• Science

Chemical Oceanography and the Marine Carbon Cycle


Author: Steven Emerson,John Hedges
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139471619
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 1996
The principles of chemical oceanography provide insight into the processes regulating the marine carbon cycle. The text offers a background in chemical oceanography and a description of how chemical elements in seawater and ocean sediments are used as tracers of physical, biological, chemical and geological processes in the ocean. The first seven chapters present basic topics of thermodynamics, isotope systematics and carbonate chemistry, and explain the influence of life on ocean chemistry and how it has evolved in the recent (glacial-interglacial) past. This is followed by topics essential to understanding the carbon cycle, including organic geochemistry, air-sea gas exchange, diffusion and reaction kinetics, the marine and atmosphere carbon cycle and diagenesis in marine sediments. Figures are available to download from www.cambridge.org/9780521833134. Ideal as a textbook for upper-level undergraduates and graduates in oceanography, environmental chemistry, geochemistry and earth science and a valuable reference for researchers in oceanography.

    • Science

Ocean Dynamics and the Carbon Cycle

Principles and Mechanisms
Author: Richard G. Williams,Michael J. Follows
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139496778
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 1791
This textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate students presents a multidisciplinary approach to understanding ocean circulation and how it drives and controls marine biogeochemistry and biological productivity at a global scale. Background chapters on ocean physics, chemistry and biology provide students with the tools to examine the range of large-scale physical and dynamic phenomena that control the ocean carbon cycle and its interaction with the atmosphere. Throughout the text observational data is integrated with basic physical theory to address cutting-edge research questions in ocean biogeochemistry. Simple theoretical models, data plots and schematic illustrations summarise key results and connect the physical theory to real observations. Advanced mathematics is provided in boxes and appendices where it can be drawn on to assist with the worked examples and homework exercises available online. Further reading lists for each chapter and a comprehensive glossary provide students and instructors with a complete learning package.

    • Science

An Introduction to the Chemistry of the Sea


Author: Michael E. Q. Pilson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521887070
Category: Science
Page: 533
View: 7935
Engagingly introduces marine chemistry and the ocean's geochemical interactions with the solid earth and atmosphere, for students of oceanography.

    • Science

Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics


Author: Jorge L. Sarmiento
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400849071
Category: Science
Page: 528
View: 6253
Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics provides a broad theoretical framework upon which graduate students and upper-level undergraduates can formulate an understanding of the processes that control the mean concentration and distribution of biologically utilized elements and compounds in the ocean. Though it is written as a textbook, it will also be of interest to more advanced scientists as a wide-ranging synthesis of our present understanding of ocean biogeochemical processes. The first two chapters of the book provide an introductory overview of biogeochemical and physical oceanography. The next four chapters concentrate on processes at the air-sea interface, the production of organic matter in the upper ocean, the remineralization of organic matter in the water column, and the processing of organic matter in the sediments. The focus of these chapters is on analyzing the cycles of organic carbon, oxygen, and nutrients. The next three chapters round out the authors' coverage of ocean biogeochemical cycles with discussions of silica, dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity, and CaCO3. The final chapter discusses applications of ocean biogeochemistry to our understanding of the role of the ocean carbon cycle in interannual to decadal variability, paleoclimatology, and the anthropogenic carbon budget. The problem sets included at the end of each chapter encourage students to ask critical questions in this exciting new field. While much of the approach is mathematical, the math is at a level that should be accessible to students with a year or two of college level mathematics and/or physics.

    • Science

CO2 in Seawater: Equilibrium, Kinetics, Isotopes


Author: R.E. Zeebe,D. Wolf-Gladrow
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080529226
Category: Science
Page: 360
View: 2501
Carbon dioxide is the most important greenhouse gas after water vapor in the atmosphere of the earth. More than 98% of the carbon of the atmosphere-ocean system is stored in the oceans as dissolved inorganic carbon. The key for understanding critical processes of the marine carbon cycle is a sound knowledge of the seawater carbonate chemistry, including equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties as well as stable isotope fractionation. Presenting the first coherent text describing equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties and stable isotope fractionation among the elements of the carbonate system. This volume presents an overview and a synthesis of these subjects which should be useful for graduate students and researchers in various fields such as biogeochemistry, chemical oceanography, paleoceanography, marine biology, marine chemistry, marine geology, and others. The volume includes an introduction to the equilibrium properties of the carbonate system in which basic concepts such as equilibrium constants, alkalinity, pH scales, and buffering are discussed. It also deals with the nonequilibrium properties of the seawater carbonate chemistry. Whereas principle of chemical kinetics are recapitulated, reaction rates and relaxation times of the carbonate system are considered in details. The book also provides a general introduction to stable isotope fractionation and describes the partitioning of carbon, oxygen, and boron isotopes between the species of the carbonate system. The appendix contains formulas for the equilibrium constants of the carbonate system, mathematical expressions to calculate carbonate system parameters, answers to exercises and more.

    • Science

Introduction to Marine Biogeochemistry


Author: Susan Libes
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080916644
Category: Science
Page: 928
View: 2203
Introduction to Marine Biogeochemistry focuses on the ocean's role in the biogeochemical cycling of selected elements and the impact of humans on the cycling of these elements. Among the topics covered are the chemical composition of seawater from the perspectives of elemental speciation and the impacts of solutes on water's physical behavior; biogeochemical phenomena which control accumulation and preservation of marine sediments; marine chemistry of radioactive and stable isotopes; and seawater pollution. The book contains many examples as well as steady-state models to aid readers in understanding this growing and complex science.. The focus of Introduction to Marine Biogeochemistry is the concept of the ocean as a system, linking land and atmospheric processes The text integrates the most current research, allowing students to learn concepts in context Includes detailed coverage of computational aspects

    • Science

Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter


Author: Dennis A. Hansell,Craig A. Carlson
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0124071538
Category: Science
Page: 712
View: 5248
Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a complex mixture of molecules found throughout the world's oceans. It plays a key role in the export, distribution, and sequestration of carbon in the oceanic water column, posited to be a source of atmospheric climate regulation. Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, Second Edition, focuses on the chemical constituents of DOM and its biogeochemical, biological, and ecological significance in the global ocean, and provides a single, unique source for the references, information, and informed judgments of the community of marine biogeochemists. Presented by some of the world's leading scientists, this revised edition reports on the major advances in this area and includes new chapters covering the role of DOM in ancient ocean carbon cycles, the long term stability of marine DOM, the biophysical dynamics of DOM, fluvial DOM qualities and fate, and the Mediterranean Sea. Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, Second Edition, is an extremely useful resource that helps people interested in the largest pool of active carbon on the planet (DOC) get a firm grounding on the general paradigms and many of the relevant references on this topic. Features up-to-date knowledge of DOM, including five new chapters The only published work to synthesize recent research on dissolved organic carbon in the Mediterranean Sea Includes chapters that address inputs from freshwater terrestrial DOM

    • Science

Global Environment

Water, Air, and Geochemical Cycles
Author: Elizabeth Kay Berner,Robert A. Berner
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691136785
Category: Science
Page: 444
View: 7568
Discusses the major elements of the geochemical cycles and global fluxes found in the atmosphere, land, lakes, rivers, biota, and oceans, as well as the human effects on these fluxes. This book offers presentation of major advances in the study of chemical weathering. It provides global coverage of environmental problems involving water.

    • Science

Modeling Methods for Marine Science


Author: David M. Glover,William J. Jenkins,Scott C. Doney
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139500716
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 2778
This advanced textbook on modeling, data analysis and numerical techniques for marine science has been developed from a course taught by the authors for many years at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. The first part covers statistics: singular value decomposition, error propagation, least squares regression, principal component analysis, time series analysis and objective interpolation. The second part deals with modeling techniques: finite differences, stability analysis and optimization. The third part describes case studies of actual ocean models of ever increasing dimensionality and complexity, starting with zero-dimensional models and finishing with three-dimensional general circulation models. Throughout the book hands-on computational examples are introduced using the MATLAB programming language and the principles of scientific visualization are emphasised. Ideal as a textbook for advanced students of oceanography on courses in data analysis and numerical modeling, the book is also an invaluable resource for a broad range of scientists undertaking modeling in chemical, biological, geological and physical oceanography.

    • Education

Chemical Oceanography and the Marine Carbon Cycle


Author: CTI Reviews
Publisher: Cram101 Textbook Reviews
ISBN: 1467263257
Category: Education
Page: 37
View: 1844
Facts101 is your complete guide to Chemical Oceanography and the Marine Carbon Cycle. In this book, you will learn topics such as as those in your book plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.

Marine Geochemistry

Ocean Circulation, Carbon Cycle and Climate Change
Author: Matthieu Roy-Barman,Catherine Jeandel
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198787499
Category:
Page: 432
View: 7395
Marine geochemistry uses chemical elements and their isotopes to study how the ocean works in terms of ocean circulation, chemical composition, biological activity and atmospheric CO2 regulation. This rapidly growing field is at a crossroad for many disciplines (physical, chemical and biological oceanography, geology, climatology, ecology, etc.). It provides important quantitative answers to questions such as: What is the deep ocean mixing rate? How much atmospheric CO2 is pumped by the ocean? How fast are pollutants removed from the ocean? How do ecosystems react to anthropogenic pressure? This text gives a simple introduction to the concepts, the methods and the applications of marine geochemistry with a particular emphasis on isotopic tracers. Overall introducing a very large number of topics (physical oceanography, ocean chemistry, isotopes, gas exchange, modelling, biogeochemical cycles), with a balance of didactic and indepth information, it provides an outline and a complete course in marine geochemistry. Throughout, the book uses a hands-on approach with worked out exercises and problems (with answers provided at the end of the book), to help the students work through the concepts presented. A broad scale approach is take including ocean physics, marine biology, ocean-climate relations, remote sensing, pollutions and ecology, so that the reader acquires a global perspective of the ocean. It also includes new topics arising from ongoing research programs. This textbook is essential reading for students, scholars, researchers and other professionals.

    • Science

Global Climate Change and Response of Carbon Cycle in the Equatorial Pacific and Indian Oceans and Adjacent Landmasses


Author: Hodaka Kawahata,Yoshio A. Awaya
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080469416
Category: Science
Page: 530
View: 3361
To understand the global warming mechanism, global mapping of primary production was carried out under the GCMAPS program. The program was concerned with marine and terrestrial environmental changes, which affect carbon cycle on the regional and global scales. On the regional scale, warm phase of ENSO (El Niño / Southern Oscillation) has been shown to affect economic activities in many countries. The keyword for understanding mechanism of global warming is ‘primary productivity’. The earth observation satellites (EOS) like the ADEOS of Japan, and the SeaWiFS, Sea Star and Terra of the U.S.A. provided much required data for modeling and verification of primary production estimates on both land and ocean. The knowledge gained during the GCMAPS program has been documented in this book. Interpretation of the data suggests that global warming, which causes temperature and sea level rise, and changes in climate and ecosystems, is likely to have the largest influence on mankind. The first half of this book discuss changes in marine environments. Physical and chemical oceanographic properties of the equatorial Pacific and Indian Oceans are presented. Changes in partial pressure of carbon dioxide, flux and composition of settling particles and biological communities in the surface ocean have also been discussed. In addition to this, over hundred years of environmental records based upon coral skeletons are presented. Estimations of primary production and its utilization in validating satellite imagery data were conducted in the western North Pacific. Primary productivity estimates based upon the validated satellite imagery are presented on the global scale. Climate change modeling of primary production in global oceans is also presented. The latter half of this book deals with changes in terrestrial environments. Primary productivity estimates for different types of ecosystems (e.g., forest, grassland) are presented together with soil carbon dynamics. Also, biomass and productivity estimation and environmental monitoring based upon remote sensing techniques are presented with a model analysis of the relationship between climate perturbations and carbon budget anomalies in global terrestrial ecosystems. This book elucidates integrated aspects of the global carbon cycle involving marine and terrestrial environments. Discusses a current understanding of the biogeochemical processes on land and ocean Provides global mapping of primary production based on satellite imagery data and modelling Presents the latest interpretations of relationships between carbon cycle and climatic change

    • Science

Chemical Oceanography, Fourth Edition


Author: Frank J. Millero
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466512490
Category: Science
Page: 591
View: 7595
Over the past ten years, a number of new large-scale oceanographic programs have been initiated. These include the Climate Variability Program (CLIVAR) and the recent initiation of the Geochemical Trace Metal Program (GEOTRACES). These studies and future projects will produce a wealth of information on the biogeochemistry of the world’s oceans. Authored by Frank J. Millero, an acknowledged international authority in the field, the fourth edition of Chemical Oceanography maintains the stellar insight that has made it a favorite of students, instructors, researchers, and other professionals in marine science, geochemistry, and environmental chemistry. Reflecting the latest updates on issues affecting the health of our environment, this text: Supplies an in-depth treatment of ocean acidification, a key emerging environmental problem Provides updated coverage on the carbonate system in the ocean Presents expanded information on oceanic organic compounds Contains updates on dissolved organic carbon, phosphate, nitrogen, and metals in the ocean Offers a new definition of salinity and a new equation of the state of seawater based on recent, original research Describes the new thermodynamic equation of the state of seawater Includes full-color graphs and photographs to assist readers in visualizing the concepts presented For more than two decades, this book has served as the "classic" textbook for students and a valuable reference for researchers in the fields of oceanography, environmental chemistry, and geochemistry. Designed for both classroom use and self-study, this comprehensive survey of essential concepts incorporates a wealth of state-of-the-art reference data discovered on large-scale oceanographic studies sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration.

    • Nature

The Sea Surface and Global Change


Author: Peter S. Liss,Robert A. Duce
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521017459
Category: Nature
Page: 536
View: 5163
The sea-surface microlayer has often been operationally defined as roughly the top 1000 micrometres of the ocean surface. Considerable new research over the past 10 years has led to increased understanding of this vitally important interface between the ocean and the atmosphere, and how it may interact with global change processes. This book offers the first comprehensive review of the physics, chemistry and biology of the surface microlayer in a decade. In addition to a review of these fundamental features, the authors address the potential global marine impacts at the air-sea interface of such phenomena as large-scale atmospheric ozone depletion, climate change and industrial pollution. Environmental scientists, oceanographers and atmospheric scientists interested in global change will welcome this authoritative reference work, at graduate or research level.

    • Science

Marine Geochemistry


Author: Roy Chester,Tim D. Jickells
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118349091
Category: Science
Page: 436
View: 1792
Marine Geochemistry offers a fully comprehensive and integrated treatment of the chemistry of the oceans, their sediments and biota. The first edition of the book received strong critical acclaim and was described as ‘a standard text for years to come.’ This third edition of Marine Geochemistry has been written at a time when the role of the oceans in the Earth System is becoming increasingly apparent. Following the successful format adopted previously, this new edition treats the oceans as a unified entity, and addresses the question ‘how do the oceans work as a chemical system?’ To address this question, the text has been updated to cover recent advances in our understanding of topics such as the carbon chemistry of the oceans, nutrient cycling and its effect on marine chemistry, the acidification of sea water, and the role of the oceans in climate change. In addition, the importance of shelf seas in oceanic cycles has been re-evaluated in the light of new research. Marine Geochemistry offers both undergraduate and graduate students and research workers an integrated approach to one of the most important reservoirs in the Earth System. Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/chester/marinegeochemistry.

    • Science

Phytoplankton Pigments

Characterization, Chemotaxonomy and Applications in Oceanography
Author: Suzanne Roy,Carole A. Llewellyn,Einar Skarstad Egeland,Geir Johnsen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139500996
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 6842
Pigments act as tracers to elucidate the fate of phytoplankton in the world's oceans and are often associated with important biogeochemical cycles related to carbon dynamics in the oceans. They are increasingly used in in situ and remote-sensing applications, detecting algal biomass and major taxa through changes in water colour. This book is a follow-up to the 1997 volume Phytoplankton Pigments in Oceanography (UNESCO Press). Since then, there have been many advances concerning phytoplankton pigments. This book includes recent discoveries on several new algal classes particularly for the picoplankton, and on new pigments. It also includes many advances in methodologies, including liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and developments and updates on the mathematical methods used to exploit pigment information and extract the composition of phytoplankton communities. The book is invaluable primarily as a reference for students, researchers and professionals in aquatic science, biogeochemistry and remote sensing.

    • Science

Descriptive Physical Oceanography

An Introduction
Author: George L. Pickard,W. J. Emery
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483287262
Category: Science
Page: 343
View: 2712
The rapidly developing field of oceanography has necessitated the publication of a fifth edition of this classic textbook. The revised version provides an introduction to descriptive (synoptic) oceanography and contains updated information on topics such as the heat budget, instruments and in particular, the use of satellites. The sections on equatorial oceanography, sea-ice physics, distribution and El Nino have been completely rewritten. The book is further supplemented by text on thermohaline circulation, mixing and also coral reef oceanography.

    • Science

Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle


Author: Brian J. McPherson,Eric T. Sundquist
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118671791
Category: Science
Page: 359
View: 8526
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 183. For carbon sequestration the issues of monitoring, risk assessment, and verification of carbon content and storage efficacy are perhaps the most uncertain. Yet these issues are also the most critical challenges facing the broader context of carbon sequestration as a means for addressing climate change. In response to these challenges, Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle presents current perspectives and research that combine five major areas: The global carbon cycle and verification and assessment of global carbon sources and sinks Potential capacity and temporal/spatial scales of terrestrial, oceanic, and geologic carbon storage Assessing risks and benefits associated with terrestrial, oceanic, and geologic carbon storage Predicting, monitoring, and verifying effectiveness of different forms of carbon storage Suggested new CO2 sequestration research and management paradigms for the future. The volume is based on a Chapman Conference and will appeal to the rapidly growing group of scientists and engineers examining methods for deliberate carbon sequestration through storage in plants, soils, the oceans, and geological repositories.

    • Science

Nitrogen in the Marine Environment


Author: Douglas G. Capone,Deborah A. Bronk,Margaret R. Mulholland,Edward J. Carpenter
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123725224
Category: Science
Page: 1757
View: 5724
Since the first edition of Nitrogen in the Marine Environment was published in 1983, it has been recognized as the standard in the field. In the time since the book first appeared, there has been tremendous growth in the field with unprecedented discoveries over the past decade that have fundamentally changed the view of the marine nitrogen cycle. As a result, this Second Edition contains twice the amount of information that the first edition contained. This updated edition is now available online, offering searchability and instant, multi-user access to this important information. *The classic text, fully updated to reflect the rapid pace of discovery *Provides researchers and students in oceanography, chemistry, and marine ecology an understanding of the marine nitrogen cycle *Available online with easy access and search - the information you need, when you need it

    • Science

Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea


Author: Paul Falkowski,Andrew H. Knoll
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080550510
Category: Science
Page: 456
View: 9143
Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea reference examines how photosynthesis evolved on Earth and how phytoplankton evolved through time – ultimately to permit the evolution of complex life, including human beings. The first of its kind, this book provides thorough coverage of key topics, with contributions by leading experts in biophysics, evolutionary biology, micropaleontology, marine ecology, and biogeochemistry. This exciting new book is of interest not only to students and researchers in marine science, but also to evolutionary biologists and ecologists interested in understanding the origins and diversification of life. Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea offers these students and researchers an understanding of the molecular evolution, phylogeny, fossil record, and environmental processes that collectively permits us to comprehend the rise of phytoplankton and their impact on Earth's ecology and biogeochemistry. It is certain to become the first and best word on this exhilarating topic. Discusses the evolution of phytoplankton in the world's oceans as the first living organisms and the first and basic producers in the earths food chain Includes the latest developments in the evolution and ecology of marine phytoplankton specifically with additional information on marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles The only book to consider of the evolution of phytoplankton and its role in molecular evolution, biogeochemistry, paleontology, and oceanographic aspects Written at a level suitable for related reading use in courses on the Evolution of the Biosphere, Ecological and Biological oceanography and marine biology, and Biodiversity