• Social Science

Commons and Borderlands

Working Papers on Interdisciplinarity, Accountability and the Flow of Knowledge
Author: Marilyn Strathern
Publisher: Sean Kingston Pub
ISBN: 9780954557225
Category: Social Science
Page: 102
View: 3822
A leading social anthropologist examines early 21st-century interests in interdisciplinarity, with particular attention to the conjunction of science and society. (Archaeology)

    • Social Science

The Global Idea of 'the Commons'


Author: Donald Macon Nonini
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 9781845454852
Category: Social Science
Page: 138
View: 1542
During the last three decades, corporations allied with scientists and universities, national and regional governments, and international financial institutions have, through a variety of mechanisms associated with neo-liberal globalization, acted to dispossess large proportions of the world's population of their commons' resources and enclose them for profit making. In response, throughout the global South and in the cities of the global North, large numbers of people have formed movements to defend the commons in all their variety. The idea of the commons has thus emerged as a global idea, and commons have emerged as sites of conflict around the world. The essays in this forum assess strategically the situations of selected commons in a variety of diagnostic sites where they exist, the ways in which they are being transformed by the incursions of capital and state, and the ways in which they are becoming the locus of struggle for those who depend on them to survive.

    • Social Science

Kinship, Law and the Unexpected

Relatives are Always a Surprise
Author: Marilyn Strathern
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139444956
Category: Social Science
Page: N.A
View: 8188
How can we hold in the same view both cultural or historical constructs and generalities about social existence? Kinship, Law and the Unexpected takes up an issue at the heart of studies of society - the way we use relationships to uncover relationships. Relationality is a phenomenon at once contingent (on certain ways of knowing) and ubiquitous (to social life). The role of relations in western (Euro-American) knowledge practices, from the scientific revolution onwards, raises a question about the extent to which Euro-American kinship is the kinship of a knowledge-based society. The argument takes the reader through current issues in biotechnology, new family formations and legal interventions, and intellectual property debates, to matters of personhood and ownership afforded by material from Melanesia and elsewhere. If we are often surprised by what our relatives do, we may also be surprised by what relations tells us about the world we live in.

    • Social Science

After Nature

English Kinship in the Late Twentieth Century
Author: Marilyn Strathern
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521426800
Category: Social Science
Page: 240
View: 6398
Central as kinship has been to the development of British social anthropology, this is the first attempt by an anthropologist to situate ideas about English kinship in a cultural context. Marilyn Strathern challenges the traditional separation of Western kinship studies from the study of the wider society. If contemporary society appears diverse, changing and fragmented, these same features also apply to people's ideas about kinship. She views ideas of relatedness, nature and the biological constitution of persons in their cultural context, and offers new insights into the late twentieth-century values of individualism and consumerism. After Nature is a timely reflection at a moment when advances in reproductive technology raise questions about the natural basis of kinship relations.

    • Social Science

Digital Anthropology


Author: Heather A. Horst,Daniel Miller
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 0857852930
Category: Social Science
Page: 328
View: 6195
Anthropology has two main tasks: to understand what it is to be human and to examine how humanity is manifested differently in the diversity of culture. These tasks have gained new impetus from the extraordinary rise of the digital. This book brings together several key anthropologists working with digital culture to demonstrate just how productive an anthropological approach to the digital has already become. Through a range of case studies from Facebook to Second Life to Google Earth, Digital Anthropology explores how human and digital can be defined in relation to one another, from avatars and disability; cultural differences in how we use social networking sites or practise religion; the practical consequences of the digital for politics, museums, design, space and development to new online world and gaming communities. The book also explores the moral universe of the digital, from new anxieties to open-source ideals. Digital Anthropology reveals how only the intense scrutiny of ethnography can overturn assumptions about the impact of digital culture and reveal its profound consequences for everyday life. Combining the clarity of a textbook with an engaging style which conveys a passion for these new frontiers of enquiry, this book is essential reading for students and scholars of anthropology, media studies, communication studies, cultural studies and sociology.


    • Social Science

Mapping Shangrila

Contested Landscapes in the Sino-Tibetan Borderlands
Author: Emily T. Yeh,Christopher R. Coggins
Publisher: University of Washington Press
ISBN: 0295805021
Category: Social Science
Page: 348
View: 6512
In 2001 the Chinese government announced that the precise location of Shangrila�a place that previously had existed only in fiction�had been identified in Zhongdian County, Yunnan. Since then, Sino-Tibetan borderlands in Yunnan, Sichuan, Gansu, Qinghai, and the Tibet Autonomous Region have been the sites of numerous state projects of tourism development and nature conservation, which have in turn attracted throngs of backpackers, environmentalists, and entrepreneurs who seek to experience, protect, and profit from the region�s landscapes. Mapping Shangrila advances a view of landscapes as media of governance, representation, and resistance, examining how they are reshaping cultural economies, political ecologies of resource use, subjectivities, and interethnic relations. Chapters illuminate topics such as the role of Han and Tibetan literary representations of border landscapes in the formation of ethnic identities; the remaking of Chinese national geographic imaginaries through tourism in the Yading Nature Reserve; the role of The Nature Conservancy and other transnational environmental organizations in struggles over culture and environmental governance; the way in which matsutake mushroom and caterpillar fungus commodity chains are reshaping montane landscapes; and contestations over the changing roles of mountain deities and their mediums as both interact with increasingly intensive nature conservation and state-sponsored capitalism.

    • Technology & Engineering

Mining and indigenous lifeworlds in Australia and Papua New Guinea


Author: Alan Rumsey,James F. Weiner
Publisher: Sean Kingston Pub
ISBN: 9780954557249
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 294
View: 6930
This volume gives a vital and unique insight into the effects of mining and other forms of resource extraction upon the indigenous peoples of Australia and Papua New Guinea. Based on extensive fieldwork, it offers a comparative focus on indigenous cosmologies and their articulation or disjunction with the forces of 'development'. A central dimension of contrast is that Australia as a 'settled' continent has had wholesale dispossession of Aboriginal land, while in Papua New Guinea more than 95% of the land surface remains unalienated from customary ownership. Less obviously, there are also important similarities owing to: -a shared form of land title in which the state retains ownership of underground resources; -the manner in which Western law has been used in both countries to define and codify customary land tenure; -an emphasis on the reproductive imagery of minerals, petroleum and extraction processes employed by Aborigines and Papua New Guineans; -and some surprising parallels in the waysthat social identities on either side of the Arafura Sea have traditionally been grounded in landscape These studies are essential reading for all scholars involved in assessing the effects of resource extraction in Third World and Fourth World settings. They contribute penetrating studies of the forms of indigenous socio-cultural response to multinational companies and Western forms of governance and law. ADVANCE PRAISE 'The writing is new and interesting. The essays mark out new ideas in seemingly effortless abundance. . . In sum - buy it, read it, I think you'll agree that its one of the really interesting books of the year.' Deborah Rose, Senior Fellow, Centre for Resource and EnvironmentalStudies, ANU. Alan Rumsey is a Senior Fellow in the Department of Anthropology and James Weiner a Visiting Fellow in the Resource Management in Asia-Pacific Program, both in the Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.

    • Technology & Engineering

Cosmopolitan Commons

Sharing Resources and Risks across Borders
Author: Nil Disco,Eda Kranakis
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262313340
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 356
View: 3928
With the advent of modernity, the sharing of resources and infrastructures rapidly expanded beyond local communities into regional, national, and even transnational space -- nowhere as visibly as in Europe, with its small-scale political divisions. This volume views these shared resource spaces as the seedbeds of a new generation of technology-rich bureaucratic and transnational commons. Drawing on the theory of cosmopolitanism, which seeks to model the dynamics of an increasingly interdependent world, and on the tradition of commons scholarship inspired by the late Elinor Ostrom, the book develops a new theory of "cosmopolitan commons" that provides a framework for merging the study of technology with such issues as risk, moral order, and sustainability at levels beyond the nation-state. After laying out the theoretical framework, the book presents case studies that explore the empirical nuances: airspace as transport commons, radio broadcasting, hydropower, weather forecasting and genetic diversity as information commons, transboundary air pollution, and two "capstone" studies of interlinked, temporally layered commons: one on overlapping commons within the North Sea for freight, fishing, and fossil fuels; and one on commons for transport, salmon fishing, and clean water in the Rhine.Contributors:Håkon With Andersen, Nil Disco, Paul N. Edwards, Arne Kaijser, Eda Kranakis, Kristiina Korjonen-Kuusipuro, Tiago Saraiva, Nina Wormbs

    • History

Living with Strangers

The Nineteenth-century Sioux and the Canadian-American Borderlands
Author: David G. McCrady
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
ISBN: 1442609907
Category: History
Page: 168
View: 4562
In The Pension Fund Revolution, originally published nearly two decades ago under the title The Unseen Revolution, Drucker reports that institutional investors, especially pension funds, have become the controlling owners of America's large companies, the country's only capitalists. He maintains that the shift began in 1952 with the establishment of the first modern pension fund by General Motors. By 1960 it had become so obvious that a group of young men decided to found a stock-exchange firm catering exclusively to these new investors. Ten years later this firm (Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette) became the most successful, and one of the biggest, Wall Street firms. Drucker's argument, that through pension funds ownership of the means of production had become socialized without becoming nationalized, was unacceptable to the conventional wisdom of the country in the 1970s. Even less acceptable was the second theme of the book: the aging of America. Among the predictions made by Drucker in The Pension Fund Revolution are: that a major health care issue would be longevity; that pensions and social security would be central to American economy and society; that the retirement age would have to be extended; and that altogether American politics would increasingly be dominated by middle-class issues and the values of elderly people. While readers of the original edition found these conclusions hard to accept, Drucker's work has proven to be prescient. In the new epilogue, Drucker discusses how the increasing dominance of pension funds represents one of the most startling power shifts in economic history, and he examines their present-day Impact. The Pension Fund Revolution is now considered a classic text regarding the effects of pension fund ownership on the governance of the American corporation and on the structure of the American economy altogether. The reissuing of this book is more timely now than ever. It provides a wealth of information for sociologists, economists, and political theorists.

    • HISTORY

Recollecting

Lives of Aboriginal Women of the Canadian Northwest and Borderlands
Author: Sarah Carter,Patricia Alice McCormack
Publisher: Athabasca University Press
ISBN: 1897425821
Category: HISTORY
Page: 422
View: 6947
Recollecting is a rich collection of essays that illuminate the lives of late-eighteenth-century to mid-twentieth-century Aboriginal women, who have been overlooked in sweeping narratives of the history of the West Some essays focus on individual women --- a trader, a performer, a non-human woman. Other essays examine cohorts of women --- wives, midwives, seamstresses, nuns. Authors look beyond the documentary record and standard representations of women, drawing also on records generated by the women themselves, including their beadwork, other material culture, and oral histories. Exploring the constraints and boundaries these women encountered, the authors engage with difficult and important questions of gender, race, and identity. Collectively these essays demonstrate the complexity of "contact zone" interactions, and they enrich and challenge dominant narratives about histories of the Canadian Northwest

    • Borders Region (Scotland)

HC 571 - Our Borderlands - Our Future: Final Report


Author: Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons. Scottish Affairs Committee
Publisher: The Stationery Office
ISBN: 021508554X
Category: Borders Region (Scotland)
Page: 50
View: 7577
This inquiry investigates key issues that affect the daily lives of those people who live in the south of Scotland. The Committee held informal seminars in Galashiels, Peebles and Dumfries, in May and June 2014, in order to identify the key issues facing businesses, communities and individuals in the south of Scotland. Several of the issues raised in the meetings focused on the social and economic needs of the residents of the south of Scotland, many of which related to devolved functions which are the responsibility of the Scottish Government. However, some crucial issues were raised which were a direct consequence of the policies and responsibilities of the UK Government, specifically for example, in relation to employment issues. The inquiry will seek to examine the bigger picture, and to address two central questions: i) Are the current structures working as effectively as they could for the benefit of the people of the south of Scotland? ii) How can the UK and Scottish Governments work together with Local Authorities to deliver appropriate and effective policies to support economic development and growth in the south of Scotland?This document sets out the specific terms of reference for the inquiry, raising questions and issues on which the Committee would welcome written evidence.

    • Social Science

Borderland Lives in Northern South Asia


Author: David N. Gellner
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 0822377306
Category: Social Science
Page: 318
View: 6991
Borderland Lives in Northern South Asia provides valuable new ethnographic insights into life along some of the most contentious borders in the world. The collected essays portray existence at different points across India's northern frontiers and, in one instance, along borders within India. Whether discussing Shi'i Muslims striving to be patriotic Indians in the Kashmiri district of Kargil or Bangladeshis living uneasily in an enclave surrounded by Indian territory, the contributors show that state borders in Northern South Asia are complex sites of contestation. India's borders with Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma/Myanmar, China, and Nepal encompass radically different ways of life, a whole spectrum of relationships to the state, and many struggles with urgent identity issues. Taken together, the essays show how, by looking at state-making in diverse, border-related contexts, it is possible to comprehend Northern South Asia's various nation-state projects without relapsing into conventional nationalist accounts. Contributors. Jason Cons, Rosalind Evans, Nicholas Farrelly, David N. Gellner, Radhika Gupta, Sondra L. Hausner, Annu Jalais, Vibha Joshi, Nayanika Mathur, Deepak K. Mishra, Anastasia Piliavsky, Jeevan R. Sharma, Willem van Schendel

    • History

U.S.-Mexico Borderlands

Historical and Contemporary Perspectives
Author: Oscar Jáquez Martínez
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 9780842024471
Category: History
Page: 264
View: 9117
"Excellent collection of scholarly essays and primary documents. Covers 1830s-1990s, with the emphasis on the post-1910 era. Work is divided into seven sections, each covering a key issue in borderlands history. Good introduction to each entry"--Handbookof Latin American Studies, v. 58.

    • Political Science

Borderlands

Comparing Border Security in North America and Europe
Author: Emmanuel Brunet-Jailly
Publisher: University of Ottawa Press
ISBN: 0776615513
Category: Political Science
Page: 406
View: 3277
Border security has been high on public-policy agendas in Europe and North America since the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Centre in New York City and on the headquarters of the American military in Washington DC. Governments are now confronted with managing secure borders, a policy objective that in this era of increased free trade and globalization must compete with intense cross-border flows of people and goods. Border-security policies must enable security personnel to identify, or filter out, dangerous individuals and substances from among the millions of travelers and tons of goods that cross borders daily, particularly in large cross-border urban regions. This book addresses this gap between security needs and an understanding of borders and borderlands. Specifically, the chapters in this volume ask policy-makers to recognize that two fundamental elements define borders and borderlands: first, human activities (the agency and agent power of individual ties and forces spanning a border), and second, the broader social processes that frame individual action, such as market forces, government activities (law, regulations, and policies), and the regional culture and politics of a borderland. Borders emerge as the historically and geographically variable expression of human ties exercised within social structures of varying force and influence, and it is the interplay and interdependence between people's incentives to act and the surrounding structures (i.e. constructed social processes that contain and constrain individual action) that determine the effectiveness of border security policies. This book argues that the nature of borders is to be porous, which is a problem for security policy makers. It shows that when for economic, cultural, or political reasons human activities increase across a border and borderland, governments need to increase cooperation and collaboration with regard to security policies, if only to avoid implementing mismatched security policies.

    • Social Science

Porous Borders

Multiracial Migrations and the Law in the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands
Author: Julian Lim
Publisher: UNC Press Books
ISBN: 146963550X
Category: Social Science
Page: 320
View: 440
With the railroad's arrival in the late nineteenth century, immigrants of all colors rushed to the U.S.-Mexico borderlands, transforming the region into a booming international hub of economic and human activity. Following the stream of Mexican, Chinese, and African American migration, Julian Lim presents a fresh study of the multiracial intersections of the borderlands, where diverse peoples crossed multiple boundaries in search of new economic opportunities and social relations. However, as these migrants came together in ways that blurred and confounded elite expectations of racial order, both the United States and Mexico resorted to increasingly exclusionary immigration policies in order to make the multiracial populations of the borderlands less visible within the body politic, and to remove them from the boundaries of national identity altogether. Using a variety of English- and Spanish-language primary sources from both sides of the border, Lim reveals how a borderlands region that has traditionally been defined by Mexican-Anglo relations was in fact shaped by a diverse population that came together dynamically through work and play, in the streets and in homes, through war and marriage, and in the very act of crossing the border.

    • History

Desert Borderland

The Making of Modern Egypt and Libya
Author: Matthew H. Ellis
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 1503605574
Category: History
Page: 280
View: 5779
Desert Borderland investigates the historical processes that transformed political identity in the easternmost reaches of the Sahara Desert in the half century before World War I. Adopting a view from the margins—illuminating the little-known history of the Egyptian–Libyan borderland—the book challenges prevailing notions of how Egypt and Libya were constituted as modern territorial nation-states. Matthew H. Ellis draws on a wide array of archival sources to reconstruct the multiple layers and meanings of territoriality in this desert borderland. Throughout the decades, a heightened awareness of the existence of distinctive Egyptian and Ottoman Libyan territorial spheres began to develop despite any clear-cut boundary markers or cartographic evidence. National territoriality was not simply imposed on Egypt's western—or Ottoman Libya's eastern—domains by centralizing state power. Rather, it developed only through a complex and multilayered process of negotiation with local groups motivated by their own local conceptions of space, sovereignty, and political belonging. By the early twentieth century, distinctive "Egyptian" and "Libyan" territorial domains emerged—what would ultimately become the modern nation-states of Egypt and Libya.

    • Social Science

The Borderlands of Education

Latinas in Engineering
Author: Michelle Madsen Camacho,Susan M. Lord
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 0739175599
Category: Social Science
Page: 160
View: 4367
This innovative work critically studies the contemporary problems of one segment of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education. The lack of a diverse U.S.-based pool of talent entering the field of engineering education has been termed a crisis by academic and political leaders. Engineering remains one of the most sex segregated academic arenas; the intersection of gendered and racialized exclusion results in very few Latina engineers. Drawing on cutting-edge scholarship in gender and Latino/a studies, the book provides an analytically incisive view of the experiences of Latina engineers. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation through a Gender in Science and Engineering grant, the authors bridge interdisciplinary perspectives to illuminate the nuanced and multiple exclusionary forces that shape the culture of engineering. A large, multi-institution, longitudinal dataset permits disaggregation by race and gender. The authors rely on primary and secondary sources and incorporate an integrated mixed-methods approach combining quantitative and qualitative data. Together, this analysis of the voices of Latina engineering majors breaks new ground in the literature on STEM education and provides an exemplar for future research on subpopulations in these fields. This book is aimed at researchers who study underrepresented groups in engineering and are interested in broadening participation and ameliorating problems of exclusion. It will be attractive to scholars in the fields of multicultural and higher education, sociology, cultural anthropology, cultural studies, and feminist technology studies, and all researchers interested in the intersections of STEM, race, and gender. This resource will be useful for policy-makers and educational leaders looking to revitalize and re-envision the culture within engineering.


    • History

Imperial Bandits

Outlaws and Rebels in the China-vietnam Borderlands
Author: Bradley Camp Davis
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780295999685
Category: History
Page: 288
View: 9202
"Tells the story of migrants and communities in the Southeast Asian borderlands. The Black Flags raided their way from southern China into northern Vietnam, competing in the second half of the nineteenth century against other armed migrants and uplands communities for control of commerce (e.g., opium) and natural resources (e.g., copper for making coins). At the edges of empires--the Qing empire in China, the Vietnamese empire governed by the Nguyen dynasty, and, eventually, French colonial Vietnam--the Black Flags and their rivals sustained networks of power and dominance through the framework of political regimes. The history of these imperial bandits and the communities that resisted them demonstrates the plasticity of borderlines, the limits of imposed boundaries, and the flexible division between apolitical banditry and political rebellion in the borderlands of China and Vietnam. Historical studies of these areas tend to examine events only from the perspective of local communities or from the anxious view of imperial officials. By focusing on the Black Flags, upland communities, and their relationships to various empires, this study illustrates borderland processes at the violent edges of empire. It contributes to the ongoing reassessment of borderland areas as frontiers for state expansion, arguing that projects of empire often were instruments of power for armed migrants and their allies, and that, as a setting for forms of human activity that defy tight boundaries, borderlands continued to exist well after the establishment of formal boundaries"--