• Medical

Interpreting Evidence

Evaluating Forensic Science in the Courtroom
Author: Bernard Robertson,G. A. Vignaux,Charles E. H. Berger
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118492463
Category: Medical
Page: 216
View: 1779
This book explains the correct logical approach to analysis of forensic scientific evidence. The focus is on general methods of analysis applicable to all forms of evidence. It starts by explaining the general principles and then applies them to issues in DNA and other important forms of scientific evidence as examples. Like the first edition, the book analyses real legal cases and judgments rather than hypothetical examples and shows how the problems perceived in those cases would have been solved by a correct logical approach. The book is written to be understood both by forensic scientists preparing their evidence and by lawyers and judges who have to deal with it. The analysis is tied back both to basic scientific principles and to the principles of the law of evidence. This book will also be essential reading for law students taking evidence or forensic science papers and science students studying the application of their scientific specialisation to forensic questions.

    • Medical

Interpreting Evidence

Evaluating Forensic Science in the Courtroom
Author: Bernard Robertson,G. A. Vignaux,Charles E. H. Berger
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111849248X
Category: Medical
Page: 214
View: 2236
This book explains the correct logical approach to analysis of forensic scientific evidence. The focus is on general methods of analysis applicable to all forms of evidence. It starts by explaining the general principles and then applies them to issues in DNA and other important forms of scientific evidence as examples. Like the first edition, the book analyses real legal cases and judgments rather than hypothetical examples and shows how the problems perceived in those cases would have been solved by a correct logical approach. The book is written to be understood both by forensic scientists preparing their evidence and by lawyers and judges who have to deal with it. The analysis is tied back both to basic scientific principles and to the principles of the law of evidence. This book will also be essential reading for law students taking evidence or forensic science papers and science students studying the application of their scientific specialisation to forensic questions.

    • Medical

Interpreting Evidence

Evaluating Forensic Science in the Courtroom
Author: Bernard Robertson,G. A. Vignaux,Charles E. H. Berger
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118492455
Category: Medical
Page: 216
View: 6192
This book explains the correct logical approach to analysis of forensic scientific evidence. The focus is on general methods of analysis applicable to all forms of evidence. It starts by explaining the general principles and then applies them to issues in DNA and other important forms of scientific evidence as examples. Like the first edition, the book analyses real legal cases and judgments rather than hypothetical examples and shows how the problems perceived in those cases would have been solved by a correct logical approach. The book is written to be understood both by forensic scientists preparing their evidence and by lawyers and judges who have to deal with it. The analysis is tied back both to basic scientific principles and to the principles of the law of evidence. This book will also be essential reading for law students taking evidence or forensic science papers and science students studying the application of their scientific specialisation to forensic questions.

    • Mathematics

Statistics and the Evaluation of Evidence for Forensic Scientists


Author: Colin Aitken,Franco Taroni
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 047001122X
Category: Mathematics
Page: 540
View: 4379
The first edition of Statistics and the Evaluation of Evidence for Forensic Scientists established itself as a highly regarded authority on this area. Fully revised and updated, the second edition provides significant new material on areas of current interest including: Glass Interpretation Fibres Interpretation Bayes’ Nets The title presents comprehensive coverage of the statistical evaluation of forensic evidence. It is written with the assumption of a modest mathematical background and is illustrated throughout with up-to-date examples from a forensic science background. The clarity of exposition makes this book ideal for all forensic scientists, lawyers and other professionals in related fields interested in the quantitative assessment and evaluation of evidence. 'There can be no doubt that the appreciation of some evidence in a court of law has been greatly enhanced by the sound use of statistical ideas and one can be confident that the next decade will see further developments, during which time this book will admirably serve those who have cause to use statistics in forensic science.' D.V. Lindley

    • Medical

Introduction to Statistics for Forensic Scientists


Author: David Lucy
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118700104
Category: Medical
Page: 272
View: 8742
Introduction to Statistics for Forensic Scientists is an essential introduction to the subject, gently guiding the reader through the key statistical techniques used to evaluate various types of forensic evidence. Assuming only a modest mathematical background, the book uses real-life examples from the forensic science literature and forensic case-work to illustrate relevant statistical concepts and methods. Opening with a brief overview of the history and use of statistics within forensic science, the text then goes on to introduce statistical techniques commonly used to examine data obtained during laboratory experiments. There is a strong emphasis on the evaluation of scientific observation as evidence and modern Bayesian approaches to interpreting forensic data for the courts. The analysis of key forms of evidence are discussed throughout with a particular focus on DNA, fibres and glass. An invaluable introduction to the statistical interpretation of forensic evidence; this book will be invaluable for all undergraduates taking courses in forensic science. Introduction to the key statistical techniques used in the evaluation of forensic evidence Includes end of chapter exercises to enhance student understanding Numerous examples taken from forensic science to put the subject into context

    • Science

The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence


Author: Committee on DNA Forensic Science: An Update,National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Life Sciences
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309121949
Category: Science
Page: 272
View: 1159
In 1992 the National Research Council issued DNA Technology in Forensic Science, a book that documented the state of the art in this emerging field. Recently, this volume was brought to worldwide attention in the murder trial of celebrity O. J. Simpson. The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence reports on developments in population genetics and statistics since the original volume was published. The committee comments on statements in the original book that proved controversial or that have been misapplied in the courts. This volume offers recommendations for handling DNA samples, performing calculations, and other aspects of using DNA as a forensic tool--modifying some recommendations presented in the 1992 volume. The update addresses two major areas: Determination of DNA profiles. The committee considers how laboratory errors (particularly false matches) can arise, how errors might be reduced, and how to take into account the fact that the error rate can never be reduced to zero. Interpretation of a finding that the DNA profile of a suspect or victim matches the evidence DNA. The committee addresses controversies in population genetics, exploring the problems that arise from the mixture of groups and subgroups in the American population and how this substructure can be accounted for in calculating frequencies. This volume examines statistical issues in interpreting frequencies as probabilities, including adjustments when a suspect is found through a database search. The committee includes a detailed discussion of what its recommendations would mean in the courtroom, with numerous case citations. By resolving several remaining issues in the evaluation of this increasingly important area of forensic evidence, this technical update will be important to forensic scientists and population geneticists--and helpful to attorneys, judges, and others who need to understand DNA and the law. Anyone working in laboratories and in the courts or anyone studying this issue should own this book.

    • Social Science

Statistical Science in the Courtroom


Author: Joseph L. Gastwirth
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461212162
Category: Social Science
Page: 443
View: 2445
Expert testimony relying on scientific and other specialized evidence has come under increased scrutiny by the legal system. A trilogy of recent U.S. Supreme Court cases has assigned judges the task of assessing the relevance and reliability of proposed expert testimony. In conjunction with the Federal judiciary, the American Association for the Advancement of Science has initiated a project to provide judges indicating a need with their own expert. This concern with the proper interpretation of scientific evidence, especially that of a probabilistic nature, has also occurred in England, Australia and in several European countries. Statistical Science in the Courtroom is a collection of articles written by statisticians and legal scholars who have been concerned with problems arising in the use of statistical evidence. A number of articles describe DNA evidence and the difficulties of properly calculating the probability that a random individual's profile would "match" that of the evidence as well as the proper way to intrepret the result. In addition to the technical issues, several authors tell about their experiences in court. A few have become disenchanted with their involvement and describe the events that led them to devote less time to this application. Other articles describe the role of statistical evidence in cases concerning discrimination against minorities, product liability, environmental regulation, the appropriateness and fairness of sentences and how being involved in legal statistics has raised interesting statistical problems requiring further research.

    • Science

DNA Technology in Forensic Science


Author: Committee on DNA Technology in Forensic Science,National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Life Sciences
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309045878
Category: Science
Page: 200
View: 6344
Matching DNA samples from crime scenes and suspects is rapidly becoming a key source of evidence for use in our justice system. DNA Technology in Forensic Science offers recommendations for resolving crucial questions that are emerging as DNA typing becomes more widespread. The volume addreses key issues: Quality and reliability in DNA typing, including the introduction of new technologies, problems of standardization, and approaches to certification. DNA typing in the courtroom, including issues of population genetics, levels of understanding among judges and juries, and admissibility. Societal issues, such as privacy of DNA data, storage of samples and data, and the rights of defendants to quality testing technology. Combining this original volume with the new update--The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence--provides the complete, up-to-date picture of this highly important and visible topic. This volume offers important guidance to anyone working with this emerging law enforcement tool: policymakers, specialists in criminal law, forensic scientists, geneticists, researchers, faculty, and students.

    • Law

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States

A Path Forward
Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Committee on Applied and Theoretical Statistics,Policy and Global Affairs,Committee on Science, Technology, and Law,Committee on Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Sciences Community
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309142393
Category: Law
Page: 348
View: 1264
Scores of talented and dedicated people serve the forensic science community, performing vitally important work. However, they are often constrained by lack of adequate resources, sound policies, and national support. It is clear that change and advancements, both systematic and scientific, are needed in a number of forensic science disciplines to ensure the reliability of work, establish enforceable standards, and promote best practices with consistent application. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward provides a detailed plan for addressing these needs and suggests the creation of a new government entity, the National Institute of Forensic Science, to establish and enforce standards within the forensic science community. The benefits of improving and regulating the forensic science disciplines are clear: assisting law enforcement officials, enhancing homeland security, and reducing the risk of wrongful conviction and exoneration. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States gives a full account of what is needed to advance the forensic science disciplines, including upgrading of systems and organizational structures, better training, widespread adoption of uniform and enforceable best practices, and mandatory certification and accreditation programs. While this book provides an essential call-to-action for congress and policy makers, it also serves as a vital tool for law enforcement agencies, criminal prosecutors and attorneys, and forensic science educators.

    • Law

Forensic Evidence in Court

Evaluation and Scientific Opinion
Author: Craig Adam
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119054435
Category: Law
Page: 336
View: 1628
The interpretation and evaluation of scientific evidence and its presentation in a court of law is central both to the role of the forensic scientist as an expert witness and to the interests of justice. This book aims to provide a thorough and detailed discussion of the principles and practice of evidence interpretation and evaluation by using real cases by way of illustration. The presentation is appropriate for students of forensic science or related disciplines at advanced undergraduate and master's level or for practitioners engaged in continuing professional development activity. The book is structured in three sections. The first sets the scene by describing and debating the issues around the admissibility and reliability of scientific evidence presented to the court. In the second section, the principles underpinning interpretation and evaluation are explained, including discussion of those formal statistical methods founded on Bayesian inference. The following chapters present perspectives on the evaluation and presentation of evidence in the context of a single type or class of scientific evidence, from DNA to the analysis of documents. For each, the science underpinning the analysis and interpretation of the forensic materials is explained, followed by the presentation of cases which illustrate the variety of approaches that have been taken in providing expert scientific opinion.

    • Law

Handbook of Forensic Science


Author: Jim Fraser,Robin Williams
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134028709
Category: Law
Page: 696
View: 7862
Forensic science has become increasingly important within contemporary criminal justice, from criminal investigation through to courtroom deliberations, and an increasing number of agencies and individuals are having to engage with its contribution to contemporary justice. This Handbook aims to provide an authoritative map of the landscape of forensic science within the criminal justice system of the UK. It sets out the essential features of the subject, covering the disciplinary, technological, organizational and legislative resources that are brought together to make up contemporary forensic science practice. It is the first full-length publication which reviews forensic science in a wider political, economic, social, technological and legal context, identifying emerging themes on the current status and potential future of forensic science as part of the criminal justice system. With contributions from many of the leading authorities in the field it will be essential reading for both students and practitioners.

    • Law

Forensic Science Reform

Protecting the Innocent
Author: Wendy J Koen,C. Michael Bowers
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 012802738X
Category: Law
Page: 392
View: 6186
Forensic Science Reform: Protecting the Innocent is written for the nonscientist to help make complicated scientific information clear and concise enough for attorneys and judges to master. This volume covers physical forensic science, namely arson, shaken baby syndrome, non-accidental trauma, bite marks, DNA, ballistics, comparative bullet lead analysis, fingerprint analysis, and hair and fiber analysis, and contains valuable contributions from leading experts in the field of forensic science. Offers training for prosecuting attorneys on the present state of the forensic sciences in order to avoid reliance on legal precedent that lags decades behind the science Provides defense attorneys the knowledge to defend their clients against flawed science Arms innocence projects and appellate attorneys with the latest information to challenge convictions that were obtained using faulty science Uses science-specific case studies to simplify issues in forensic science for the legal professional Offers a detailed overview of both the failures and progress made in the forensic sciences, making the volume ideal for law school courses covering wrongful convictions, or for undergraduate courses on law, legal ethics, or forensics

    • Medical

The Forensic Examination and Interpretation of Tool Marks


Author: David Baldwin,John Birkett,Owen Facey,Gilleon Rabey
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118374177
Category: Medical
Page: 272
View: 5912
The Forensic Examination and Interpretation of Tool Marks brings together key techniques and developments in the field of tool marks in forensic science and explains clearly how tool mark analysis can be used within forensic investigation. The purpose of this book is to bring together as much of this information as possible in an accessible manner. The book deals with all aspects of tool mark evidence from crime scene to courtroom. The examination of a wide variety of different tool marks are discussed, including those made by specific tools such as saws and in complex materials such as bone. The general principles and techniques used in tool mark examinations can also be applied to some other closely related fields. Therefore, sections on the examination of manufacturing marks, including those on plastic film items, and physical fit comparisons are also included. The book will be of interest to a wide range of people and not just to tool mark examiners and people studying forensic science. It will be of use to crime scene examiners, officers investigating crimes where tool marks are found and members of the legal professions. Brings together key techniques and developments within the field of tool mark investigation. Includes material on examining tool marks at the crime scene and in the laboratory, interpretation and evaluation issues and how tool mark evidence should be presented in court. Covers specialized tool mark examinations, manufacturing marks, including those on plastic film items, and physical fits. Includes a large range of illustrations and photographs. Invaluable reference for practicing forensic scientists, students of forensic sciences, members of the legal professions and crime scene investigators, enabling them to recognise the importance of tool marks within an investigation. An extremely valuable resource in the on-going debate regarding the evidential value of tool marks in court. Part of the ‘Essentials in Forensic Science’ book series.

    • Law

Forensic Plant Science


Author: Jane H Bock,David O. Norris
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128015810
Category: Law
Page: 226
View: 3624
Forensic botany is the application of plant science to the resolution of legal questions. A plant’s anatomy and its ecological requirements are in some cases species specific and require taxonomic verification; correct interpretation of botanical evidence can give vital information about a crime scene or a suspect or victim. The use of botanical evidence in legal investigations in North America is relatively recent. The first botanical testimony to be heard in a North American court concerned the kidnapping and murder of Charles Lindbergh’s baby boy and the conviction of Bruno Hauptmann in 1935. Today, forensic botany encompasses numerous subdisciplines of plant science, such as plant anatomy, taxonomy, ecology, palynology, and diatomology, and interfaces with other disciplines, e.g., molecular biology, limnology and oceanography. Forensic Plant Science presents chapters on plant science evidence, plant anatomy, plant taxonomic evidence, plant ecology, case studies for all of the above, as well as the educational pathways for the future of forensic plant science. Provides techniques, collection methods, and analysis of digested plant materials Shows how to identify plants of use for crime scene and associated evidence in criminal cases The book’s companion website: http://booksite.elsevier.com/9780128014752, will host a microscopic atlas of common food plants.

    • Psychology

Profiling in Policy and Practice


Author: Professor David Canter,Professor Laurence Alison
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 140949070X
Category: Psychology
Page: 274
View: 705
'Profilers' and 'Profiling' are now widely discussed, often with almost mythical respect. This is the first volume to cut through the confusions and misunderstandings surrounding this topic to report on detailed, original, scientific research that examines the variations in criminal behaviour from which any 'profile' must be derived. The studies included examine both early approaches to the field and the future problems and potential for an Investigative Psychology approach of offender profiling. This book will be of great value to all those who have been waiting for a scientific, psychological basis to police investigations. It will be read with interest by those who want to get behind the rhetoric and controversy that surrounds 'offender profiling' and require an up to date account of current research and recent discoveries.

    • Law

Crime Reconstruction


Author: William Jerry Chisum,Brent E. Turvey
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123864607
Category: Law
Page: 672
View: 2935
Brent E. Turvey

    • Medical

Neuroimaging in Forensic Psychiatry

From the Clinic to the Courtroom
Author: Joseph R. Simpson
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118313658
Category: Medical
Page: 396
View: 5926
This important volume is the first to address the use of neuroimaging in civil and criminal forensic contexts and to include discussion of prior precedents and court decisions. Equally useful for practicing psychiatrists and psychologists, it reviews both the legal and ethical consideraitons of neuroimaging.

    • Law

Professional Issues in Forensic Science


Author: Max M. Houck
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128006234
Category: Law
Page: 390
View: 4794
Professional Issues in Forensic Science will introduce students to various topics they will encounter within the field of Forensic Science. Legal implications within the field will focus on expert witness testimony and procedural rules defined by both legislative statute and court decisions. These decisions affect the collection, analysis, and court admissibility of scientific evidence, such as the Frye and Daubert standards and the Federal Rules of Evidence. Existing and pending Forensic Science legislation will be covered, including laws governing state and national DNA databases. Ethical concerns stemming from the day-to-day balancing of competing priorities encountered by the forensic student will be discussed. Such competing priorities may cause conflicts between good scientific practice and the need to expedite work, meet legal requirements, and satisfy client’s wishes. The role of individual morality in Forensic Science and competing ethical standards between state and defense experts will be addressed. Examinations of ethical guidelines issued by various professional forensic organizations will be conducted. Students will be presented with examples of ethical dilemmas for comment and resolution. The management of crime laboratories will provide discussion on quality assurance/quality control practices and the standards required by the accreditation of laboratories and those proposed by Scientific Working Groups in Forensic Science. The national Academy of Sciences report on Strengthening Forensic Science will be examined to determine the impact of the field. Professional Issues in Forensic Science is a core topic taught in forensic science programs. This volume will be an essential advanced text for academics and an excellent reference for the newly practicing forensic scientist. It will also fit strategically and cluster well with our other forensic science titles addressing professional issues. Introduces readers to various topics they will encounter within the field of Forensic Science Covers legal issues, accreditation and certification, proper analysis, education and training, and management issues Includes a section on professional organizations and groups, both in the U.S. and Internationally Incorporates effective pedagogy, key terms, review questions, discussion question and additional reading suggestions

    • Social Science

Police Work

Principles and Practice
Author: Colin Rogers,Rhobert Lewis,Tim John,Tim Read
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136723803
Category: Social Science
Page: 352
View: 4338
This book provides a highly readable account of police work. It builds upon Introduction to Police Work (Rogers and Lewis 2007) to provide a comprehensive, in depth and critical understanding of policing in today's diverse society. Police Work: Principles and Practice meets the need for an increasingly sophisticated and professional approach to training within the police, whether this is carried out within police forces themselves or within higher education institutions. Written in an accessible style by current and former police practitioners and a nationally recognized expert on the National Intelligence Model, this book focuses – in line with the government's agenda for workforce modernization – on three key areas of policing: community, investigation and intelligence. It introduces readers to many important areas through the use of definition boxes, scenario boxes highlighting good practice, points to note boxes, flowcharts and diagrams as well as a wide range of questions and exercises to help apply their knowledge to different situations and scenarios. This book will be essential reading for those on probationer training programmes and a valuable resource for students taking courses in policing and criminology more generally where an advanced level of understanding of the nature of police work is required.

    • Psychology

Clinical Practice of Forensic Neuropsychology

An Evidence-Based Approach
Author: Kyle Brauer Boone
Publisher: Guilford Press
ISBN: 1462507336
Category: Psychology
Page: 352
View: 8212
Written by a foremost expert in the field, this hands-on, evidence-based guide describes how to conduct a comprehensive forensic neuropsychological evaluation and provide expert testimony. All steps are covered--from selecting, scoring, and interpreting tests to writing reports and responding to cross-examination--with special attention to assessing noncredible performance. The book identifies seven common flaws of forensic neuropsychological reports and shows how to avoid them. Excerpts from testimony transcripts illustrate ways neuropsychologists can protect their reports from attack. Also featured are case illustrations and a sample report.