• History

Drugs and Narcotics in History


Author: Roy Porter,Mikulas Teich
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521585972
Category: History
Page: 227
View: 3199
A collection of essays exploring the complex history of drugs and narcotics throughout historyfrom ancient Greece to the present dayshows that such substances were sought originally as healing agents, both within and without the medical profession. However, the mood- and mind-altering characteristics of some have led to the widespread abuse and legal controls we see today.

    • History

Moral Nation

Modern Japan and Narcotics in Global History
Author: Miriam Kingsberg
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520276736
Category: History
Page: 304
View: 7062
This trailblazing study examines the history of narcotics in Japan to explain the development of global criteria for political legitimacy in nations and empires in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Japan underwent three distinct crises of sovereignty in its modern history: in the 1890s, during the interwar period, and in the 1950s. Each crisis provoked successively escalating crusades against opium and other drugs, in which moral entrepreneurs--bureaucrats, cultural producers, merchants, law enforcement, scientists, and doctors, among others--focused on drug use as a means of distinguishing between populations fit and unfit for self-rule. Moral Nation traces the instrumental role of ideologies about narcotics in the country's efforts to reestablish its legitimacy as a nation and empire. As Kingsberg demonstrates, Japan's growing status as an Asian power and a "moral nation" expanded the notion of "civilization" from an exclusively Western value to a universal one. Scholars and students of Japanese history, Asian studies, world history, and global studies will gain an in-depth understanding of how Japan's experience with narcotics influenced global standards for sovereignty and shifted the aim of nation building, making it no longer a strictly political activity but also a moral obligation to society.

    • Drug abuse

Narcotic Culture

A History of Drugs in China
Author: Frank Dikötter,Lars Peter Laamann,Zhou Xun
Publisher: C. HURST & CO. PUBLISHERS
ISBN: 9781850657255
Category: Drug abuse
Page: 319
View: 9913
China was turned into a nation of opium addicts by the pernicious forces of imperialist trade. This study systematically questions this assertion on the basis of abundant archives from China, Europe and the US, showing that opium had few harmful effects on either health or longevity.

    • History

The Pursuit of Oblivion

A Global History of Narcotics
Author: Richard Davenport-Hines
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 9780393325454
Category: History
Page: 592
View: 1571
Written with encyclopedic scope, this candid, sober, hard-hitting history of the global drug trade takes the reader back five centuries to the origins of the modern narcotics industry in the Western world. Reprint. 10,000 first printing.

    • Political Science

Shooting Up

A Short History of Drugs and War
Author: Lukasz Kamienski
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190263490
Category: Political Science
Page: 352
View: 9775
Shooting Up: A Short History of Drugs and War examines how intoxicants have been put to the service of states, empires and their armies throughout history. Since the beginning of organized combat, armed forces have prescribed drugs to their members for two general purposes: to enhance performance during combat and to counter the trauma of killing and witnessing violence after it is over. Stimulants (e.g. alcohol, cocaine, and amphetamines) have been used to temporarily create better soldiers by that improving stamina, overcoming sleeplessness, eliminating fatigue, and increasing fighting spirit. Downers (e.g. alcohol, opiates, morphine, heroin, marijuana, barbiturates) have also been useful in dealing with the soldier's greatest enemy - shattered nerves. Kamienski's focuses on drugs "prescribed" by military authorities, but also documents the widespread unauthorised consumption by soldiers themselves. Combatants have always treated with various drugs and alcohol, mainly for recreational use and as a reward to themselves for enduring the constant tension of preparing for. Although not officially approved, such "self-medication" is often been quietly tolerated by commanders in so far as it did not affect combat effectiveness. This volume spans the history of combat from the use of opium, coca, and mushrooms in pre-modern warfare to the efforts of modern militaries, during the Cold War in particular, to design psychochemical offensive weapons that can be used to incapacitate rather than to kill the enemy. Along the way, Kamienski provides fascinating coverage of on the European adoption of hashish during Napolean's invasion of Egypt, opium use during the American Civil War, amphetamines in the Third Reich, and the use of narcotics to control child soldiers in the rebel militias of contemporary Africa.

    • History

Drug Wars

The Political Economy of Narcotics
Author: Curtis Marez
Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
ISBN: 9780816640591
Category: History
Page: 347
View: 8199
Inaugurated in 1984, America's "War on Drugs" is just the most recent skirmish in a standoff between global drug trafficking and state power. From Britain's nineteenth-century Opium Wars in China to the activities of Colombia's drug cartels and their suppression by U.S.-backed military forces today, conflicts over narcotics have justified imperial expansion, global capitalism, and state violence, even as they have also fueled the movement of goods and labor around the world. In Drug Wars, cultural critic Curtis Marez examines two hundred years of writings, graphic works, films, and music that both demonize and celebrate the commerce in cocaine, marijuana, and opium, providing a bold interdisciplinary exploration of drugs in the popular imagination. Ranging from the writings of Sigmund Freud to pro-drug lord Mexican popular music, gangsta rap, and Brian De Palma's 1983 epic Scarface, Drug Wars moves from the representations and realities of the Opium Wars to the long history of drug and immigration enforcement on the U.S.-Mexican border, and to cocaine use and interdiction in South America, Middle Europe, and among American Indians. Throughout Marez juxtaposes official drug policy and propaganda with subversive images that challenge and sometimes even taunt government and legal efforts. As Marez shows, despite the state's best efforts to use the media to obscure the hypocrisies and failures of its drug policies-be they lurid descriptions of Chinese opium dens in the English popular press or Nancy Reagan's "Just Say No" campaign-marginalized groups have consistently opposed the expansion of state power that drug traffic has historically supported. Curtis Marez is assistant professorof critical studies at the University of Southern California School of Cinema-Television.

    • History

Drugs and Drug Policy in America

A Documentary History
Author: Steven R. Belenko
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN: 9780313299025
Category: History
Page: 380
View: 3427
Explores highly controversial issues surrounding drug use, drug abuse, and the legalization of drugs.

    • History

Altering American Consciousness

The History of Alcohol and Drug Use in the United States, 1800-2000
Author: Caroline Jean Acker,Sarah W. Tracy
Publisher: Univ of Massachusetts Press
ISBN: 9781558494251
Category: History
Page: 414
View: 4046
Virtually every American alive has at some point consumed at least one, and very likely more, consciousness altering drug. Even those who actively eschew alcohol, tobacco, and coffee cannot easily avoid the full range of psychoactive substances pervading the culture. If the use of drugs is a constant in American history, the way they have been perceived has varied extensively. Just as the corrupting cigarettes of the early-20th century became the glamorous accessory of Hollywood stars and American GIs in the 1940s, only to fall into public disfavour later as an unhealthy and irresponsible habit, the social significance of every drug changes over time. This work shows how the identity of any psychoactive substance owes as much to its users, their patterns of use, and the cultural context in which the drug is taken, as it owes to the drug's documented physiological effects. Rather than seeing licit drugs and illicit drugs, recreational drugs and medicinal drugs, hard drugs and soft drugs as mutually exclusive categories, it challenges readers to consider the ways in which drugs have shifted historically from one category to another.

    • History

Alcohol and Drugs in North America: A Historical Encyclopedia [2 volumes]

A Historical Encyclopedia
Author: David M. Fahey,Jon S. Miller
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1598844792
Category: History
Page: 919
View: 2801
Alcohol and drugs play a significant role in society, regardless of socioeconomic class. This encyclopedia looks at the history of all drugs in North America, including alcohol, tobacco, prescription drugs, cannabis, cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, and even chocolate and caffeinated drinks.

    • Reference

Illegal Drugs

A Complete Guide to Their History, Chemistry, Use and Abuse
Author: Paul M. Gahlinger
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 9780452285057
Category: Reference
Page: 456
View: 8534
Furnishes an overview of the 178 drugs that are currently illegal in the United States, including information on their histories, chemical properties and effects, medical uses, recreational abuses, and associated health problems.

    • History

Blitzed

Drugs in the Third Reich
Author: Norman Ohler
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
ISBN: 1328664090
Category: History
Page: 304
View: 4287
New York Times Bestseller “[A] fascinating, engrossing, often dark history of drug use in the Third Reich.” — Washington Post The Nazi regime preached an ideology of physical, mental, and moral purity. Yet as Norman Ohler reveals in this gripping new history, the Third Reich was saturated with drugs: cocaine, opiates, and, most of all, methamphetamines, which were consumed by everyone from factory workers to housewives to German soldiers. In fact, troops were encouraged, and in some cases ordered, to take rations of a form of crystal meth—the elevated energy and feelings of invincibility associated with the high even help to account for the breakneck invasion that sealed the fall of France in 1940, as well as other German military victories. Hitler himself became increasingly dependent on injections of a cocktail of drugs—ultimately including Eukodal, a cousin of heroin—administered by his personal doctor. Thoroughly researched and rivetingly readable, Blitzed throws light on a history that, until now, has remained in the shadows. “Delightfully nuts.” — The New Yorker NORMAN OHLER is an award-winning German novelist, screenwriter, and journalist. He is the author of the novels Die Quotenmaschine (the world’s first hypertext novel), Mitte, and Stadt des Goldes (translated into English as Ponte City). He was cowriter of the script for Wim Wenders’s film Palermo Shooting. He lives in Berlin.

    • History

The Strength of the Wolf

The Secret History of America's War on Drugs
Author: Douglas Valentine
Publisher: Verso
ISBN: 9781859845684
Category: History
Page: 554
View: 9494
Carefully and extensively documented, a definitive history of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics.

    • Political Science

The Politics of Narcotic Drugs

A Survey
Author: Julia Buxton
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136880607
Category: Political Science
Page: 320
View: 1787
The Politics of Narcotic Drugs brings together leading experts on the drugs trade to provide an accessible yet detailed analysis of the multiple challenges that the contemporary trade in narcotic drugs and its prohibition pose, from the local to the international community. Through the use of country and regional case studies that include Afghanistan, Mexico, Colombia and the Middle East, the drivers of the drugs trade and the security and development dilemmas created by the prohibition of narcotic substances are explored. Contributions that assess the international drug control regime, British anti-drug enforcement organizations, 'narcoterrorism' and options for drug policy reform engage readers in current debates and the narrative frameworks that shape discussion of the drugs issue. The book is an invaluable guide to the dynamic and far-reaching issue of narcotic drugs and the impact of their prohibition on our countries and communities. The chapters are followed by an A-Z glossary of key terms, issues and organizations, and a section of maps and statistics.

    • History

Forces of Habit


Author: David T. COURTWRIGHT
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674029903
Category: History
Page: 288
View: 4601

    • Political Science

Drugs in American Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, Culture, and the Law [3 volumes]


Author: Nancy E. Marion,Willard M. Oliver
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1610695968
Category: Political Science
Page: 1163
View: 5507
Containing more than 450 entries, this easy-to-read encyclopedia provides concise information about the history of and recent trends in drug use and drug abuse in the United States—a societal problem with an estimated cost of $559 billion a year. • Contains more than 450 detailed entries on topics ranging from drugs themselves—such as alcohol, codeine, heroin, marijuana, and methamphetamines—to key individuals like Harry Anslinger to organizations such as the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) • Covers the latest developments in U.S. policies and public attitudes toward drugs and drug use • Provides citations with each entry to guide users to other valuable research resources • Features carefully selected primary documents—including excerpts from important laws, policies, and campaigns—that have shaped American drug policy over the decades

    • Medical

Substance and Shadow

Women and Addiction in the United States
Author: Stephen R. Kandall
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674853614
Category: Medical
Page: 353
View: 6727
In 1989 Jennifer Johnson was convicted of delivering a controlled substance to a minor. That the minor happened to be Johnson's unborn child made her case all the more complex, controversial, and ultimately, historical. Stephen R. Kandall, a neonatologist and pediatrician, testified as an expert witness on Johnson's behalf. The experience caused him to wonder how one disadvantaged black woman's case became a prosecutorial battlefield in the war on drugs. This book is the product of Kandall's search through the annals of medicine and history to learn how women have fared in this conflict and how drug-dependent women have been treated for the past century and a half. Kandall's sleuthing uncovers an intriguing and troubling story. Opium, laudanum, and morphine were primary ingredients in the curative "powders" and strengthening "tonics" that physicians freely prescribed and pharmacists dispensed to women a hundred and fifty years ago. Or a woman could easily dose herself with narcotics and alcohol in the readily available form of "patent" medicines sold in every town and touted in popular magazines ("Over a million bottles sold and in every one a cure!"). For the most part unaware of their dangers, women turned to these remedies for "female complaints," such as "womb disease" and "congestion of the ovaries," as well as for "neurasthenia," a widespread but vague nervous malady attributed to women's weaker, more sensitive natures. Not surprisingly, by the latter half of the nineteenth century the majority of America's opiate addicts were women. The more things change, the more they remain the same: Substance and Shadow shows how, though attitudes and drugs may vary over time--from the laudanum of yesteryear to the heroin of the thirties and forties, the tranquilizers of the fifties, the consciousness-raising or prescription drugs of the sixties, and the ascendance of crack use in the eighties--dependency remains an issue for women. Kandall traces the history of questionable treatment that has followed this trend. From the maintenance clinics of the early twenties to the "federal farms" of mid-century to the detoxification efforts and methadone maintenance that flourished in the wake of the Women's Movement, attempts to treat drug-dependent women have been far from adequate. As he describes current policies that put money into drug interdiction and prisons, but offer little in the way of treatment or hope for women like Jennifer Johnson, Kandall calls our attention to the social and personal costs of demonizing and punishing women addicts rather than trying to improve their circumstances and give them genuine help.

    • History

Consuming Habits

Drugs in History and Anthropology
Author: Jordan Goodman,Andrew Sherratt,Paul E. Lovejoy
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134093624
Category: History
Page: 304
View: 7441
Covering a wide range of substances, including opium, cocaine, coffee, tobacco, kola, and betelnut, from prehistory to the present day, this new edition has been extensively updated, with an updated bibliography and two new chapters on cannabis and khat. Consuming Habits is the perfect companion for all those interested in how different cultures have defined drugs across the ages. Psychoactive substances have been central to the formation of civilizations, the definition of cultural identities, and the growth of the world economy. The labelling of these substances as 'legal' or 'illegal' has diverted attention away from understanding their important cultural and historical role. This collection explores the rich analytical category of psychoactive substances from challenging historical and anthropological perspectives.

    • History

Drugs in America

A Social History, 1800-1980
Author: Howard Wayne Morgan
Publisher: Syracuse University Press
ISBN: 9780815622826
Category: History
Page: 233
View: 1494
Outlines the history of the use and the development of American society's image of such drugs as opium, marihuana, cocaine, and LSD.

    • Political Science

Seeds of Terror


Author: Gretchen Peters
Publisher: Oneworld Publications
ISBN: 1851688919
Category: Political Science
Page: 320
View: 5596
Seeds of Terror will reshape the way you think about the West’s enemies, revealing them less as ideologues and more as criminals who earn billions of pounds every year off the opium trade. With the breakneck pace of a thriller, author Gretchen Peters traces their illicit activities from the vast poppy fields of southern Afghanistan to heroin labs run by Taliban commanders, from drug convoys armed with Stinger missiles to the money launderers of Karachi and Dubai. Based on hundreds of interviews with Taliban fighters, smugglers, and law enforcement and intelligence agents, Peters makes the case that we must cut terrorists off from their drug earnings if we ever hope to beat them.