• Mathematics

Introduction to Toric Varieties. (AM-131)


Author: William Fulton
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400882524
Category: Mathematics
Page: 180
View: 6920
Toric varieties are algebraic varieties arising from elementary geometric and combinatorial objects such as convex polytopes in Euclidean space with vertices on lattice points. Since many algebraic geometry notions such as singularities, birational maps, cycles, homology, intersection theory, and Riemann-Roch translate into simple facts about polytopes, toric varieties provide a marvelous source of examples in algebraic geometry. In the other direction, general facts from algebraic geometry have implications for such polytopes, such as to the problem of the number of lattice points they contain. In spite of the fact that toric varieties are very special in the spectrum of all algebraic varieties, they provide a remarkably useful testing ground for general theories. The aim of this mini-course is to develop the foundations of the study of toric varieties, with examples, and describe some of these relations and applications. The text concludes with Stanley's theorem characterizing the numbers of simplicies in each dimension in a convex simplicial polytope. Although some general theorems are quoted without proof, the concrete interpretations via simplicial geometry should make the text accessible to beginners in algebraic geometry.

    • Science

Introduction to Toric Varieties


Author: William Fulton
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780691033327
Category: Science
Page: 157
View: 7874
Toric varieties are algebraic varieties arising from elementary geometric and combinatorial objects such as convex polytopes in Euclidean space with vertices on lattice points. Since many algebraic geometry notions such as singularities, birational maps, cycles, homology, intersection theory, and Riemann-Roch translate into simple facts about polytopes, toric varieties provide a marvelous source of examples in algebraic geometry. In the other direction, general facts from algebraic geometry have implications for such polytopes, such as to the problem of the number of lattice points they contain. In spite of the fact that toric varieties are very special in the spectrum of all algebraic varieties, they provide a remarkably useful testing ground for general theories. The aim of this mini-course is to develop the foundations of the study of toric varieties, with examples, and describe some of these relations and applications. The text concludes with Stanley's theorem characterizing the numbers of simplicies in each dimension in a convex simplicial polytope. Although some general theorems are quoted without proof, the concrete interpretations via simplicial geometry should make the text accessible to beginners in algebraic geometry.

    • Mathematics

Introduction to Stokes Structures


Author: Claude Sabbah
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642316956
Category: Mathematics
Page: 249
View: 6181
This research monograph provides a geometric description of holonomic differential systems in one or more variables. Stokes matrices form the extended monodromy data for a linear differential equation of one complex variable near an irregular singular point. The present volume presents the approach in terms of Stokes filtrations. For linear differential equations on a Riemann surface, it also develops the related notion of a Stokes-perverse sheaf. This point of view is generalized to holonomic systems of linear differential equations in the complex domain, and a general Riemann-Hilbert correspondence is proved for vector bundles with meromorphic connections on a complex manifold. Applications to the distributions solutions to such systems are also discussed, and various operations on Stokes-filtered local systems are analyzed.

    • Mathematics

Toric Varieties


Author: David A. Cox,John B. Little,Henry K. Schenck
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821848194
Category: Mathematics
Page: 841
View: 7751
Toric varieties form a beautiful and accessible part of modern algebraic geometry. This book covers the standard topics in toric geometry; a novel feature is that each of the first nine chapters contains an introductory section on the necessary background material in algebraic geometry. Other topics covered include quotient constructions, vanishing theorems, equivariant cohomology, GIT quotients, the secondary fan, and the minimal model program for toric varieties. The subject lends itself to rich examples reflected in the 134 illustrations included in the text. The book also explores connections with commutative algebra and polyhedral geometry, treating both polytopes and their unbounded cousins, polyhedra. There are appendices on the history of toric varieties and the computational tools available to investigate nontrivial examples in toric geometry. Readers of this book should be familiar with the material covered in basic graduate courses in algebra and topology, and to a somewhat lesser degree, complex analysis. In addition, the authors assume that the reader has had some previous experience with algebraic geometry at an advanced undergraduate level. The book will be a useful reference for graduate students and researchers who are interested in algebraic geometry, polyhedral geometry, and toric varieties.

    • Mathematics

Strings, Gauge Fields, and the Geometry Behind

The Legacy of Maximilian Kreuzer
Author: Anton Rebhan,Ludmil Katzarkov,Johanna Knapp,Radoslav Rashkov,Emanuel Scheidegger
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814412562
Category: Mathematics
Page: 568
View: 2710
This book contains exclusively invited contributions from collaborators of Maximilian Kreuzer, giving accounts of his scientific legacy and original articles from renowned theoretical physicists and mathematicians, including Victor Batyrev, Philip Candelas, Michael Douglas, Alexei Morozov, Joseph Polchinski, Peter van Nieuwenhuizen, and Peter West. Besides a collection of review and research articles from high-profile researchers in string theory and related fields of mathematics (in particular, algebraic geometry) which discuss recent progress in the exploration of string theory vacua and corresponding mathematical developments, this book contains a pedagogical account of the important work of Brandt, Dragon, and Kreuzer on classification of anomalies in gauge theories. This highly cited work, which is also quoted in the textbook of Steven Weinberg on quantum field theory, has not yet been presented in full detail except in private lecture notes by Norbert Dragon. Similarly, the software package PALP (Package for Analyzing Lattice Polytopes with applications to toric geometry), which has been incorporated in the SAGE (Software for Algebra and Geometry Experimentation) project, has not yet been documented in full detail. This book contains a user manual for a new thoroughly revised version of PALP. By including these two very useful original contributions, researchers in quantum field theory, string theory, and mathematics will find added value in a pedagogical presentation of the classification of quantum gauge field anomalies, and the accompanying comprehensive manual and tutorial for the powerful software package PALP. Contents:Gauge Field Theory, Anomalies, and Supersymmetry:BRST Symmetry and Cohomology (N Dragon and F Brandt)Aspects of Supersymmetric BRST Cohomology (F Brandt)Character Expansion for HOMFLY Polynomials: Integrability and Difference Equations (A Mironov, A Morozov and A Morozov)Bicategories in Field Theories — An Invitation (T Nikolaus and C Schweigert)The Compactification of IIB Supergravity on S5 Revisited (P van Nieuwenhuizen)String Theory and Algebraic Geometry:Max Kreuzer's Contributions to the Study of Calabi–Yau Manifolds (P Candelas)Calabi–Yau Three-Folds: Poincaré Polynomials and Fractals (A Ashmore and Y-H He)Conifold Degenerations of Fano 3-Folds as Hypersurfaces in Toric Varieties (V Batyrev and M Kreuzer)Nonassociativity in String Theory (R Blumenhagen)Counting Points and Hilbert Series in String Theory (V Braun)Standard Models and Calabi–Yaus (R Donagi)The String Landscape and Low Energy Supersymmetry (M R Douglas)The Cardy–Cartan Modular Invariant (J Fuchs, C Schweigert and C Stigner)A Projection to the Pure Spinor Space (S Guttenberg)Mathieu Moonshine and Symmetries of K3 Sigma Models (S Hohenegger)Toric Deligne–Mumford Stacks and the Better Behaved Version of the GKZ Hypergeometric System (R P Horja)Fano Polytopes (A M Kasprzyk and B Nill)Dual Purpose Landscaping Tools: Small Extra Dimensions in AdS/CFT (J Polchinski and E Silverstein)Notes on the Relation Between Strings, Integrable Models and Gauge Theories (R C Rashkov)E11, Generalised Space-Time and IIA String Theory: The R ⊗ R Sector (A Rocén and P West)The Kreuzer Bi-Homomorphism (A N Schellekens)Emergent Spacetime and Black Hole Probes from Automorphic Forms (R Schimmrigk)How to Classify Reflexive Gorenstein Cones (H Skarke)PALP — A Package for Analyzing Lattice Polytopes:PALP — A User Manual (A P Braun, J Knapp, E Scheidegger, H Skarke and N-O Walliser) Readership: Graduate students and researchers in theoretical physics and mathematics. Keywords:String Theory;Gauge Theory;Algebraic Geometry;Calabi–Yau Manifolds;Toric Geometry;Lattice Polytopes;BRST Symmetry;Cohomology;Anomalies;SupersymmetryKey Features:Original research articles contributed by prominent theoretical physicists and mathematicians (Victor Batyrev, Ralph Blumenhagen, Ron Donagi, Michael Douglas, Jürgen Fuchs, Alexei Morozov, Joseph Polchinski, Bert Schellekens, Christoph Schweigert, Eva Silverstein, Peter van Nieuwenhuizen, and Peter West, among others)Previously unpublished lecture notes on the classification of quantum gauge field anomalies by Friedemann Brandt and Norbert DragonA comprehensive manual and tutorial for the powerful software package PALP that was developed originally by Kreuzer and Skarke in connection with the classification of reflexive polytopes. Together with the publication of this memorial volume an overhauled version 2.1 of PALP will be released in the public domain



    • Algebraic varieties

Geometry of toric varieties


Author: Laurent Bonavero,Michel Brion
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Algebraic varieties
Page: 272
View: 6869
This volume gathers texts originated in the summer school "Geometry of Toric Varieties" (Grenoble, June 19-July 7, 2000). These are expanded versions of lectures delivered during the second and third weeks of the school, the first week having been devoted to introductory lectures. The paper by D. Cox is an overview of recent work in toric varieties and its applications, putting into perspective the other contributions of the présent volume. Ce volume rassemble des textes issus de l'école d'été " Géométrie des variétés toriques " (Grenoble, 19 juin - 7 juillet 2000). Ils reprennent, sous une forme plus détaillée, des cours et des exposés de séminaire des deuxième et troisième semaines de l'école, la première semaine ayant été consacrée à des cours introductifs. On trouvera dans l'article de D. Cox un panorama des travaux récents en géométrie torique et de leurs applications, qui met en perspective les autres textes du présent volume.

    • Mathematics

Singularités franco-japonaises


Author: Centre national de rencontres mathématiques (France)
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Mathematics
Page: 460
View: 3216








    • Mathematics

Semigroups, Formal Languages and Groups


Author: J.B. Fountain
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: N.A
Category: Mathematics
Page: 428
View: 8053
This volume presents the core of invited expository lectures given at the 1993 NATO ASI held at the University of York. The subject matter of the ASI was the interplay between automata, semigroups, formal languages and groups. The invited talks were of an introductory nature but at a high level and many reached the cutting edge of research in the area. The lectures were given to a mixed group of students and specialists and were designed to be accessible to a broad audience. The papers were written in a similar spirit in the hope that their readership will be as wide as possible. With one exception they are all based on the talks which the lecturers gave at the meeting. The exception is caused by the fact that due to unanticipated progress the topic of John Rhodes' talk is now in such a state of flux that it has not been possible to produce a paper giving a clear picture of the situation. However, we do include an article by a member of the "Rhodes school" , namely Christopher Nehaniv, expanding on a contributed talk he gave. It generalizes the celebrated Krohn-Rhodes theorem for finite semigroups to all semigroups. For many years there has been a strong link between formal language theory and the theory of semigroups. Each subject continues to influence the other.

    • Duality (Nuclear physics)

S-Duality and Mirror Symmetry

Proceedings of the Trieste Conference on S-Duality and Mirror Symmetry, ICTP, Trieste, Italy, 5-9 June 1995
Author: Edi Gava,Kumar Shiv Narain,Cumrun Vafa
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Duality (Nuclear physics)
Page: 269
View: 2895

    • Algebraic geometry -- Special varieties -- Toric varieties, Newton polyhedra

Introduction to Tropical Geometry


Author: Diane Maclagan,Bernd Sturmfels
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821851985
Category: Algebraic geometry -- Special varieties -- Toric varieties, Newton polyhedra
Page: 363
View: 6452
Tropical geometry is a combinatorial shadow of algebraic geometry, offering new polyhedral tools to compute invariants of algebraic varieties. It is based on tropical algebra, where the sum of two numbers is their minimum and the product is their sum. This turns polynomials into piecewise-linear functions, and their zero sets into polyhedral complexes. These tropical varieties retain a surprising amount of information about their classical counterparts. Tropical geometry is a young subject that has undergone a rapid development since the beginning of the 21st century. While establishing itself as an area in its own right, deep connections have been made to many branches of pure and applied mathematics. This book offers a self-contained introduction to tropical geometry, suitable as a course text for beginning graduate students. Proofs are provided for the main results, such as the Fundamental Theorem and the Structure Theorem. Numerous examples and explicit computations illustrate the main concepts. Each of the six chapters concludes with problems that will help the readers to practice their tropical skills, and to gain access to the research literature.

On Toric Log Schemes


Author: Howard M. Thompson
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category:
Page: 110
View: 7392