• Mathematics

Mathematical Linguistics


Author: Andras Kornai
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1846289866
Category: Mathematics
Page: 290
View: 8357
Mathematical Linguistics introduces the mathematical foundations of linguistics to computer scientists, engineers, and mathematicians interested in natural language processing. The book presents linguistics as a cumulative body of knowledge from the ground up: no prior knowledge of linguistics is assumed. As the first textbook of its kind, this book is useful for those in information science and in natural language technologies.

    • Language Arts & Disciplines

Interpreted Languages and Compositionality


Author: Marcus Kracht
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400721081
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 214
View: 5672
This book argues that languages are composed of sets of ‘signs’, rather than ‘strings’. This notion, first posited by de Saussure in the early 20th century, has for decades been neglected by linguists, particularly following Chomsky’s heavy critiques of the 1950s. Yet since the emergence of formal semantics in the 1970s, the issue of compositionality has gained traction in the theoretical debate, becoming a selling point for linguistic theories. Yet the concept of ‘compositionality’ itself remains ill-defined, an issue this book addresses. Positioning compositionality as a cornerstone in linguistic theory, it argues that, contrary to widely held beliefs, there exist non-compositional languages, which shows that the concept of compositionality has empirical content. The author asserts that the existence of syntactic structure can flow from the fact that a compositional grammar cannot be delivered without prior agreement on the syntactic structure of the constituents.

    • Language Arts & Disciplines

Mathematical Methods in Linguistics


Author: Barbara B.H. Partee,A.G. ter Meulen,R. Wall
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400922132
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 666
View: 2495
Elementary set theory accustoms the students to mathematical abstraction, includes the standard constructions of relations, functions, and orderings, and leads to a discussion of the various orders of infinity. The material on logic covers not only the standard statement logic and first-order predicate logic but includes an introduction to formal systems, axiomatization, and model theory. The section on algebra is presented with an emphasis on lattices as well as Boolean and Heyting algebras. Background for recent research in natural language semantics includes sections on lambda-abstraction and generalized quantifiers. Chapters on automata theory and formal languages contain a discussion of languages between context-free and context-sensitive and form the background for much current work in syntactic theory and computational linguistics. The many exercises not only reinforce basic skills but offer an entry to linguistic applications of mathematical concepts. For upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students in theoretical linguistics, computer-science students with interests in computational linguistics, logic programming and artificial intelligence, mathematicians and logicians with interests in linguistics and the semantics of natural language.

    • Computers

Secure Information Management Using Linguistic Threshold Approach


Author: Marek R. Ogiela,Urszula Ogiela
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1447150163
Category: Computers
Page: 136
View: 5446
In recent years, cryptographic techniques for protecting and hiding secret information have been included in directions of research on intelligent information management. Data can be managed securely due to the use of algorithms for ensuring the confidentiality of data, information splitting techniques as well as protocols for sharing information and methods of its reconstruction. This is why techniques of advanced splitting and reconstruction of information form the primary subject of Secure Information Management Using Linguistic Threshold Approach, whose main purpose is to discuss the so-called linguistic threshold schemes for information sharing. An attempt is also made to describe the opportunities of using these techniques to create new models of managing strategic information shared within a commercial organisation or a state institution. Such information is specially protected, and its contents are used only if the authorised users are enabled to access it. This monograph attempts to define a model structure of information flow and for assigning information shares to particular groups of individuals concerned. The proposed information flow model can be integrated into practical solutions within any organisation or institution, improving the functionality of its legacy information systems. The use of strong mathematical cryptographic models to manage information constitutes a scientific innovation and a demonstration of the methods and opportunities of using advanced techniques for confidentially exchanging information in tasks supporting data flow within a commercial organisation. The interdisciplinary nature of the solutions proposed means that the subject of linguistic threshold schemes forming part of intelligent information management becomes a new challenge for the research and application work carried out. The authors of this monograph hope that it will guide readers on an interesting journey through the cutting edge solution in the field of secure information management.

    • Philosophy

Partiality and Underspecification in Information, Languages, and Knowledge


Author: Henning Christiansen,M. Dolores Jiménez-López,Roussanka Loukanova
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1527500721
Category: Philosophy
Page: 360
View: 9710
In recent years, there has been a proliferation of technological developments that incorporate processing of human language. Hardware and software can be specialized for designated subject areas, and computational devices are designed for a widening variety of applications. At the same time, new areas and applications are emerging by demanding intelligent technology enhanced by the processing of human language. These new applications often perform tasks which handle information, and they have a capacity to reason, using both formal and human language. Many sub-areas of Artificial Intelligence demand integration of Natural Language Processing, at least to some degree. Furthermore, technologies require coverage of known as well as unknown agents, and tasks with potential variations. All of this takes place in environments with unknown factors. The book covers theoretical work, advanced applications, approaches, and techniques for computational models of information, reasoning systems, and presentation in language. The book promotes work on intelligent natural language processing and related models of information, thought, reasoning, and other cognitive processes. The topics covered by the chapters prompt further research and developments of advanced systems in the areas of logic, computability, computational linguistics, cognitive science, neuroscience of language, robotics, and artificial intelligence, among others.

    • Language Arts & Disciplines

Classification and Modeling with Linguistic Information Granules

Advanced Approaches to Linguistic Data Mining
Author: Hisao Ishibuchi,Tomoharu Nakashima,Manabu Nii
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540268758
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 308
View: 327
Many approaches have already been proposed for classification and modeling in the literature. These approaches are usually based on mathematical mod els. Computer systems can easily handle mathematical models even when they are complicated and nonlinear (e.g., neural networks). On the other hand, it is not always easy for human users to intuitively understand mathe matical models even when they are simple and linear. This is because human information processing is based mainly on linguistic knowledge while com puter systems are designed to handle symbolic and numerical information. A large part of our daily communication is based on words. We learn from various media such as books, newspapers, magazines, TV, and the Inter net through words. We also communicate with others through words. While words play a central role in human information processing, linguistic models are not often used in the fields of classification and modeling. If there is no goal other than the maximization of accuracy in classification and model ing, mathematical models may always be preferred to linguistic models. On the other hand, linguistic models may be chosen if emphasis is placed on interpretability.

    • Mathematics

Handbook of Logic and Language


Author: Johan F.A.K. van Benthem,Alice ter Meulen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780444537270
Category: Mathematics
Page: 1168
View: 5667
The logical study of language is becoming more interdisciplinary, playing a role in fields such as computer science, artificial intelligence, cognitive science and game theory. This new edition, written by the leading experts in the field, presents an overview of the latest developments at the interface of logic and linguistics as well as a historical perspective. It is divided into three parts covering Frameworks, General Topics and Descriptive Themes. Completely revised and updated - includes over 25% new material Discusses the interface between logic and language Many of the authors are creators or active developers of the theories

    • Computers

Speech and Language Processing


Author: Daniel Jurafsky,James H Martin,Peter Norvig,Stuart Russell
Publisher: Pearson
ISBN: 0133252930
Category: Computers
Page: 1024
View: 7700
This is the eBook of the printed book and may not include any media, website access codes, or print supplements that may come packaged with the bound book. For undergraduate or advanced undergraduate courses in Classical Natural Language Processing, Statistical Natural Language Processing, Speech Recognition, Computational Linguistics, and Human Language Processing. An explosion of Web-based language techniques, merging of distinct fields, availability of phone-based dialogue systems, and much more make this an exciting time in speech and language processing. The first of its kind to thoroughly cover language technology – at all levels and with all modern technologies – this text takes an empirical approach to the subject, based on applying statistical and other machine-learning algorithms to large corporations. The authors cover areas that traditionally are taught in different courses, to describe a unified vision of speech and language processing. Emphasis is on practical applications and scientific evaluation. An accompanying Website contains teaching materials for instructors, with pointers to language processing resources on the Web. The Second Edition offers a significant amount of new and extended material. Supplements: Click on the "Resources" tab to View Downloadable Files: Solutions Power Point Lecture Slides - Chapters 1-5, 8-10, 12-13 and 24 Now Available! For additional resourcse visit the author website: http://www.cs.colorado.edu/~martin/slp.html

    • Computers

Ontological Engineering

with examples from the areas of Knowledge Management, e-Commerce and the Semantic Web. First Edition
Author: Asunción Gómez-Pérez,Mariano Fernandez-Lopez,Oscar Corcho
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1852338407
Category: Computers
Page: 404
View: 5376
Ontological Engineering refers to the set of activities that concern the ontology development process, the ontology life cycle, the methods and methodologies for building ontologies, and the tool suites and languages that support them. During the last decade, increasing attention has been focused on ontologies and Ontological Engineering. Ontologies are now widely used in Knowledge Engineering, Artificial Intelligence and Computer Science; in applications related to knowledge management, natural language processing, e-commerce, intelligent integration information, information retrieval, integration of databases, b- informatics, and education; and in new emerging fields like the Semantic Web. Primary goals of this book are to acquaint students, researchers and developers of information systems with the basic concepts and major issues of Ontological Engineering, as well as to make ontologies more understandable to those computer science engineers that integrate ontologies into their information systems. We have paid special attention to the influence that ontologies have on the Semantic Web. Pointers to the Semantic Web appear in all the chapters, but specially in the chapter on ontology languages and tools.

    • Language Arts & Disciplines

Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing


Author: Christopher D. Manning,Hinrich Schütze
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262133609
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 680
View: 7990
An introduction to statistical natural language processing (NLP). The text contains the theory and algorithms needed for building NLP tools. Topics covered include: mathematical and linguistic foundations; statistical methods; collocation finding; word sense disambiguation; and probalistic parsing.

    • Computers

The Handbook On Reasoning-based Intelligent Systems


Author: Nakamatsu Kazumi,Jain Lakhmi C
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814489166
Category: Computers
Page: 680
View: 6488
This book consists of various contributions in conjunction with the keywords “reasoning” and “intelligent systems”, which widely covers theoretical to practical aspects of intelligent systems. Therefore, it is suitable for researchers or graduate students who want to study intelligent systems generally.

    • Language Arts & Disciplines

The Handbook of Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing


Author: Alexander Clark,Chris Fox,Shalom Lappin
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118448677
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 650
View: 3437
This comprehensive reference work provides an overview of the concepts, methodologies, and applications in computational linguistics and natural language processing (NLP). Features contributions by the top researchers in the field, reflecting the work that is driving the discipline forward Includes an introduction to the major theoretical issues in these fields, as well as the central engineering applications that the work has produced Presents the major developments in an accessible way, explaining the close connection between scientific understanding of the computational properties of natural language and the creation of effective language technologies Serves as an invaluable state-of-the-art reference source for computational linguists and software engineers developing NLP applications in industrial research and development labs of software companies

    • Language Arts & Disciplines

Puzzles in Logic, Languages and Computation

The Green Book
Author: Dragomir Radev
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642343724
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 191
View: 6847
This is the second volume of a unique collection that brings together the best English-language problems created for students competing in the Computational Linguistics Olympiad. These problems are representative of the diverse areas presented in the competition and designed with three principles in mind: · To challenge the student analytically, without requiring any explicit knowledge or experience in linguistics or computer science; · To expose the student to the different kinds of reasoning required when encountering a new phenomenon in a language, both as a theoretical topic and as an applied problem; · To foster the natural curiosity students have about the workings of their own language, as well as to introduce them to the beauty and structure of other languages; · To learn about the models and techniques used by computers to understand human language. Aside from being a fun intellectual challenge, the Olympiad mimics the skills used by researchers and scholars in the field of computational linguistics. In an increasingly global economy where businesses operate across borders and languages, having a strong pool of computational linguists is a competitive advantage, and an important component to both security and growth in the 21st century. This collection of problems is a wonderful general introduction to the field of linguistics through the analytic problem solving technique. "A fantastic collection of problems for anyone who is curious about how human language works! These books take serious scientific questions and present them in a fun, accessible way. Readers exercise their logical thinking capabilities while learning about a wide range of human languages, linguistic phenomena, and computational models. " - Kevin Knight, USC Information Sciences Institute

    • Computers

Computational Linguistics

An Introduction
Author: Ralph Grishman
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521310383
Category: Computers
Page: 193
View: 446
This book provides an integrated introduction and valuable survey to the field of computer analysis of language.

    • Mathematics

Advanced Mathematical Techniques in Engineering Sciences


Author: Mangey Ram,J. Paulo Davim
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351371886
Category: Mathematics
Page: 334
View: 4158
Mathematical techniques are the strength of engineering sciences and form the common foundation of all novel discipline as engineering sciences. The book Advanced Mathematical Techniques in Engineering Sciences involved in an ample range of mathematical tools and techniques applied in various fields of engineering sciences. Through this book the engineers have to gain a greater knowledge and help them in the applications of mathematics in engineering sciences.

    • Language Arts & Disciplines

Language and the Brain


Author: Loraine K. Obler,K. Gjerlow
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521466417
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 206
View: 8346
An introduction to neurolinguistics showing how language is organized in the brain.

    • Computers

Intelligent Information Processing and Web Mining

Proceedings of the International IIS: IIPWM ́06 Conference held in Ustron, Poland, June 19-22, 2006
Author: Mieczyslaw A. Klopotek,Slawomir T. Wierzchon,Krzysztof Trojanowski
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540335218
Category: Computers
Page: 542
View: 7446
This volume contains selected papers, presented at the international conference on Intelligent Information Processing and Web Mining Conference IIS:IIPWM'06, organized in Ustro (Poland), 2006. The submitted papers cover new computing paradigms, among others in biologically motivated methods, advanced data analysis, new machine learning paradigms, natural language processing, new optimization technologies, applied data mining using statistical and non-standard approaches.

    • Computers

The Oxford Handbook of Computational Linguistics


Author: Ruslan Mitkov
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019927634X
Category: Computers
Page: 786
View: 8385
A state-of-the-art reference to one of the most active and productive fields in linguistics: computational linguistics. Thirty-eight chapters, commissioned from experts all over the world, describe the major concepts, methods, and applications. Part I provides an overview of the field; Part II describes current tasks, techniques, and tools in natural language processing; and Part III surveys current applications.

    • Mathematics

Naturalizing Logico-Mathematical Knowledge

Approaches from Philosophy, Psychology and Cognitive Science
Author: Sorin Bangu
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351998447
Category: Mathematics
Page: 306
View: 887
This book is meant as a part of the larger contemporary philosophical project of naturalizing logico-mathematical knowledge, and addresses the key question that motivates most of the work in this field: What is philosophically relevant about the nature of logico-mathematical knowledge in recent research in psychology and cognitive science? The question about this distinctive kind of knowledge is rooted in Plato’s dialogues, and virtually all major philosophers have expressed interest in it. The essays in this collection tackle this important philosophical query from the perspective of the modern sciences of cognition, namely cognitive psychology and neuroscience. Naturalizing Logico-Mathematical Knowledge contributes to consolidating a new, emerging direction in the philosophy of mathematics, which, while keeping the traditional concerns of this sub-discipline in sight, aims to engage with them in a scientifically-informed manner. A subsequent aim is to signal the philosophers’ willingness to enter into a fruitful dialogue with the community of cognitive scientists and psychologists by examining their methods and interpretive strategies.

    • Computers

Fuzzy Models and Algorithms for Pattern Recognition and Image Processing


Author: James C. Bezdek,James Keller,Raghu Krisnapuram,Nikhil Pal
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792385219
Category: Computers
Page: 776
View: 5822
Fuzzy Models and Algorithms for Pattern Recognition and Image Processing presents a comprehensive introduction of the use of fuzzy models in pattern recognition and selected topics in image processing and computer vision. Unique to this volume in the Kluwer Handbooks of Fuzzy Sets Series is the fact that this book was written in its entirety by its four authors. A single notation, presentation style, and purpose are used throughout. The result is an extensive unified treatment of many fuzzy models for pattern recognition. The main topics are clustering and classifier design, with extensive material on feature analysis relational clustering, image processing and computer vision. Also included are numerous figures, images and numerical examples that illustrate the use of various models involving applications in medicine, character and word recognition, remote sensing, military image analysis, and industrial engineering.