• Political Science

Democratic Control of Intelligence Services

Containing Rogue Elephants
Author: Dr Hans Born,Ms Marina Caparini
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1409498271
Category: Political Science
Page: 326
View: 5346
The events of September 11, 2001 sharply revived governmental and societal anxieties in many democratic countries concerning the threats posed by terrorism, organized crime, the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction, and other complex security threats. In many countries, public discourse of subjects traditionally considered part of social policy, such as immigration and asylum, have been securitized, while intelligence services have been granted greater resources and expanded powers. This comprehensive volume discusses the various challenges of establishing and maintaining accountable and democratically controlled intelligence services, drawing both from states with well-established democratic systems and those emerging from authoritarian systems and in transition towards democracy. It adopts a multidisciplinary and comparative approach, identifying good practices to make security services accountable to society and its democratic representatives. The volume will engage both academics and practitioners in the discussion of how to anchor these vital yet inherently difficult to control institutions within a firmly democratic framework. As such, it has clear relevance for these concerned with the control and oversight of intelligence and security issues in many countries.

    • Political Science

Democratic Control of Intelligence Services

Containing Rogue Elephants
Author: Hans Born,Marina Caparini
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 9780754642732
Category: Political Science
Page: 303
View: 4793
This comprehensive volume discusses the various challenges of establishing and maintaining accountable and democratically controlled intelligence services, drawing both from states with well-established democratic systems and those emerging from authoritarian systems and in transition towards democracy.

    • Political Science

Democratic Control of Intelligence Services Containing Rogue Elephants


Author: Hans Born,Marina Caparini
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 0754688704
Category: Political Science
Page: 326
View: 6346
This comprehensive volume discusses the various challenges of establishing and maintaining accountable and democratically controlled intelligence services, drawing both from states with well-established democratic systems and those emerging from authoritarian systems and in transition towards democracy.

    • Political Science

Security Intelligence Services in New Democracies

The Czech Republic, Slovakia and Romania
Author: K. Williams,D. Deletant
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1403905363
Category: Political Science
Page: 291
View: 4029
The first account of the secret police in Eastern Europe and after 1989, this book uses a wide range of sources, including archives, to identify what has and has not changed since the end of communism. After explaining the structure and workings of two of the area's most feared services, Czechoslovakia's StB and Romania's Securitate, the authors details the creation of new security intelligence institutions, the development of contacts with the West, and forms of democratic control.

    • Political Science

Reforming Intelligence

Obstacles to Democratic Control and Effectiveness
Author: Thomas C. Bruneau,Steven C. Boraz
Publisher: University of Texas Press
ISBN: 0292783418
Category: Political Science
Page: 407
View: 4493
These days, it's rare to pick up a newspaper and not see a story related to intelligence. From the investigations of the 9/11 commission, to accusations of illegal wiretapping, to debates on whether it's acceptable to torture prisoners for information, intelligence—both accurate and not—is driving domestic and foreign policy. And yet, in part because of its inherently secretive nature, intelligence has received very little scholarly study. Into this void comes Reforming Intelligence, a timely collection of case studies written by intelligence experts, and sponsored by the Center for Civil-Military Relations (CCMR) at the Naval Postgraduate School, that collectively outline the best practices for intelligence services in the United States and other democratic states. Reforming Intelligence suggests that intelligence is best conceptualized as a subfield of civil-military relations, and is best compared through institutions. The authors examine intelligence practices in the United States, United Kingdom, and France, as well as such developing democracies as Brazil, Taiwan, Argentina, and Russia. While there is much more data related to established democracies, there are lessons to be learned from states that have created (or re-created) intelligence institutions in the contemporary political climate. In the end, reading about the successes of Brazil and Taiwan, the failures of Argentina and Russia, and the ongoing reforms in the United States yields a handful of hard truths. In the murky world of intelligence, that's an unqualified achievement.

    • History

America's Secret Power

The CIA in a Democratic Society
Author: Loch K. Johnson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195361537
Category: History
Page: 344
View: 3639
Based on hundreds of interviews with CIA officials, national security experts, and legislators, as well as a thorough culling of the archival record, America's Secret Power offers an illuminating and up-to-date picture of the CIA, stressing the difficult balance between the genuine needs of national security and the protection of individual liberties. Loch Johnson, who has studied the workings of the CIA at first hand as a legislative overseer, presents a comprehensive examination of the Agency and its relations with other American institutions, including Congress and the White House, and looks closely at how it pursues its three major missions--intelligence analysis, counterintelligence, and covert action. At once fascinating and sobering, Johnson's book reveals how the best intelligence reports can be distorted or ignored; how covert actions can spin out of control despite extensive safeguards, as in the Iran-Contra scandal; and how the CIA has spied on American citizens in clear violation of its charter. Further, he provides a thorough review of legislative efforts to curb these abuses, and suggests several important ways to achieve the delicate balance between national security and democratic ideals.

    • Law

When Should State Secrets Stay Secret?

Accountability, Democratic Governance, and Intelligence
Author: Genevieve Lester
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 110704247X
Category: Law
Page: 248
View: 2040
Examines modern trends in intelligence oversight development and how these mechanisms bolster an internal security system, increasing the secrecy of the intelligence enterprise.

    • Reference

The World Factbook


Author: Central Intelligence Agency
Publisher: Masterlab
ISBN: 8379912136
Category: Reference
Page: 3100
View: 997
The World Factbook provides information on the history, people, government, economy, geography, communications, transportation, military, and transnational issues for 267 world entities. The World Factbook is prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency. Comprehensive guide full of facts, maps, flags, and detailed information. A must for travellers, businessmen, politicians, and all who wants to know more about our fascinating world. -- We share these facts with the people of all nations in the belief that knowledge of the truth underpins the functioning of free societies (From official webpage). Tags: world, guide, facts, almanach

    • Political Science

Intelligence in an Insecure World


Author: Peter Gill,Mark Phythian
Publisher: Polity
ISBN: 0745632440
Category: Political Science
Page: 228
View: 5888
The role of intelligence in the contemporary world is ubiquitous: individuals, groups and organizations as well as states seek information in order to increase their sense of security. The events of 9/11 and subsequent 'war on terror' have made intelligence more central to the study of government and international affairs than at any time previously, reviving old debates and generating new ones. But what exactly is intelligence? Who seeks to develop it and how? What happens to the intelligence that is produced? This timely new book explores these and other key questions. Concentrating on the role of states and organizations, and using the post-9/11 security agenda as its key focus, it offers an authoritative and accessible guide to the relationship between intelligence and processes of public and private governance. Drawing on a range of contemporary examples, the book examines the limits of intelligence and asks whether the 9/11 attacks, the bombings in London and the failure to find weapons of mass destruction in Iraq may be seen as intelligence 'failures'? It concludes by discussing the need for democratic control of intelligence to prevent its future abuse by unaccountable state or corporate agencies.

    • Political Science

Who's watching the spies?

establishing intelligence service accountability
Author: Hans Born,Loch K. Johnson,Ian Leigh
Publisher: Potomac Books Inc
ISBN: N.A
Category: Political Science
Page: 255
View: 4373
Experts from around the globe look at protecting secrets while maintaining liberties

    • Political Science

Assessing the Tradecraft of Intelligence Analysis


Author: Gregory F. Treverton,C. Bryan Gabbard
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 0833046012
Category: Political Science
Page: 74
View: 1086
This report assesses intelligence analysis across the main U.S. intelligence agencies and makes a number of recommendations, some of which parallel initiatives that have begun in the wake of the December 2004 legislation, for instance, create a Deputy Director of National Intelligence as a focal point for analysis, establish a National Intelligence University, build a Long Term Analysis Unit at the National Intelligence Council, and form an Open Source Center for making more creative use of open-source materials.

    • Political Science

The Future of Intelligence

Challenges in the 21st century
Author: Isabelle Duyvesteyn,Ben de Jong,Joop van Reijn
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135095647
Category: Political Science
Page: 182
View: 8265
This volume discusses the challenges the future holds for different aspects of the intelligence process and for organisations working in the field. The main focus of Western intelligence services is no longer on the intentions and capabilities of the Soviet Union and its allies. Instead, at present, there is a plethora of threats and problems that deserve attention. Some of these problems are short-term and potentially acute, such as terrorism. Others, such as the exhaustion of natural resources, are longer-term and by nature often more difficult to foresee in their implications. This book analyses the different activities that make up the intelligence process, or the ‘intelligence cycle’, with a focus on changes brought about by external developments in the international arena, such as technology and security threats. Drawing together a range of key thinkers in the field, The Future of Intelligence examines possible scenarios for future developments, including estimations about their plausibility, and the possible consequences for the functioning of intelligence and security services. This book will be of much interest to students of intelligence studies, strategic studies, foreign policy, security studies and IR in general.

    • History

International Intelligence Cooperation and Accountability


Author: Hans Born,Ian Leigh,Aidan Wills
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136831398
Category: History
Page: 336
View: 1025
This book examines how international intelligence cooperation has come to prominence post-9/11 and introduces the main accountability, legal and human rights challenges that it poses. Since the end of the Cold War, the threats that intelligence services are tasked with confronting have become increasingly transnational in nature – organised crime, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and terrorism. The growth of these threats has impelled intelligence services to cooperate with contemporaries in other states to meet these challenges. While cooperation between certain Western states in some areas of intelligence operations (such as signals intelligence) is longstanding, since 9/11 there has been an exponential increase in both their scope and scale. This edited volume explores not only the challenges to accountability presented by international intelligence cooperation but also possible solutions for strengthening accountability for activities that are likely to remain fundamental to the work of intelligence services. The book will be of much interest to students of intelligence studies, security studies, international law, global governance and IR in general.

The Agency and the Hill

CIA's Relationship with Congress, 1946-2004
Author: L. Britt Snider
Publisher: CreateSpace
ISBN: 9781512307177
Category:
Page: 408
View: 7435
This is a study of the CIA's relationship with Congress. It encompasses the period from the creation of the Agency until 2004-the era of the DCIs. When Congress created a new position in December 2004-the director of national intelligence-to supersede the director of central intelligence (DCI) as head of the US Intelligence Community, it necessarily changed the dynamic between the CIA and the Congress. While the director of the Agency would continue to represent its interests on Capitol Hill, he or she would no longer speak as the head of US intelligence. While 2008 is too early to assess how this change will affect the Agency's relationship with Congress, it is safe to say it will never be quite the same. The study is divided into two major parts. Part I describes how Congress and the Agency related to each other over the period covered by the study. As it happens, this period conveniently breaks down into two major segments: the years before the creation of the select committees on intelligence (1946-76) and the years after the creation of these committees (1976-2004). The arrangements that Congress put in place during the earlier period to provide oversight and tend to the needs of the Agency were distinctly different from those put in place in the mid-1970s and beyond. Over the entire period, moreover, the Agency shared intelligence with the Congress and had other interaction with its members that affected the relationship. This, too, is described in Part I. Part II describes what the relationship produced over time in seven discrete areas: legislation affecting the Agency; programs and budget; oversight of analysis; oversight of collection; oversight of covert action; oversight of security and personnel matters; and the Senate confirmation process. It highlights what the principal issues have been for Congress in each area as well as how those issues have been handled. From the back cover: Excerpts from The Agency and Hill: "This is a study of the CIA's relationship with Congress. It encompasses the period from the creation of the Agency until 2004-the era of the DCIs." "Looking back over the Agency's early history, it is remarkable how often the idea of a joint committee on intelligence was offered up in Congress as the panacea to the existing oversight arrangements." "The Agency's fortunes on Capitol Hill to some degree have always been a function of how the committees with responsibility for the Agency perceived the DCI: the greater the level of trust, the greater the level of comfort in terms of how the Agency is operating. But especially during the early years, when so much of the interaction between the Agency and the Congress was informal and personal, how the DCI was perceived on the Hill was a key factor in setting the terms of the relationship."

    • History

Predicting the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan


Author: Douglas MacEachin
Publisher: Seltzer Books via PublishDrive
ISBN: 145544698X
Category: History
Page: 126
View: 7551
Originally published by the CIA, as an unclassified public document. Douglas MacEachin served as CIA's Deputy Director for Intelligence from 1993 to 1995 during his thirty-two year career at CIA. Mr. MacEachin was an officer-in-residence at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government, from 1995 to 1997, subsequently becoming a senior at the Kennedy School.

    • Law

Democratic Oversight of Intelligence Services


Author: Daniel Baldino
Publisher: Federation Press
ISBN: 9781862877412
Category: Law
Page: 222
View: 7862
The past decade has seen renewed focus on the need for democratic oversight of intelligence communities in Western democracies. In this book academic and policy experts synthesise developments in Australia, Japan, Canada, New Zealand, the United States and United Kingdom.Legal and administrative frameworks, executive prerogatives and power - and their potential abuses, operational work and analytical tradecraft, crisis management, human rights, state-sponsored detention and interrogation policy and the separation of powers are discussed.

    • Social Science

Moral Issues in Intelligence-led Policing


Author: Helene Oppen Gundhus,Kira Vrist Rønn,Nick Fyfe
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351864505
Category: Social Science
Page: 312
View: 1619
The core baseline of Intelligence-led Policing is the aim of increasing efficiency and quality of police work, with a focus on crime analysis and intelligence methods as tools for informed and objective decisions both when conducting targeted, specialized operations and when setting strategic priorities. This book critically addresses the proliferation of intelligence logics within policing from a wide array of scholarly perspectives. It considers questions such as: How are precautionary logics becoming increasingly central in the dominant policing strategies? What kind of challenges will this move entail? What does the criminalization of preparatory acts mean for previous distinctions between crime prevention and crime detection? What are the predominant rationales behind the proactive use of covert cohesive measures in order to prevent attacks on national security? How are new technological measures, increased private partnerships and international cooperation challenging the core nature of police services as the main providers of public safety and security? This book offers new insights by exploring dilemmas, legal issues and questions raised by the use of new policing methods and the blurred and confrontational lines that can be observed between prevention, intelligence and investigation in police work.

    • Political Science

National Insecurity

U.S. Intelligence After the Cold War
Author: Craig Eisendrath
Publisher: Temple University Press
ISBN: 9781592137794
Category: Political Science
Page: 240
View: 5163
A drastic reform of intelligence activities is long overdue. The Cold War has been over for ten years. No country threatens this nation's existence. Yet we still spend billions of dollars on covert action and espionage. In National Insecurity ten prominent experts describe, from an insider perspective, what went wrong with U.S. intelligence and what will be necessary to fix it. Drawing on their experience in government administration, research, and the foreign service, they propose a radical rethinking of the United States' intelligence needs in the post-Cold War world. In addition, they offer a coherent and unified plan for reform that can simultaneously protect U. S. security and uphold the values of our democratic system. As we now know, even during the Cold War, when intelligence was seen as a matter of life and death, our system served us badly. It provided unreliable information, which led to a grossly inflated military budget, as it wreaked havoc around the world, supporting corrupt regimes, promoting the drug trade, and repeatedly violating foreign and domestic laws. Protected by a shroud of secrecy, it paid no price for its mistakes. Instead it grew larger and more insulated every year. Taking into consideration our strategic interests abroad as well as the price of covert operations in dollars, in reliability, and in good will, every American taxpayer can be informed by and will want to read this book. National Insecurity is essential for readers interested in contemporary political issues, international relations, U.S. history, public policy issues, foreign policy, intelligence reform, and political science.

    • Political Science

Who Guards the Guardians and How

Democratic Civil-Military Relations
Author: Thomas C. Bruneau,Scott D. Tollefson
Publisher: University of Texas Press
ISBN: 9780292783409
Category: Political Science
Page: 336
View: 792
The continued spread of democracy into the twenty-first century has seen two-thirds of the almost two hundred independent countries of the world adopting this model. In these newer democracies, one of the biggest challenges has been to establish the proper balance between the civilian and military sectors. A fundamental question of power must be addressed—who guards the guardians and how? In this volume of essays, contributors associated with the Center for Civil-Military Relations in Monterey, California, offer firsthand observations about civil-military relations in a broad range of regions including Latin America, Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe. Despite diversity among the consolidating democracies of the world, their civil-military problems and solutions are similar—soldiers and statesmen must achieve a deeper understanding of one another, and be motivated to interact in a mutually beneficial way. The unifying theme of this collection is the creation and development of the institutions whereby democratically elected civilians achieve and exercise power over those who hold a monopoly on the use of force within a society, while ensuring that the state has sufficient and qualified armed forces to defend itself against internal and external aggressors. Although these essays address a wide variety of institutions and situations, they each stress a necessity for balance between democratic civilian control and military effectiveness.