• Science

How to Read and Critique a Scientific Research Article:

Notes to Guide Students Reading Primary Literature (with Teaching Tips for Faculty Members)
Author: Foong May Yeong
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company
ISBN: 9814579181
Category: Science
Page: 336
View: 2523
Given the explosion of information and knowledge in the field of Life Sciences, adapting primary literature as materials in course work as part of active learning seems to be more effective in improving scientific literacy among science undergraduates than the pure transmission of content knowledge using traditional textbooks. In addition, students also read research articles as part of undertaking laboratory research projects useful for preparing them for graduate school. As such, a good grasp of reading and analytical skills is needed for students to understand how their research project contributes to the field that they are working in. Such skills are being taught at UK and USA universities. In Asia, this approach in teaching has not yet been as widespread, although similar ideas are beginning to be used in education. Written as a quick guide for undergraduate students and faculty members dealing with scientific research articles as part of a module or research project, this book will be useful, especially in Asia, for students and faculty members as the universities look to incorporating the use of scientific research articles in their undergraduate teaching. For Life Science students, the first time they encounter a primary literature can be rather daunting, though with proper guidance, they can overcome the initial difficulties and become confident in dealing with scientific articles. This guidebook provides a structured approach to reading a research article, guiding the reader step-by-step through each section, with tips on how to look out for key points and how to evaluate each section. Overall, by helping undergraduate students to overcome their anxieties in reading scientific literature, the book will enable the students to appreciate better the process of scientific investigations and how knowledge is derived in science.

    • Education

Reading Primary Literature

A Practical Guide to Evaluating Research Articles in Biology
Author: Christopher M. Gillen
Publisher: Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Company
ISBN: 9780805345995
Category: Education
Page: 44
View: 7622
Reading primary literature is an exciting, rewarding part of being a scientist and Reading Primary Literature will help get readers up to speed quickly in reading research articles. The booklet covers the parts of a research paper, succinctly explaining the aim of each section and how the paper works as a whole, and as a part of the larger world of science. Readers select a paper to evaluate, and this book guides them through that evaluation with clear explanations, directions for reading and analyzing the material, and applied questions to encourage critical reading skills. A list of sources and references at the back helps readers get started finding papers to read. For all readers interested in get readers up to speed quickly in reading scientific research articles.

    • Education

How People Learn

Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition
Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences,Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning with additional material from the Committee on Learning Research and Educational Practice
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309131979
Category: Education
Page: 384
View: 4477
First released in the Spring of 1999, How People Learn has been expanded to show how the theories and insights from the original book can translate into actions and practice, now making a real connection between classroom activities and learning behavior. This edition includes far-reaching suggestions for research that could increase the impact that classroom teaching has on actual learning. Like the original edition, this book offers exciting new research about the mind and the brain that provides answers to a number of compelling questions. When do infants begin to learn? How do experts learn and how is this different from non-experts? What can teachers and schools do-with curricula, classroom settings, and teaching methods--to help children learn most effectively? New evidence from many branches of science has significantly added to our understanding of what it means to know, from the neural processes that occur during learning to the influence of culture on what people see and absorb. How People Learn examines these findings and their implications for what we teach, how we teach it, and how we assess what our children learn. The book uses exemplary teaching to illustrate how approaches based on what we now know result in in-depth learning. This new knowledge calls into question concepts and practices firmly entrenched in our current education system. Topics include: How learning actually changes the physical structure of the brain. How existing knowledge affects what people notice and how they learn. What the thought processes of experts tell us about how to teach. The amazing learning potential of infants. The relationship of classroom learning and everyday settings of community and workplace. Learning needs and opportunities for teachers. A realistic look at the role of technology in education.

    • Study Aids

The Literature Review

A Step-by-Step Guide for Students
Author: Diana Ridley
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1446201430
Category: Study Aids
Page: 214
View: 4497
This Second Edition of Diana Ridley’s bestselling guide to the literature review outlines practical strategies for reading and note taking, and guides the reader on how to conduct a systematic search of the available literature, and uses cases and examples throughout to demonstrate best practice in writing and presenting the review. New to this edition are examples drawn from a wide range of disciplines, a new chapter on conducting a systematic review, increased coverage of issues of evaluating quality and conducting reviews using online sources and online literature and enhanced guidance in dealing with copyright and permissions issues.

    • Education

Reading At University

A Guide for Students
Author: Fairbairn, Gavin,Fairbairn, Susan
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)
ISBN: 033520385X
Category: Education
Page: 209
View: 9822
Reading as a student demands new skills and new disciplines. Students must read. They must read to inform themselves about the subjects they are studying and to allow them to write assignments, reports and dissertations. Though most students can read fairly well, few can make as much or as efficient use as possible of the time they devote to reading for academic purposes. Many guides to study offer a pot pourri of techniques for improving reading skills. None gives as full a treatment of this essential and underpinning area of academic life as Reading at University. The authors believe that students must change both the ways in which they read and the ways in which they think about reading. This book offers effective and efficient strategies for fulfilling students' reading and study potential.

    • Education

The New Science of Learning

How to Learn in Harmony With Your Brain
Author: Terry Doyle,Todd Zakrajsek
Publisher: Stylus Publishing, LLC
ISBN: 162036011X
Category: Education
Page: 136
View: 8514
Learning to learn is the key skill for tomorrow. This breakthrough book builds the foundation every student needs, from freshman orientation to graduate school Recent advances in brain science show that most students’ learning strategies are highly inefficient, ineffective or just plain wrong. While all learning requires effort, better learning does not require more effort, but rather effectively aligning how the brain naturally learns with the demands of your studies. This book shows you what is involved in learning new material, how the human brain processes new information, and what it takes for that information to stick with you even after the test. Taking a small amount of time to read and act upon the material in this book will prove to be one of the best decisions you can make as a learner. What you discover will change the way you learn in college and will be helpful in your personal and professional life. You live in a world where you will have to be a lifelong learner, constantly updating your skills and changing jobs to compete in the global marketplace. Most college students today will have as many as 10-14 different jobs by age 38. Learning how to learn in harmony with your brain is crucial to your long-term success. This succinct book explains straightforward strategies for changing how you prepare to learn, engage with your course material, and set about improving recall of newly learned material whenever you need it. This is not another book about study skills and time management strategies, but instead an easy-to-read description of the research about how the human brain learns in a way that you can put into practice right away. Did you know neuroscientists have shown that memories are made while you sleep, and by studying right before sleeping you can make stronger memories for your information? In this book the authors explain the role that sleep, exercise and your senses play in learning; how memory works and what makes the brain pay attention; the importance of your mindset towards learning and pattern recognition; as well as new breakthroughs in brain science that can enhance your ability to learn new information and make later recall (for tests or everyday life) easier. This book will put you on the path to reaching your full learning potential.

    • Science

How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper


Author: Robert Day,Barbara Gastel
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107670748
Category: Science
Page: 300
View: 9208
An essential guide for succeeding in today's competitive environment, this book provides beginning scientists and experienced researchers with practical advice on writing about their work and getting published. This new, updated edition discusses the latest print and Internet resources. Preparing, submitting and publishing scientific papers is now largely electronic, and the book has been revised to reflect this. New material includes more information on including supplementary material online, using reference management software, and preparing tables and figures; expanded sections on structuring a discussion section and the strengths and limitations of the research; and additional material on international aspects of scientific writing. The book guides readers through the processes involved in writing and publishing for scientific journals, from choosing a suitable journal to presenting results and citing references. It covers ethical issues in scientific publishing; explains rights and permissions; and discusses writing grant proposals, giving presentations and writing for general audiences.

    • Language Arts & Disciplines

MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing


Author: Modern Language Association of America
Publisher: Modern Language Assn of Amer
ISBN: N.A
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 336
View: 2790
Provides information on stylistic aspects of research papers, theses, and dissertations, including sections on writing fundamentals, MLA documentation style, and copyright law.

    • Language Arts & Disciplines

Especially for teachers

ERIC documents on the teaching of writing, 1966-1981
Author: ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills,National Institute of Education (U.S.)
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 175
View: 5245

    • Education

Preparing Teachers:

Building Evidence for Sound Policy
Author: Committee on the Study of Teacher Preparation Programs in the United States,Board on Testing and Assessment,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309128056
Category: Education
Page: 234
View: 374
Teachers make a difference. The success of any plan for improving educational outcomes depends on the teachers who carry it out and thus on the abilities of those attracted to the field and their preparation. Yet there are many questions about how teachers are being prepared and how they ought to be prepared. Yet, teacher preparation is often treated as an afterthought in discussions of improving the public education system. Preparing Teachers addresses the issue of teacher preparation with specific attention to reading, mathematics, and science. The book evaluates the characteristics of the candidates who enter teacher preparation programs, the sorts of instruction and experiences teacher candidates receive in preparation programs, and the extent that the required instruction and experiences are consistent with converging scientific evidence. Preparing Teachers also identifies a need for a data collection model to provide valid and reliable information about the content knowledge, pedagogical competence, and effectiveness of graduates from the various kinds of teacher preparation programs. Federal and state policy makers need reliable, outcomes-based information to make sound decisions, and teacher educators need to know how best to contribute to the development of effective teachers. Clearer understanding of the content and character of effective teacher preparation is critical to improving it and to ensuring that the same critiques and questions are not being repeated 10 years from now.

    • Education

A Handbook for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education

Enhancing academic practice
Author: Heather Fry,Steve Ketteridge,Stephanie Marshall
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317650220
Category: Education
Page: 452
View: 904
This entirely new edition of a very successful book focuses on developing professional academic skills for supporting and supervising student learning and effective teaching. It is built on the premise that the roles of those who teach in higher education are complex and multi-faceted. A Handbook for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education is sensitive to the competing demands of teaching, research, scholarship, and academic management. The new edition reflects and responds to the rapidly changing context of higher education and to current understanding of how to best support student learning. Drawing together a large number of expert authors, it continues to feature extensive use of case studies that show how successful teachers have implemented these ideas. It includes key topics such as student engagement and motivation, internationalisation, employability, inclusive strategies for teaching, effective use of technology and issues relating to postgraduate students and student retention. Part 1 explores a number of aspects of the context of UK higher education that affect the education of students, looking at the drivers of institutional behaviours and how to achieve success as a university teacher. Part 2 examines learning, teaching and supervising in higher education and includes chapters on working with diversity, encouraging independent learning and learning gain. Part 3 considers approaches to teaching and learning in different disciplines, covering a full range including arts and humanities, social sciences, experimental sciences through to medicine and dentistry. Written to support the excellence in teaching and learning design required to bring about student learning of the highest quality, this will be essential reading for all new lecturers, particularly anyone taking an accredited course in teaching and learning in higher education, as well as those experienced lecturers who wish to improve their teaching practice. Those working in adult learning and educational development will also find the book to be a particularly useful resource. In addition it will appeal to staff who support learning and teaching in various other roles.

    • Education

Resources in Education


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Education
Page: N.A
View: 8001

    • Education

Essential Questions

Opening Doors to Student Understanding
Author: Jay McTighe,Grant Wiggins
Publisher: ASCD
ISBN: 1416615709
Category: Education
Page: 119
View: 1492
What are "essential questions," and how do they differ from other kinds of questions? What's so great about them? Why should you design and use essential questions in your classroom? Essential questions (EQs) help target standards as you organize curriculum content into coherent units that yield focused and thoughtful learning. In the classroom, EQs are used to stimulate students' discussions and promote a deeper understanding of the content. Whether you are an Understanding by Design (UbD) devotee or are searching for ways to address standards--local or Common Core State Standards--in an engaging way, Jay McTighe and Grant Wiggins provide practical guidance on how to design, initiate, and embed inquiry-based teaching and learning in your classroom. Offering dozens of examples, the authors explore the usefulness of EQs in all K-12 content areas, including skill-based areas such as math, PE, language instruction, and arts education. As an important element of their backward design approach to designing curriculum, instruction, and assessment, the authors *Give a comprehensive explanation of why EQs are so important; *Explore seven defining characteristics of EQs; *Distinguish between topical and overarching questions and their uses; *Outline the rationale for using EQs as the focal point in creating units of study; and *Show how to create effective EQs, working from sources including standards, desired understandings, and student misconceptions. Using essential questions can be challenging--for both teachers and students--and this book provides guidance through practical and proven processes, as well as suggested "response strategies" to encourage student engagement. Finally, you will learn how to create a culture of inquiry so that all members of the educational community--students, teachers, and administrators--benefit from the increased rigor and deepened understanding that emerge when essential questions become a guiding force for learners of all ages.

    • Reference

Handling Qualitative Data

A Practical Guide
Author: Lyn Richards
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1848602189
Category: Reference
Page: 216
View: 8114
This new edition of Lyn Richards' best-selling book provides an accessible introduction to qualitative research for students and practitioners. Recognizing that for many new researchers dealing with data is the main point of departure, this book helps them to acquire a progressive understanding of the skills and methodological issues that are central to qualitative research. This second edition features increased coverage of ethical implications, preparing for data collection and reflecting on the nature of data, and there is also a brand new website, offering live, detailed case studies and a software guide with links to information and tutorials in several products.

    • Medical

Essentials of Nursing Research, Denise F. Polit, 7th Edition, 2010

Nursing Research
Author: Wolters Kluwer, Inc
Publisher: Bukupedia
ISBN: 0781781531
Category: Medical
Page: 626
View: 2336
This book marks the seventh time we have worked on this textbook, which is designed to teach students how to read research reports and critique the methods used in nursing studies. It is perhaps difficult to imagine that writing a seventh edition of a textbook on research methods could be fun—but that is exactly the right word to describe our experience in working on this new edition. We have made many changes to the content and organization of this textbook, and the revisions kept our enthusiasm and energy for this project at a very high level. We are confident that we have introduced numerous improvements—but at the same time, we have retained many features that have made this book a classic throughout the world. We think that this edition will make it easier and more satisfying for nurses to pursue a professional pathway that incorporates thoughtful appraisals of evidence. NEW TO THIS EDITION Up-front, Consistent Emphasis on Evidence-Based Practice To an even greater extent than in the past, we emphasize in this edition that research is a crucial enterprise for building an evidence base for nursing practice. We have given the topic of evidence-based practice (EBP) greater prominence by making the chapter on EBP the second chapter of the book (previously the last chapter), and by expanding its content. We emphasize throughout that high-quality evidence is a product of researchers’ decisions in designing and executing a study. Every chapter offers guidance on how to appraise research evidence for its utility in informing nurses’ clinical decisions. We have also added a new chapter on how to read, interpret, and critique systematic reviews, which are considered by many to be a cornerstone of EBP. The Study Guide that supplements this textbook includes a full report of an EBP project. The increased focus on EBP prompted us to modify the book’s title to emphasize the important link between research and evidence. New Material Relating to Medical Research Methodology Nurse researchers have tended to use methods and jargon that originated in the social sciences, but the push for EBP in medicine has led to methodologic innovations that are relevant to all healthcare research. Moreover, nurses can profit from familiarity with medical research terms and approaches so they can comfortably read articles in a broad range of health care journals. This edition offers a more balanced presentation of medical and social science methods and nomenclature. Improved Content on Qualitative Methods In every new edition we have expanded content on qualitative research methods, and this edition is no exception. We are especially pleased to include a new chapter P R E F A C E vii on the issue of quality and trustworthiness in qualitative inquiry, Chapter 18. We believe that the content and breadth of this important chapter is unparalleled in other general textbooks on research methods for nurses. Greater Assistance With Interpretation Many books on research methods describe the techniques used to generate evidence, but they typically offer little or no guidance on interpreting research results. We have made efforts to address this deficiency by offering an interpretive framework for both quantitative (Chapter 16) and qualitative (Chapter 18) research. Additional Support for Research Appraisals—The Toolkit Each chapter of the book includes questions to aid students in reading and appraising research journal articles. In this edition, these critiquing guidelines are also available on the accompanying Student CD-ROM and . With electronic files of these resources, students can download the guidelines, adapt them as needed, and then enter their answers to the questions directly, without having to photocopy pages from the book. Many faculty have told us that the general critiquing guidelines (which we have put in an earlier chapter than in previous editions) are useful as handouts, and now they are more readily accessible. ORGANIZATION OF THE TEXT The content of this edition is organized into five main parts. * Part I—Overview of Nursing Research and Its Role in Evidence-Based Practice introduces fundamental concepts in nursing research. Chapter 1 summarizes the history and future of nursing research, discusses the philosophical underpinnings of qualitative research versus quantitative research, and describes major purposes of nursing research. Chapter 2 offers guidance on using research to build an EBP. Chapter 3 introduces readers to key research terms, and presents an overview of steps in the research process for both qualitative and quantitative studies. Chapter 4 focuses on research reports, explaining what they are and how to read them. Chapter 5 discusses ethics in nursing studies. * Part II—Preliminary Steps in the Appraisal of Evidence further sets the stage for learning about the research process by considering aspects of a study’s conceptualization. Chapter 6 focuses on the development of research questions and the formulation of research hypotheses. Chapter 7 discusses how to prepare and critique literature reviews. Chapter 8 presents information about theoretical and conceptual frameworks. * Part III—Designs for Nursing Research presents material on the design of qualitative and quantitative nursing studies. Chapter 9 describes some fundamental design principles and discusses many specific aspects of quantitative research design. Chapter 10 viii PREFACE addresses the various research traditions that have contributed to the growth of naturalistic inquiry and qualitative research. Chapter 11 provides an introduction to some specific types of research (e.g., evaluations, surveys, secondary analyses), and also describes mixed method studies that integrate qualitative and quantitative components. Chapter 12 introduces designs for sampling study participants. * Part IV—Data Collection concerns the gathering of data to address research questions. Chapter 13 discusses a range of data collection options for nurse researchers, including both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Chapter 14 describes the concept of measurement and criteria for assessing data quality in quantitative studies. * Part V—Data Analysis and Interpretation discusses analytic methods for qualitative and quantitative research. Chapter 15 reviews methods of quantitative analysis. The chapter assumes no prior instruction in statistics and focuses primarily on helping readers to understand why statistics are needed, what tests might be appropriate in a given situation, and what statistical information in a research report means. Chapter 16 discusses ways of appraising rigor in quantitative studies, and approaches to interpreting statistical results. Chapter 17 presents a discussion of qualitative analysis, with an emphasis on ethnographies, phenomenologic studies, and grounded theory studies. Chapter 18 elaborates on criteria for appraising integrity and quality in qualitative studies. Finally, Chapter 19 describes systematic reviews, including how to understand and appraise both meta-analyses and metasyntheses. KEY FEATURES This edition, like its predecessors, is focused on the art—and science—of research critiques. It offers guidance to students who are learning to appraise research reports and use research findings in practice. Among the basic principles that helped to shape this and earlier editions of this book are (1) an assumption that competence in doing and appraising research are critical to the nursing profession; (2) a conviction that research inquiry is intellectually and professionally rewarding to nurses; and (3) an unswerving belief that learning about research methods need be neither intimidating nor dull. Consistent with these principles, we have tried to present research fundamentals in a way that both facilitates understanding and arouses curiosity and interest. General Features We have retained many of the key features that were successfully used in previous editions to assist consumers of nursing research: * Clear, “User-Friendly” Style. Our writing style is designed to be easily digestible and nonintimidating. Concepts are introduced carefully and systematically, difficult ideas are presented clearly, and readers are assumed to have no prior knowledge of technical terms. PREFACE ix * Critiquing Guidelines. Each chapter includes guidelines for conducting a critique of various aspects of a research report. The guidelines sections provide a list of questions that walk students through a study, drawing attention to aspects of the study that are amenable to appraisal by research consumers. Electronic versions of the guidelines are available on the accompanying student CD-ROM and thePoint. * Research Examples. Each chapter concludes with one or two actual research examples designed to highlight critical points made in the chapter and to sharpen the reader’s critical thinking skills. In addition, many research examples are used to illustrate key points in the text and to stimulate students’ thinking about areas of research inquiry. We have chosen many international examples to communicate to students that nursing research is growing in importance worldwide. * Tips for Consumers. The textbook is filled with practical guidance and “tips” on how to translate the abstract notions of research methods into more concrete applications. In these tips, we have paid special attention to helping students read research reports, which are often daunting to those without specialized research training. * Graphics. Colorful graphics, in the form of supportive tables, figures, and examples, reinforce the text and offer visual stimulation. Features for Student Learning We have used many features to enhance and reinforce learning—and, especially, to facilitate the development of critiquing skills. These include the following: * Student Objectives. Learning objectives are identified in the chapter opener to focus students’ attention on critical content. * Key Terms. New terms are defined in context (and bolded) when used for the first time in the text. Each chapter concludes with a list of new terms, and we have made the list less daunting by including only key new terms. A glossary at the end of the book provides additional support for those needing to look up the meaning of a methodologic term. * Bulleted Summary Points. A succinct list of summary points that focus on salient chapter content is included at the end of each chapter. * Full-Length Research Articles. In this edition, the textbook includes four recent fulllength studies—two quantitative and two qualitative—that students can read, analyze, and critique. Two appear in the appendices of the textbook, and two are on the CD-ROM packaged with the book and thePoint. * Critiquing Supports. Each chapter of the textbook concludes with “Critical Thinking Activities”—exercises that provide opportunities to practice critiquing. Some exercises are based on the studies that are included in their entirety in the appendices of the book, while others are based on studies that are summarized at the end of the chapters. Importantly, students can then consult the accompanying CD-ROM and thePoint to find our “answers” (our expert thoughts about each question), so that students can get immediate feedback about their grasp of material in the chapter. (In some cases, there are also thoughtful comments by the actual researchers who conducted the studies). This edition x PREFACE also includes full critiques of the two studies on the CD-ROM and thePoint, which students can use as models for a comprehensive research critique. Many more critiquing opportunities are available in the Study Guide, which includes seven studies in their entirety in the appendices and exercises in each chapter that guide students in reading, understanding, and critiquing these studies. TEACHING-LEARNING PACKAGE Essentials of Nursing Research: Appraising Evidence for Nursing Practice, seventh edition, has an ancillary package designed with both students and instructors in mind. * The Study Guide augments the text and provides students with application exercises for each text chapter. Critiquing skills are emphasized, but there are also activities to support the learning of fundamental research terms and principles. Seven recent studies— including one report of an EBP project—are included in the appendices, and many chapter exercises are based on these studies. The studies represent a range of research types, including a clinical trial, a survey, an evaluation of an EBP project, a grounded theory study, a feminist study, a meta-analysis, and a metasynthesis. * Free CD-ROM. The textbook includes a CD-ROM that has many important resources. First, as noted, we provide our answers to the Critical Thinking Activities from the textbook. Critiquing guidelines for each chapter, as well as some other resources, are included as a toolkit in electronic files for downloading, adapting, and printing. Next, the CD-ROM provides hundreds of review questions to assist students in self-testing. This review program provides a rationale for both correct and incorrect answers, helping students to identify areas of strength and areas needing further study. Finally, the CD-ROM has lists of relevant and useful websites for each chapter, which can be “clicked” on directly without having to retype the URL and risk a typographical error. All of these resources are also available on thePoint. * The Instructor’s Resource CD-ROM (IRCD) includes a chapter corresponding to every chapter in the textbook. Each IRCD chapter contains the following: Statement of Intent, Special Class Projects, Answers to Selected Study Guide Exercises, and Test Questions and Answers. In the special class projects, we offer opportunities for students to develop a quantitative and (or) a qualitative data set. With regard to test questions to evaluate student learning, we offer multiple choice and true/false questions and, importantly, we have added questions specifically designed to test students’ ability to comprehend research reports. In addition, PowerPoint slides summarizing key points in each chapter are available in a format that permits easy adaptation. All of this content is also available on thePoint. It is our hope and expectation that the content, style, and organization of this seventh edition of Essentials of Nursing Research will be helpful to those students desiring to become skillful and thoughtful readers of nursing studies and to those wishing to enhance their clinical performance based on research findings. We also hope that this textbook will help to develop an enthusiasm for the kinds of discoveries and knowledge that research can produce. PREFACE xi xii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This seventh edition, like the previous six editions, depended on the contribution of many generous people. Many faculty and students who used the text have made invaluable suggestions for its improvement, and to all of you we are very grateful. Suggestions were made to us both directly in personal interactions (mostly at the University of Connecticut and Griffith University in Australia), and via the wonderful communication tool of email correspondence. In addition to all those who assisted us during the past three decades with the earlier editions, there are some who deserve special mention for this new work. We would like to acknowledge the comments of the reviewers of the previous edition of Essentials, whose anonymous feedback influenced our revisions. Several of the comments triggered several important changes, and for this we are indebted. Other individuals made specific contributions. Although it would be impossible to mention all, we note with thanks the nurse researchers who shared their work with us as we developed examples, including work that in some cases was not yet published. Through the Internet, we worked with authors of the reports that appear in the appendices. We shared with them our critiques and “answers” to the critiquing exercises to make sure that we had not misread or misinterpreted their reports, and they gave generously of their time in reviewing our material. Special thanks to Carol Howell, Marti Rice, Linda Walsh, and Michael McGillion for their help. We also got extraordinary cooperation from the authors of studies that were summarized at the end of the chapters, and we are grateful to them all. We extend our warm thanks as well to those who helped to turn the manuscript into a finished product. The staff at Lippincott Williams & Wilkins has been of tremendous assistance in the support they have given us over the years. We are indebted to Hilarie Surrena, Helen Kogut, Mary Kinsella, Annette Ferran, Joan Wendt, and all the others behind the scenes for their fine contributions. Finally, we thank our family, our loved ones, and our friends, who provided ongoing support and encouragement throughout this endeavor and who were tolerant when we worked long into the night, over weekends, and during holidays to get this seventh

    • Medical

How to Read a Paper

The Basics of Evidence-Based Medicine
Author: Trisha Greenhalgh
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111880113X
Category: Medical
Page: 288
View: 8100
The best-selling introduction to evidence-based medicine In a clear and engaging style, How to Read a Paper demystifies evidence-based medicine and explains how to critically appraise published research and also put the findings into practice. An ideal introduction to evidence-based medicine, How to Read a Paper explains what to look for in different types of papers and how best to evaluate the literature and then implement the findings in an evidence-based, patient-centred way. Helpful checklist summaries of the key points in each chapter provide a useful framework for applying the principles of evidence-based medicine in everyday practice. This fifth edition has been fully updated with new examples and references to reflect recent developments and current practice. It also includes two new chapters on applying evidence-based medicine with patients and on the common criticisms of evidence-based medicine and responses. How to Read a Paper is a standard text for medical and nursing schools as well as a friendly guide for everyone wanting to teach or learn the basics of evidence-based medicine.

    • History

The Whites of Their Eyes

The Tea Party's Revolution and the Battle over American History
Author: Jill Lepore
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400839810
Category: History
Page: 232
View: 5407
Americans have always put the past to political ends. The Union laid claim to the Revolution--so did the Confederacy. Civil rights leaders said they were the true sons of liberty--so did Southern segregationists. This book tells the story of the centuries-long struggle over the meaning of the nation's founding, including the battle waged by the Tea Party, Glenn Beck, Sarah Palin, and evangelical Christians to "take back America." Jill Lepore, Harvard historian and New Yorker staff writer, offers a careful and concerned look at American history according to the far right, from the "rant heard round the world," which launched the Tea Party, to the Texas School Board's adoption of a social-studies curriculum that teaches that the United States was established as a Christian nation. Along the way, she provides rare insight into the eighteenth-century struggle for independence--a history of the Revolution, from the archives. Lepore traces the roots of the far right's reactionary history to the bicentennial in the 1970s, when no one could agree on what story a divided nation should tell about its unruly beginnings. Behind the Tea Party's Revolution, she argues, lies a nostalgic and even heartbreaking yearning for an imagined past--a time less troubled by ambiguity, strife, and uncertainty--a yearning for an America that never was. The Whites of Their Eyes reveals that the far right has embraced a narrative about America's founding that is not only a fable but is also, finally, a variety of fundamentalism--anti-intellectual, antihistorical, and dangerously antipluralist. In a new afterword, Lepore addresses both the recent shift in Tea Party rhetoric from the Revolution to the Constitution and the diminished role of scholars as political commentators over the last half century of public debate.

    • Language Arts & Disciplines

MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing


Author: Joseph Gibaldi,Walter S. Achtert
Publisher: Modern Language Assn of Amer
ISBN: N.A
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 343
View: 2379
Provides information on stylistic aspects of research papers, theses, and dissertations, including sections on writing fundamentals, MLA documentation style, and copyright law

    • Biology

Federation Proceedings


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Biology
Page: N.A
View: 663