• Technology & Engineering

Hydrothermal Processes at Seafloor Spreading Centers


Author: Peter A. Rona,Kurt Boström,Lucien Laubier,Kenneth L. Smith
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1489904026
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 796
View: 8184
During the past ten years, evidence has developed to indicate that seawater convects through oceanic crust driven by heat derived from creation of lithosphere at the Earth-encircling oceanic ridge-rift system of seafloor spreading centers. This has stimulated multiple lines of research with profound implications for the earth and life sciences. The lines of research comprise the role of hydrothermal convection at seafloor spreading centers in the Earth's thermal regime by cooling of newly formed litho sphere (oceanic crust and upper mantle); in global geochemical cycles and mass balances of certain elements by chemical exchange between circulating seawater and basaltic rocks of oceanic crust; in the concentration of metallic mineral deposits by ore-forming processes; and in adaptation of biological communities based on a previously unrecognized form of chemosynthesis. The first work shop devoted to interdisciplinary consideration of this field was organized by a committee consisting of the co-editors of this volume under the auspices of a NATO Advanced Research Institute (ARI) held 5-8 April 1982 at the Department of Earth Sciences of Cambridge University in England. This volume is a product of that workshop. The papers were written by members of a pioneering research community of marine geologists, geophysicists, geochemists and biologists whose work is at the stage of initial description and interpretation of hydrothermal and associated phenomena at seafloor spreading centers.

    • Science

Hydrothermal Processes and Mineral Systems


Author: Franco Pirajno
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 140208613X
Category: Science
Page: 1250
View: 1428
Hydrothermal processes on Earth have played an important role in the evolution of our planet. These processes link the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere in continuously evolving dynamic systems. Terrestrial hydrothermal processes have been active since water condensed to form the hydrosphere, most probably from about 4.4 Ga. The circulation of hot aqueous solution (hydrothermal systems) at, and below, the Earth’s surface is ultimately driven by magmatic heat. This book presents an in-depth review of hydrothermal proceses and systems that form beneath the oceans and in intracontinental rifts, continental margins and magmatic arcs. The interaction of hydrothermal fluids with rockwalls, the hydrophere and the biophere, together with changes in their composition through time and space, contribute to the formation of a wide range of mineral deposit types and associated wallrock alteration. On Earth, sites of hydrothermal activity support varied ecosystems based on a range of chemotrophic microorganisms both at surface and in the subsurface. This book also provides an overview of hydrothermal systems associated with meteorite impacts and explores the possibility that hydrothermal processes operate on other terrestrial planets, such as Mars, or satellites of the outer planets such as Titan and Europa. Possible analogues of extraterrestrial putative hydrothermal processes pose the intriguing question of whether primitive life, as we know it, may exist or existed in these planetary bodies. Audience: This volume will be of interest to scientists and researchers in geosciences and life sciences departments, as well as to professionals and scientists involved in mining and mineral exploration.

    • Science

Hydrothermal Mineral Deposits

Principles and Fundamental Concepts for the Exploration Geologist
Author: Franco Pirajno
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642756719
Category: Science
Page: 709
View: 6122
This book is intended primarily for exploration geologists and post graduate students attending specialist courses in mineral exploration. Exploration geologists are engaged not only in the search for new mineral deposits, but also in the extension and re-assessment of existing ones. To succeed in these tasks, the exploration geologist is required to be a "generalist" of the Earth sciences rather than a specialist. The exploration geologist needs to be familiar with most aspects of the geology of ore deposits, and detailed knowledge as well as experience play an all important role in the successful exploration for mineral commodities. In order to achieve this, it is essential that the exploration geologist be up to date with the latest developments in the evolution of concepts and ideas in the Earth sciences. This is no easy task, as thousands of publications appear every year in an ever increasing number of journals, periodicals and books. For this reason it is also difficult, at times, to locate appropriate references on a particular mineral deposit type, although this problem is alleviated by the existence of large bibliographic data bases of geological records, abstracts and papers on computers. During my teaching to explorationists and, indeed, during my years of work as an explorationist, the necessity of having a text dealing with the fundamental aspects of hydrothermal mineral deposits has always been compelling. Metallic mineral deposits can be categorised into three great families, namely: (I) magmatic; (2) sedimentary and residual; (3) hydrothermal.

    • Science

The Eternal Darkness

A Personal History of Deep-Sea Exploration
Author: Robert D. Ballard,Will Hively
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691095547
Category: Science
Page: 388
View: 9587
The man who discovered the wreck of the Titanic looks back on a career spent mostly underwater looking for sunken ships and exploring volcanic cracks in the ocean floor to confirm the theory of plate tectonics.


    • Science

Magma to Microbe

Modeling Hydrothermal Processes at Oceanic Spreading Centers
Author: Robert P. Lowell,Jeffrey S. Seewald,Anna Metaxas,Michael R. Perfit
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118671899
Category: Science
Page: 285
View: 408
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 178. Hydrothermal systems at oceanic spreading centers reflect the complex interactions among transport, cooling and crystallization of magma, fluid circulation in the crust, tectonic processes, water-rock interaction, and the utilization of hydrothermal fluids as a metabolic energy source by microbial and macro-biological ecosystems. The development of mathematical and numerical models that address these complex linkages is a fundamental part the RIDGE 2000 program that attempts to quantify and model the transfer of heat and chemicals from "mantle to microbes" at oceanic ridges. This volume presents the first "state of the art" picture of model development in this context. The most outstanding feature of this volume is its emphasis on mathematical and numerical modeling of a broad array of hydrothermal processes associated with oceanic spreading centers. By examining the state of model development in one volume, both cross-fertilization of ideas and integration across the disparate disciplines that study seafloor hydrothermal systems is facilitated. Students and scientists with an interest in oceanic spreading centers in general and more specifically in ridge hydrothermal processes will find this volume to be an up-to-date and indispensable resource.


    • Science

Global Environment

Water, Air, and Geochemical Cycles, Second Edition
Author: Elizabeth Kay Berner,Robert A. Berner
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 140084276X
Category: Science
Page: 488
View: 9903
This newly revised edition of Global Environment discusses the major elements of the geochemical cycles and global fluxes found in the atmosphere, land, lakes, rivers, biota, and oceans, as well as the human effects on these fluxes. Retaining the strengths of the original edition while incorporating the latest discoveries, this textbook takes an integrated, multidisciplinary, and global approach to geochemistry and environmental problems and introduces fundamental concepts of meteorology, surficial geology (weathering, erosion, and sedimentation), biogeochemistry, limnology, and oceanography. New concepts and information in this updated edition include changes of atmospheric carbon dioxide over geologic time, major advances in the study of chemical weathering of rocks, ocean acidification, and important environmental problems, such as the amelioration of the acid rain problem due to reduction in sulfur deposition, problems with nitrification of soils and lakes, and eutrophication of rivers and estuaries. An expanded chapter explores atmospheric chemistry and changing climate, with the most up-to-date statistics on CO2, the carbon cycle, other greenhouse gases, and the ozone hole. Only requiring a fundamental understanding in elementary chemistry, yet taking into account extensive and current data, this text is ideal for students in environmental geochemistry, environmental geology, global change, biogeochemistry, water pollution, geochemical cycles, chemical oceanography, and geohydrology, and serves as a valuable reference for researchers working on global geochemical and environmental issues. Revised edition takes a close look at global fluxes involving the atmosphere, land, lakes, rivers, biota, and oceans, and the human effects on these fluxes Detailed discussion of basic concepts including meteorology, surficial geology (weathering, erosion, and sedimentation), biogeochemistry, limnology, and oceanography An expanded up-to-date chapter on atmospheric chemistry and changing climate, including CO2, other greenhouse gases, and ozone Presentation of major advances in the study of chemical weathering Discussion of current environmental topics Global coverage of environmental problems involving water Some images inside the book are unavailable due to digital copyright restrictions.

    • Science

Oceanic Basalts


Author: P.A. Floyd
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401130426
Category: Science
Page: 456
View: 2617
Basalt is the most voluminous of all the igneous rocks. Extensive field, experimental, petrographic and geochemical studies of basalt have provided us with a considerable understanding of igneous petrogenesis, plate tectonics, and crust-mantle interaction and exchange. One important aspect of geology that has developed over the last few decades is the study of oceanic basalts. The ocean basins cover about two thirds of the earth's surface and are floored by a basement of oceanic basalt that is continuously undergoing generation at spreading centres and destruction at subduction zones, a process which throughout geological time is recognized as the principal means of generating new crust. The study of oceanic basalts enables us to understand better the generation and recycling of crustal materials (including the continental crust), and the exchange between oceanic crust and seawater via hydrothermal activity. Compositional variations displayed by oceanic basalts provide windows into the mantle, and the identification of isotopically-distinct mantle reservoirs demonstrates that the source of oceanic basalts is heterogeneous and is controlled by convection and reservoir interactions within the mantle.

    • Science

Offshore Site Investigation

Proceedings of an international conference, (Offshore Site Investigation), organized by the Society for Underwater Technology, and held in London, UK, 13 and 14 March 1985
Author: Society for Underwater Technology (SUT)
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401173583
Category: Science
Page: 316
View: 2449
c. P. Wroth, Oxford University, UK I am grateful to the Organising Committee that were covered on the first day. First, we for the invitation to attempt to sum up the had Dr Riemersma talking about positioning proceedings. Summing up is not really the requirements, and it seemed to me to be an appropriate phrase - it is a difficult job to unhappy reflection on human frailty that he do justice in a summary to the amount of was concentrating so much on the errors in material that has been presented over the the system and on the human factors that two days of the conference. Clearly, each led to trouble, emphasizing that the techni paper merits further individual attention in ques are vastly superior to the ability of the order to reflect on its content. What I am human beings who used them. Then, Dr going to say must necessarily be an unbal Palmer talked about a fascinating case his anced critique, because we are considering a tory of the Ocean Thermal Power Project; whole range of knowledge and experience in this was of particular interest because most a wide diversity of topics, and my comments of the other stories we heard were not so are bound to be biased by my own interests. specific and not about such a novel project.

    • Bouches hydrothermales - Pacifique, Océan

Hydrothermal Vents of the Eastern Pacific

An Overview
Author: Meredith L. Jones
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Bouches hydrothermales - Pacifique, Océan
Page: 547
View: 6919


    • Science

The Arctic Seas

Climatology, Oceanography, Geology, and Biology
Author: Yvonne Herman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461306779
Category: Science
Page: 888
View: 331
The Arctic region has long held a fascination for explorers and scientists of many countries. Despite the numerous voyages of exploration, the na ture of the central Arctic was unknown only 90 years ago; it was believed to be a shallow sea dotted with islands. During Nansen's historic voyage on the polarship Fram, which commenced in 1893, the great depth of the central basin was discovered. In the Soviet Union, investigation of the Arctic Ocean became national policy after 1917. Today research at several scientific institutions there is devoted primarily to the study of the North Polar Ocean and seas. The systematic exploration of the Arctic by the United States com menced in 1951. Research has been conducted year-round from drifting ice islands, which are tabular fragments of glacier ice that break away from ice shelves. Most frequently, ice islands originate off the northern coast of Ellesmere Island. These research platforms are occupied as weather sta tions, as well as for oceanographic and geophysical studies. Several inter national projects, conducted by Canadian, European, and U. S. groups, have been underway during the last three decades. Although much new data have accumulated since the publication of the Marine Geology and Oceanography of the Arctic Seas volume in 1974 (Yvonne Herman, ed. ), in various fields of polar research-including present-day ice cover, hydrogra phy, fauna, flora, and geology-many questions remain to be answered.


    • Nature

Discovering the Deep


Author: Jeffrey A. Karson,Daniel J. Fornari,Deborah S. Kelley,Michael R. Perfit,Timothy M. Shank
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 052185718X
Category: Nature
Page: 430
View: 4394
A beautifully illustrated reference providing fascinating insights into the hidden world of the seafloor using the latest deep-sea imaging.

    • Science

Marine Hydrothermal Systems and the Origin of Life

Report of SCOR Working Group 91
Author: N.G. Holm
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401127417
Category: Science
Page: 250
View: 6099
Research of the origins of life in connection with a marine environment started at the end of the seventies, when the `black smokers' in the Pacific were discovered and the Red Sea deep hydrothermal brines were found to be a fruitful environment for abiotic synthesis of life precursors. For a while this research was categorised under the heading `chemistry', but in less than a decade the topic became fully integrated into the science of 'oceanography'. The Scientific Committee on Oceanographic Research (SCOR) initiated Working Group 91: Chemical Evolution and Origin of Life in Marine Hydrothermal Systems'. This volume contains the final report of this working group.


    • Marine biology

Bulletin of Marine Science


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Marine biology
Page: N.A
View: 1160