• Social Science

Economy and Ritual


Author: Stephen Gudeman,Chris Hann
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 1785335197
Category: Social Science
Page: 214
View: 704
According to accepted wisdom, rational practices and ritual action are opposed. Rituals drain wealth from capital investment and draw on a mode of thought different from practical ideas. The studies in this volume contest this view. Comparative, historical, and contemporary, the six ethnographies extend from Macedonia to Kyrgyzstan. Each one illuminates the economic and ritual changes in an area as it emerged from socialism and (re-)entered market society. Cutting against the idea that economy only means markets and that market action exhausts the meaning of economy, the studies show that much of what is critical for a people's economic life takes place outside markets and hinges on ritual, understood as the negation of the everyday world of economising.

    • Social Science

Oikos and Market

Explorations in Self-Sufficiency after Socialism
Author: Stephen Gudeman,Chris Hann
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 1782386963
Category: Social Science
Page: 204
View: 3385
Self-sufficiency of the house is practiced in many parts of the world but ignored in economic theory, just as socialist collectivization is assumed to have brought household self-sufficiency to an end. The ideals of self-sufficiency, however, continue to shape economic activity in a wide range of postsocialist settings. This volume's six comparative studies of postsocialist villages in Eastern Europe and Asia illuminate the enduring importance of the house economy, which is based not on the market but on the order of the house. These formations show that economies depend not only on the macro institutions of markets and states but also on the micro institutions of families, communities, and house economies, often in an uneasy relationship.

    • Social Science

An Ethnography of a Vodu Shrine in Southern Togo

Of Spirit, Slave and Sea
Author: Eric Montgomery,Christian Vannier
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004341250
Category: Social Science
Page: 316
View: 4524
This book offers an ethnography of the beliefs and practices of Vodu, as they relate to daily life in an ethnic Ewe fishing community on the coast of southern Togo.

    • Social Science

Postsocialism

Ideals, ideologies and practices in Eurasia
Author: C.M. Hann
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134504454
Category: Social Science
Page: 360
View: 6838
Social scientists did not predict the collapse of the socialist system in 1989-91 and their attempts to explain postsocialism have not been comprehensive. Economic disintegration and political instability have been documented, but the deeper causes have often gone unnoticed. Consequently the solutions proffered, such as the promotion of non-governmental organisations as the foundations of 'civil society', have so far brought little success. Postsocialism presents, for the first time, the anthropological responses to these problems which are all grounded in intensive fieldwork. The authors demonstrate that even when local conditions are specific, the view 'from below' illuminates macro trends. A wide range of topics are discussed, including: *the role of social and cultural capital in determining the 'winners' of rural decollectivization *the devaluation of blue collar labour *the position of Gypsies *the viability of 'multicultural' models in situations of religious differences and ethnic violence *new patterns of consumption in China *the revival of rituals and the healing of socialist 'trauma'. _

    • Social Science

When Things Become Property

Land Reform, Authority and Value in Postsocialist Europe and Asia
Author: Thomas Sikor,Stefan Dorondel,Johannes Stahl,Phuc Xuan To
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 1785334522
Category: Social Science
Page: 250
View: 3097
Governments have conferred ownership titles to many citizens throughout the world in an effort to turn things into property. Almost all elements of nature have become the target of property laws, from the classic preoccupation with land to more ephemeral material, such as air and genetic resources. When Things Become Property interrogates the mixed outcomes of conferring ownership by examining postsocialist land and forest reforms in Albania, Romania and Vietnam, and finds that property reforms are no longer, if they ever were, miracle tools available to governments for refashioning economies, politics or environments.

    • Social Science

Anthropology and Economy


Author: Stephen Gudeman
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316462749
Category: Social Science
Page: N.A
View: 2466
Comparative and critical, Anthropology and Economy offers a uniquely cross-cultural view of economy. Using examples from market and non-market situations, the book shows how economies are built on five increasingly abstract spheres, from the house to community, commerce, finance, and meta-finance. Across these spheres, economy incorporates a tension between self-interested rationality and the mutuality of social relationships. Even when rational processes predominate, as in markets, economies rely on sociability and ritual to operate, whether as cronyism, pleas to divinities or the magical persuasions of advertising. Drawing on data and concepts from anthropology and economics, the book addresses wealth inequality, resource depletion, and environmental devastation especially in capitalism, providing an understanding of their persistence and ideas for controlling them. Given the recent financial crash, Gudeman offers a different understanding of the crisis and suggestions for achieving greater economic stability.

    • Social Science

Reconstructing the House of Culture

Community, Self, and the Makings of Culture in Russia and Beyond
Author: Brian Donahoe,Joachim Otto Habeck
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 0857452762
Category: Social Science
Page: 348
View: 5109
Notions of culture, rituals and their meanings, the workings of ideology in everyday life, public representations of tradition and ethnicity, and the social consequences of economic transition- these are critical issues in the social anthropology of Russia and other postsocialist countries. Engaged in the negotiation of all these is the House of Culture, which was the key institution for cultural activities and implementation of state cultural policies in all socialist states. The House of Culture was officially responsible for cultural enlightenment, moral edification, and personal cultivation-in short, for implementing the socialist state's program of "bringing culture to the masses." Surprisingly, little is known about its past and present condition. This collection of ethnographically rich accounts examines the social significance and everyday performance of Houses of Culture and how they have changed in recent decades. In the years immediately following the end of the Soviet Union, they underwent a deep economic and symbolic crisis, and many closed. Recently, however, there have been signs of a revitalization of the Houses of Culture and a re-orientation of their missions and programs. The contributions to this volume investigate the changing functions and meanings of these vital institutions for the communities that they serve.

    • History

Connectivity in Motion

Island Hubs in the Indian Ocean World
Author: Burkhard Schnepel,Edward A. Alpers
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319597256
Category: History
Page: 452
View: 8163
This original collection brings islands to the fore in a growing body of scholarship on the Indian Ocean, examining them as hubs or points of convergence and divergence in a world of maritime movements and exchanges. Straddling history and anthropology and grounded in the framework of connectivity, the book tackles central themes such as smallness, translocality, and “the island factor.” It moves to the farthest reaches of the region, with a rich variety of case studies on the Swahili-Comorian world, the Maldives, Indonesia, and more. With remarkable breadth and cohesion, these essays capture the circulations of people, goods, rituals, sociocultural practices, and ideas that constitute the Indian Ocean world. Together, they take up “islandness” as an explicit empirical and methodological issue as few have done before.

    • Social Science

Transnational Transcendence

Essays on Religion and Globalization
Author: Thomas J. Csordas
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520257412
Category: Social Science
Page: 338
View: 2463
"This innovative collection examines the transnational movements, effects, and transformations of religion in the contemporary world, offering a fresh perspective on the interrelation between globalization and religion. Taken as a whole, Transnational Transcendence challenges some widely accepted ideas about this relationship, in particular, that international contemporary religious manifestations are secondary to the primary economic phenomenon of globalization."--P. [4] of cover.

    • Social Science

When Things Become Property

Land Reform, Authority and Value in Postsocialist Europe and Asia
Author: Thomas Sikor,Stefan Dorondel,Johannes Stahl,Phuc Xuan To
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 1785334522
Category: Social Science
Page: 250
View: 6917
Governments have conferred ownership titles to many citizens throughout the world in an effort to turn things into property. Almost all elements of nature have become the target of property laws, from the classic preoccupation with land to more ephemeral material, such as air and genetic resources. When Things Become Property interrogates the mixed outcomes of conferring ownership by examining postsocialist land and forest reforms in Albania, Romania and Vietnam, and finds that property reforms are no longer, if they ever were, miracle tools available to governments for refashioning economies, politics or environments.

    • Social Science

Economic Anthropology


Author: Chris Hann,Keith Hart
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0745699391
Category: Social Science
Page: 80
View: 9811
This book is a new introduction to the history and practice of economic anthropology by two leading authors in the field. They show that anthropologists have contributed to understanding the three great questions of modern economic history: development, socialism and one-world capitalism. In doing so, they connect economic anthropology to its roots in Western philosophy, social theory and world history. Up to the Second World War anthropologists tried and failed to interest economists in their exotic findings. They then launched a vigorous debate over whether an approach taken from economics was appropriate to the study of non-industrial economies. Since the 1970s, they have developed a critique of capitalism based on studying it at home as well as abroad. The authors aim to rejuvenate economic anthropology as a humanistic project at a time when the global financial crisis has undermined confidence in free market economics. They argue for the continued relevance of predecessors such as Marcel Mauss and Karl Polanyi, while offering an incisive review of recent work in this field. Economic Anthropology is an excellent introduction for social science students at all levels, and it presents general readers with a challenging perspective on the world economy today. Selected by Choice as a 2013 Outstanding Academic Title

    • Social Science

Anthropology and Economy


Author: Stephen Gudeman
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316462749
Category: Social Science
Page: N.A
View: 7730
Comparative and critical, Anthropology and Economy offers a uniquely cross-cultural view of economy. Using examples from market and non-market situations, the book shows how economies are built on five increasingly abstract spheres, from the house to community, commerce, finance, and meta-finance. Across these spheres, economy incorporates a tension between self-interested rationality and the mutuality of social relationships. Even when rational processes predominate, as in markets, economies rely on sociability and ritual to operate, whether as cronyism, pleas to divinities or the magical persuasions of advertising. Drawing on data and concepts from anthropology and economics, the book addresses wealth inequality, resource depletion, and environmental devastation especially in capitalism, providing an understanding of their persistence and ideas for controlling them. Given the recent financial crash, Gudeman offers a different understanding of the crisis and suggestions for achieving greater economic stability.

    • Business & Economics

Property in Question

Value Transformation in the Global Economy
Author: Katherine Verdery,Caroline Humphrey
Publisher: Berg Publishers
ISBN: 9781859738870
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 324
View: 2856
Annotation Offering a fresh perspective on contemporary economic transformation, Property in Question is a long overdue investigation of the power of the 'private property' concept, as well as an exploration of how the global economy may be subtly changing what 'property' means and how we relate to it.

    • Political Science

Industrial Labor on the Margins of Capitalism

Precarity, Class and the Neoliberal Subject
Author: Chris Hann,Jonathan Parry
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 1785336789
Category: Political Science
Page: 384
View: 7478
Bringing together ethnographic case studies of industrial labor from different parts of the world, Industrial Labor on the Margins of Capitalism explores the increasing casualization of workforces and the weakening power of organized labor. This division owes much to state policies and is reflected in local understandings of class. By exploring this relationship, these essays question the claim that neoliberal ideology has become the new ‘commonsense’ of our times and suggest various propositions about the conditions that create employment regimes based on flexible labor.

    • Education

Education Systems in Historical, Cultural, and Sociological Perspectives


Author: Daniel Tröhler,Ragnhild Barbu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9460918271
Category: Education
Page: 183
View: 3518
For nearly half a century, research on education systems has been increasingly popular. However, this popularity was long restricted primarily to internationally linked policy makers and education planners, often backed up by international organizations such the OECD but also by governmental or para-governmental organizations within the individual countries. These institutional affiliations provided education research with a specific character that often centres on notions such as excellence, efficiency, or standards. The specific comparative character of this policy-driven research agenda triggered the development of suitable research techniques such as comparative statistics and pertinent sub-disciplines such as cognitive psychology. Backed-up by powerful global institutions, this agenda purported to be rather unique, and it tended to ignore the cultural complexity of the educational field and those research approaches that address this complexity. This volume includes different historical, cultural, and sociological approaches to the education systems and to questions as to how research on education systems can be undertaken beyond the parameters of the existing research agenda. They demonstrate how pertinent problems of research on education systems can only be tackled taking an international and interdisciplinary approach with regard to both research questions and methods concerning education systems.

    • Business & Economics

Market and Society

The Great Transformation Today
Author: Chris Hann,Keith Hart
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521519659
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 320
View: 2609
This volume considers how the work of Polanyi can contribute to our understanding of the relationship between market and society.

    • Social Science

Reindeer Nomads Meet the Market

Culture, Property and Globalisation at the End of the Land
Author: Florian Stammler
Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster
ISBN: 382588046X
Category: Social Science
Page: 379
View: 8346
Refuting essentialist notions of Nenets culture, the author explores the dialogue between reindeer nomads and the surrounding world and shows how global processes and concepts such as culture, property, and market are expressed in local practices. He demonstrates how reindeer nomads move freely between subsistence and commodity production; state-owned and private reindeer; animism, communism, and market relations; and territorial defence and cooperative knowledge of the land. This study makes an original and significant contribution to wider debates about nomadic pastoralism and to anthropological studies of trade, barter, property, and territoriality. Florian Stammler is senior researcher at the Arctic Centre at the University of Lapland in Rovaniemi (Finland).

    • Social Science

A Handbook of Economic Anthropology, Second Edition


Author: James G. Carrier
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1849809291
Category: Social Science
Page: 662
View: 9321
Acclaim for the first edition: 'The volume is a remarkable contribution to economic anthropology and will no doubt be a fundamental tool for students, scholars, and experts in the sub-discipline.' – Mao Mollona, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 'This excellent overview would serve as an excellent text for advanced undergraduate and graduate-level classroom use. . . Because of the clarity, conciseness, and accessibility of the writing, the chapters in this volume likely will be often cited and recommended to those who want the alternative and frequently culturally comparative perspective on economic topics that anthropology provides. Highly recommended. All academic levels/libraries.' – K.F. Rambo, Choice The first edition of this unique Handbook was praised for its substantial and invaluable summary discussions of work by anthropologists on economic processes and issues, on the relationship between economic and non-economic areas of life and on the conceptual orientations that are important among economic anthropologists. This thoroughly revised edition brings those discussions up to date, and includes an important new section exploring ways that leading anthropologists have approached the current economic crisis. Its scope and accessibility make it useful both to those who are interested in a particular topic and to those who want to see the breadth and fruitfulness of an anthropological study of economy. This comprehensive Handbook will strongly appeal to undergraduate and post-graduate students in anthropology, economists interested in social and cultural dimensions of economic life, and alternative approaches to economic life, political economists, political scientists and historians.

    • Social Science

Chaos of Disciplines


Author: Andrew Abbott
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226001059
Category: Social Science
Page: 248
View: 6597
In this vital new study, Andrew Abbott presents a fresh and daring analysis of the evolution and development of the social sciences. Chaos of Disciplines reconsiders how knowledge actually changes and advances. Challenging the accepted belief that social sciences are in a perpetual state of progress, Abbott contends that disciplines instead cycle around an inevitable pattern of core principles. New schools of thought, then, are less a reaction to an established order than they are a reinvention of fundamental concepts. Chaos of Disciplines uses fractals to explain the patterns of disciplines, and then applies them to key debates that surround the social sciences. Abbott argues that knowledge in different disciplines is organized by common oppositions that function at any level of theoretical or methodological scale. Opposing perspectives of thought and method, then, in fields ranging from history, sociology, and literature, are to the contrary, radically similar; much like fractals, they are each mutual reflections of their own distinctions.

    • History

Gogo Breeze

Zambia’s Radio Elder and the Voices of Free Speech
Author: Harri Englund
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022649893X
Category: History
Page: 288
View: 4012
Being Gogo Breeze -- Mass-mediated elderhood -- The grandfather's voices -- Obligations on and off air -- On air: beyond charity -- Off air: private service -- Women and children -- Between feminisms and paternalisms -- Children's voices -- Coda -- Radio obligations -- Appendix A: confronting mill owners -- Appendix B: helping Miriam Nkhoma