystems


Author: Eduardo Alves de Almeida,Ciro Alberto de Oliveira Ribeiro
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482212897
Category: Science
Page: 402
View: 8758
The tropical zone contains the highest diversity of fish species on the planet. Many of these species are being continuously exposed to pollutants that pose serious hazards to fish health thereby posing serious risks for entire fish populations. This book presents information about the different responses of fish to pollutants from the molecular levels to changes in behavior, with emphasis on tropical species. It also discusses current topics such as the adverse effects of emerging compounds like nanoparticles and endocrine disruptor chemicals.

    • Science

An Introduction to Aquatic Toxicology


Author: Mikko Nikinmaa
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0124115810
Category: Science
Page: 252
View: 8273
An Introduction to Aquatic Toxicology is an introductory reference for all aspects of toxicology pertaining to aquatic environments. As water sources diminish, the need to understand the effects that contaminants may have on aquatic organisms and ecosystems increases in importance. This book will provide you with a solid understanding of aquatic toxicology, its past, its cutting-edge present and its likely future. An Introduction to Aquatic Toxicology will introduce you to the global issue of aquatic contamination, detailing the major sources of contamination, from where they originate, and their effects on aquatic organisms and their environment. State-of-the-art toxicological topics covered include nanotoxicology, toxicogenomics, bioinformatics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, as well as water management and the toxicological effects of major environmental issues such as algal blooms, climate change and ocean acidification. This book is intended for anyone who wants to know more about the impact of toxicants on aquatic organisms and ecosystems, or to keep up to date with recent and future developments in the field. Provides with the latest perspectives on the impacts of toxicants on aquatic environments, such as nanotoxicology, toxicogenomics, ocean acidification and eutrophication Offers a complete overview, beginning with the origins of aquatic toxicology and concluding with potential future challenges Includes guidance on testing methods and a glossary of aquatic toxicology terms.

    • Science

Ecological Biomarkers

Indicators of Ecotoxicological Effects
Author: Claude Amiard-Triquet,Jean-Claude Amiard,Philip S. Rainbow
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439880530
Category: Science
Page: 464
View: 1345
Does a change, which affects a few biological macro-molecules, some cells, or a few individuals within a population, have any ecological significance that would allow the prediction of deleterious effects at higher levels of biological organization, namely the population, community, and ultimately the ecosystem? With contributions from experts in the field, Ecological Biomarkers: Indicators of Ecotoxicological Effects explores how biomarkers can be used to predict effects farther down the chain. It presents a synthesis of the state of the art in the methodology of biomarkers and its contribution to ecological risk assessment. This book describes the core biomarkers currently used in environmental research concerned with biological monitoring, biomarkers which correspond to the defences developed by living organisms in response to contaminants in their environment, and biomarkers that reveal biological damage resulting from contaminant stressors. It examines the efficacy of lysosomal biomarkers, immunotoxicity effects, behavioral disturbances, energy metabolism impairments, endocrine disruption measures, and genotoxicity as all indicative of probable toxic effects at higher biological levels. It is time to revisit the biological responses most ecologically relevant in the diagnosis of the health status of an aquatic environment well before it becomes unmanageable. Biomarkers provide a real possibility of delivering an easily measured marker at a simple level of biological organization that is predictably linked to a potentially ecologically significant effect at higher levels of biological organization. The text explores the latest knowledge and thinking on how to use biomarkers as tools for the assessment of environmental health and management.

    • Medical

Marine Ecotoxicology

Current Knowledge and Future Issues
Author: Julián Blasco,Peter M. Chapman,Olivia Campana,Miriam Hampel
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 012803372X
Category: Medical
Page: 334
View: 386
Marine Ecotoxicology: Current Knowledge and Future Issues is the first unified resource to cover issues related to contamination, responses, and testing techniques of saltwater from a toxicological perspective. With its unprecedented focus on marine environments and logical chapter progression, this book is useful to graduate students, ecotoxicologists, risk assessors, and regulators involved or interested in marine waters. As human interaction with these environments increases, understanding of the pollutants and toxins introduced into the oceans becomes ever more critical, and this book builds a foundation of knowledge to assist scientists in studying, monitoring, and making decisions that affect both marine environments and human health. A team of world renowned experts provide detailed analyses of the most common contaminants in marine environments and explain the design and purpose of toxicity testing methods, while exploring the future of ecotoxicology studies in relation to the world’s oceans. As the threat of increasing pollution in marine environments becomes an ever more tangible reality, Marine Ecotoxicology offers insights and guidance to mitigate that threat. Provides practical tools and methods for assessing and monitoring the accumulation and effects of contaminants in marine environments Unites world renowned experts in marine ecotoxicology to deliver thorough and diverse perspectives Builds the foundation required for risk assessors and regulators to adequately assess and monitor the impact of pollution in marine environments Offers helpful insights and guidance to graduate students, ecotoxicologists, risk assessors, and regulators interested in mitigating threats to marine waters

    • Science

Ecotoxicological Testing of Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems

Emerging Techniques, Trends and Strategies
Author: P. J. den Besten,M. Munawar
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420037501
Category: Science
Page: 296
View: 5997
Focusing on state-of-the-art biological testing and methods used for aquatic ecosystem health assessment, Ecotoxicological Testing of Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems evaluates the latest bioassay techniques and different types of water and sediment quality assessments. The book also explores multi-tiered approaches to making recommendations for the preservation, enhancement, and restoration of ecosystem functions as well as risk perception and communication strategies for investigators, policy makers, government agencies, and the public. The book examines the use of selective biosensors, bioassays, bioaccumulation modeling, biomarkers, gene expression analysis, and other techniques that enable scientists to measure cellular, sub-cellular, and molecular effects of low-level contaminants on various organisms and evaluate changes caused by over-exploitation, habitat modification, catchment run-off, polluting emissions, and even global warming. The chapters describe various ways to assess species diversity, organism population trends, and exposure routes to reveal tangible consequences of sediment or water toxicity. A chapter is dedicated to the role of remote sensing technologies in monitoring, prediction, and management of changes within coastal ecosystems, along with improvements in information technology and data processing that allow for the assessment of spatial variability. The last chapter summarizes the current status of techniques and strategies. Several appendices highlight the strengths and limitations of various techniques and provide references to additional literature. Contributed by leading field experts, this book is useful for post-graduate students, researchers, and regulatory professionals involved in environmental toxicology, ecosystem health, ecology, pollution monitoring, and freshwater and marine science. Ecotoxicological Testing of Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems: Emerging Techniques, Trends and Strategies presents new possibilities for prognostic tools that can be used for early detection systems and integrative approaches that foster informed decision-making consisting of evidence-based risk assessments for remediation, treatment, and maintenance in environmental and resource management

    • Science

Organic acids in aquatic ecosystems

report of the Dahlem Workshop on Organic Acids in Aquatic Ecosystems, Berlin 1989, May 7-12
Author: Edward M. Perdue,Egil T. Gjessing,William Glaze
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780471926313
Category: Science
Page: 345
View: 9338
Organic Acids in Aquatic Ecosystems E. M. Perdue E. T. Gjessing Editors This volume consists of background papers and reports on discussions focused on identifying major processes that cause spatial and temporal variability in properties and concentrations of organic acids in aquatic ecosystems. Scientists in aquatic chemistry, environmental chemistry, soil chemistry, organic geochemistry, water treatment technology, forest ecology, and stream ecology collectively address four major questions:What is the composition of organic acids and how are they characterized?How are acid-base properties of 'DOC' measured and modeled and how do they affect aquatic ecosystems?How do organic acids interact with solutes, surfaces, and organisms?What are the temporal and spatial variations of organic acids at the ecosystem level?This volume provides an up-to-date assessment of the state of knowledge of organic acids in aquatic ecosystems and identifies promising areas of new research that deserve the attention of all scientists who study chemical and biological processes in natural waters, where the importance of organic acids in such processes is not yet fully recognized.

    • Medical

Biomarkers in Toxicology


Author: Ramesh C. Gupta
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0124046495
Category: Medical
Page: 1152
View: 3269
Biomarkers in Toxicology is a timely and comprehensive reference dedicated to all aspects of biomarkers that relate to chemical exposure and their effects on biological systems. This book includes both vertebrate and non-vertebrate species models for toxicological testing and development of biomarkers. Divided into several key sections, this reference volume contains chapters devoted to topics in molecular-cellular toxicology, as well as a look at the latest cutting-edge technologies used to detect biomarkers of exposure and effects. Each chapter also contains several references to the current literature and important resources for further reading. Given this comprehensive treatment, Biomarkers in Toxicology is an essential reference for all those interested in biomarkers across several scientific and biomedical fields. Written by international experts who have evaluated the expansive literature to provide you with one resource covering all aspects of toxicology biomarkers Identifies and discusses the most sensitive, accurate, unique and validated biomarkers used as indicators of exposure and effect of chemicals of different classes Covers special topics and applications of biomarkers, including chapters on molecular toxicology biomarkers, biomarker analysis for nanotoxicology, development of biomarkers for drug efficacy evaluation and much more

    • Science

Biogeochemistry of Estuaries


Author: Thomas S. Bianchi
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0195160827
Category: Science
Page: 706
View: 1307
Biogeochemistry of Estuaries offers a comprehensive and interdisciplinary approach to understanding biogeochemical cycling in estuaries. Designed as a text for intermediate to advanced students, this book utilizes numerous illustrations and an extensive literature base to impart the current state-of-the-art knowledge in this field. While many of the existing books in estuarine science are comprised of edited volumes, typically focused on highly specific topics in estuaries,Biogeochemistry of Estuaries provides, for the first time, a unique foundation in the areas of geomorphology, geochemistry, biochemistry, aqueous chemistry, and ecology, while making strong linkages (trhoughout the text) to ecosystem-based processes in estuarine sciences. Estuaries, located at the interface between land and the coastal ocean are dynamic, highly productive systems that, in many cases, have been historically associated with development of many of the great centers of early human civilization. Consequentially, these systems have and continue to be highly impacted by anthropogenic inputs. This timely book takes the foundational basis of elemental cycling in estuarine and applies it to estuarine management issues. Biogeochemistry of Estuaries will be welcomed by estuarine/marine scientists, ecologists, biogeochemists, and environmentalists around the world.

    • Science

Sediment Toxicity Assessment


Author: G.Allen Burton
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351093452
Category: Science
Page: 479
View: 1786
Sediment Toxicity Assessment provides the latest information regarding how to evaluate sediment contamination and its effects on aquatic ecosystems. It presents an integrated ecosystem approach by detailing effective assessment methods, considerations, and effects to each major component of marine and freshwater systems, including the benthos, plankton, and fish communities. The approaches emphasize defining habitat conditions (physical and chemical), toxicant bioavailability, factors influencing toxicity (lab and field), biomarkers, acute and chronic toxicity, study design, collection methods, and EPA management strategies. The book also explains how to integrate the assessments. Sediment Toxicity Assessment will be useful to to all environmental managers, environmental scientists, ecotoxicologists, environmental regulators, aquatic ecologists, environmental contractors and consultants, instructors, students, conservation commissions, and environmental activist organizations.


    • Climatic changes

Deltas and Humans

A Long Relationship Now Threatened by Global Change
Author: Thomas S. Bianchi
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199764174
Category: Climatic changes
Page: 184
View: 7898
Humans have had a long relationship with the ebb and flow of tides on river deltas around the world. The fertile soils of river deltas provided early human civilizations with a means of farming crops and obtaining seafood from the highly productive marshes and shallow coastal waters associated with deltas. However, this relationship has at times been both nurturing and tumultuous for the development of early civilizations. The vicissitudes of seasonal changes in river flooding events as well as frequently shifting deltaic soils made life for these early human settlements challenging. These natural transient processes that affect the supply of sediments to deltas today are in many ways very similar to what they have been over the millennia of human settlements. But something else has been altered in the natural rhythm of these cycles. The massive expansion of human populations around the world in both the lower and upper drainage basins of these large rivers have changed the manner in which sediments and water are delivered to deltas. Because of the high density of human populations found in these regions, humans have developed elaborate hydrological engineering schemes in an attempt to "tame" these deltas. The goal of this book is to provide information on the historical relationship between humans and deltas that will hopefully encourage immediate preparation for coastal management plans in response to the impending inundation of major cities, as a result of global change around the world.

    • Science

Introduction to Ecotoxicology


Author: Des W. Connell,Paul Lam,Bruce Richardson,Rudolf Wu
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444313266
Category: Science
Page: 184
View: 9834
Environmental pollution is one of the most serious threats to the future health of our planet. A wide and ever increasing range of chemicals from industry, agriculture, medicine and a host of other sources continue to contribute to the earth's chemical load. Governments have encountered great difficulties responding to the crucial and immediate need for effective management. As a result, the new science of ecotoxicology has developed, which provides a broad conceptual framework for evaluating the effects of chemicals in natural ecosystems. This book is aimed principally at undergraduate students who have completed basic courses in both chemistry and biology. It takes a broad view of ecotoxicology starting with the nature, properties and behaviour of environmental toxicants, and extends to dose/response relationships and effects on organisms, populations, communities and ecosystems. Importantly, it also addresses environmental management areas such as biomarkers, biomonitoring, ecological risk assessment and the ecotoxicology and management of chemicals. The book provides an invaluable overview of the subject for students taking courses in ecotoxicology and environmental pollution, as well as wider degree programmes in biology, ecology, wildlife management, environmental science, environmental impact assessment, toxicology, pollution, chemical engineering, civil engineering, sanitation engineering and related subjects.

    • Technology & Engineering

Biosynthetic Technology and Environmental Challenges


Author: Sunita J. Varjani,Binod Parameswaran,Sunil Kumar,Sunil K. Khare
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811074348
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 401
View: 5440
This book provides a comprehensive review of biosynthetic approaches to the production of industrially important chemicals and the environmental challenges involved. Its 19 chapters discuss different aspects of biosynthetic technology from the perspective of leading experts in the field. It covers various biorefinery approaches, including the use of microbes, metabolically engineered plants, biomass-based and green technology methods. Further, it examines important research in the areas of organic and hazardous waste composting, management and recovery of nutraceuticals from agro-industrial waste, biosynthesis and technological advancements of biosurfactants and waste water bioremediation. This book contributes to the scientific literature on biosynthetic technologies and the related environmental challenges for researchers and academics working in this area around the globe.

Ecological Impacts of Toxic Chemicals


Author: Francisco Sánchez-Bayo, Paul J. van den Brink, Reinier M. Mann
Publisher: Francisco Sanchez-Bayo
ISBN: 1608051218
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 4022
Ecological Impacts of Toxic Chemicals presents a comprehensive, yet readable account of the known disturbances caused by all kinds of toxic chemicals on both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Topics cover the sources of toxicants, their fate and distribution through the planet, their impacts on specific ecosystems, and their remediation by natural systems. Each chapter is written by well-known specialists in those areas, for the general public, students, and even scientists from outside this field. The book intends to raise awareness of the dangers of chemical pollution in a world dominated by industry and globalization of resources. Because the problems are widespread and far reaching, it is hoped that confronting the facts may prompt better management practices at industrial, agricultural and all levels of management, from local to governmental, so as to reduce the negative impacts of chemical contaminants on our planet.

    • Science

Sediment Quality Assessment

A Practical Guide
Author: Graeme Batley,Stuart Simpson
Publisher: CSIRO PUBLISHING
ISBN: 1486303854
Category: Science
Page: 360
View: 9447
Contaminated sediments represent an ongoing threat to the health of aquatic ecosystems. The assessment of sediment quality is, therefore, an important concern for environmental regulators. Sediment quality guidelines are now well established in regulatory frameworks worldwide; however, practical guidance that covers all of the key aspects of sediment quality assessment is not readily available. In 2005, CSIRO published its highly cited Handbook for Sediment Quality Assessment. In the ensuing period, the science has advanced considerably. This practical guide is a revised and much expanded second edition, which will be a valuable tool for environmental practitioners. Written by experts in the field, it provides coverage of: sediment sampling; sample preparation; chemical analysis; ecotoxicology; bioaccumulation; biomarkers; and ecological assessment. In addition, detailed appendices describe protocols for many of the tests to be used.