• Science

Mirror-Image Asymmetry

An Introduction to the Origin and Consequences of Chirality
Author: James P. Riehl
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470588871
Category: Science
Page: 184
View: 2549
An overview of the importance and consequences of asymmetry from molecules to the macroscopic world As scientists have become more capable of probing the structure of three-dimensional objects at the molecular level, the need to understand the concept and the consequences of mirror-image asymmetry—chirality—has increased enormously. Written at an introductory level, Mirror-Image Asymmetry provides an overview of the importance and effects of asymmetry from the atomic and molecular world of physics and chemistry to the organisms and structures that we see and use in our everyday life. The reader will develop a broad appreciation of three-dimensional asymmetry from the microscopic molecular world to the macroscopic world of handedness, automobile driving, windmills, sports, and similar phenomena. The book features: An introduction to basic definitions and the nomenclature of asymmetric and dissymmetric molecules Up-to-date examples of the importance and consequences of asymmetry in modern drug applications, current theories of the origin of asymmetry in nature, and examples of molecular asymmetry in smell, taste, and insect communication Many illustrations, chemical structures, and photographs that enable the reader to connect the actual asymmetrical structures to the different phenomena that depend on structural asymmetry In the 150 years since Louis Pasteur discovered asymmetry in molecular structures, scientists have made great progress in understanding how interactions between chiral molecules influence biochemical processes. This knowledge is leading to very sophisticated asymmetric synthetic techniques that have greatly benefitted many research groups especially those in the pharmaceutical industry. This guide to the role of molecular and macroscopic chirality will inspire students and scientists in chemistry, biology, physics, and drug discovery.

    • Science

Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Chiral Molecules and Supramolecular Architectures


Author: Ron Naaman,David N Beratan,David Waldeck
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642181031
Category: Science
Page: 312
View: 9656
Time-dependent density functional response theory for electronic chiroptical properties of chiral molecules; by Jochen Autschbach, Lucia Nitsch–Velasquez, and Mark Rudolph * Chiroptical Properties of Charge-Transfer Compounds; by Yoshihisa Inoue, Tadashi Mori * G-C content independent long-range charge transfer through DNA; by Tetsuro Majima * Induced chirality in porphiryn aggregates: the role of weak and strong interactions; by Roberto Purrello * Vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy of chiral molecules in solution; by Yunjie Xu * Magneto-electric properties of self-assembled monolayers of chiral molecules; by Zeev Vager and Ron Naaman * Theory of adsorption induced chirality and electron transfer through chiral systems; by Spiros Skourtis and David Beratan * Chiral-selective surface chemistry induced by spin-polarized secondary electrons; by Richard Rosenberg

    • Science

On Chirality and the Universal Asymmetry

Reflections on Image and Mirror Image
Author: Georges H. Wagnière
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3906390608
Category: Science
Page: 256
View: 7493
Until half a century ago, it was assumed that the forces of nature were symmetric and that they did not distinguish between right and left, between image and mirror image. The discovery of the violation of parity in 1956 was more than a sensation, for some it was a shock. It implied that the universe displays handedness, or chirality, and that it is fundamentally asymmetric. Remarkably, a most striking asymmetry is encountered in the realm of biology. Living organisms contain proteins built almost exclusively from L-amino acids, and nucleic acids derived from D-sugars only. Yet a mirror-image biochemistry, based on D-amino acids and L-sugars is, from a purely chemical standpoint, entirely conceivable. Where, then, does this extraordinary natural selectivity come from? Is it directly, or indirectly, connected to the universal violation of parity? This book is meant as a brief review of the various manifestations of handedness, or chirality, in the universe. It does not attempt to present a solution to basic questions which perhaps will never be unambiguously and conclusively answered. Rather, it is an excursion through nature, to observe and recognize how the chirality manifests itself at different structural levels. The excursion starts in the chemistry and physics laboratory. Then a journey into outer space and back in time is undertaken. After a return to our planet Earth, the focus is on the development of living organisms. The text should be accessible to anyone having the equivalent of a first-year university instruction in physics and chemistry. It is also hoped that a layperson with a more modest scientific formation may gain a general impression of the basic asymmetry in nature and of the fundamental significance of chirality. Mathematical expressions, wherever they occur, may then be overlooked. Some more difficult sections may be skipped. A Glossary preceding the Subject Index should be helpful.

    • Science

Amino Acids and the Asymmetry of Life

Caught in the Act of Formation
Author: Uwe Meierhenrich
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540768866
Category: Science
Page: 242
View: 3665
"How did life originate and why were left-handed molecules selected for its architecture?" This question of high public and interdisciplinary scientific interest is the central theme of this book. It is widely known that in processes triggering the origin of life on Earth, the equal occurrence, the parity between left-handed amino acids and their right-handed mirror images, was violated. The balance was inevitably tipped to the left – as a result of which life's proteins today exclusively implement the left form of amino acids. Written in an engaging style, this book describes how the basic building blocks of life, the amino acids, formed. After a comprehensible introduction to stereochemistry, the author addresses the inherent property of amino acids in living organisms, namely the preference for left-handedness. What was the cause for the violation of parity of amino acids in the emergence of life on Earth? All the fascinating models proposed by physicists, chemists and biologist are vividly presented including the scientific conflicts. The author describes the attempt to verify any of those models with the chirality module of the ROSETTA mission, a probe built and launched with the mission to land on a comet and analyse whether there are chiral organic compounds that could have been brought to the Earth by cometary impacts. A truly interdisciplinary astrobiology book, "Amino Acids and the Asymmetry of Life" will fascinate students, researchers and all readers with backgrounds in natural sciences. With a foreword by Henri B. Kagan.

    • Science

Chirality and Life

A Short Introduction to the Early Phases of Chemical Evolution
Author: Rolf M. Flügel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642169779
Category: Science
Page: 90
View: 9982
This book presents the fascinating formation of the first simple bioorganic molecules and describes the hidden aspects of chiral compounds, which raise questions on the molecular beginnings of life. The occurrences of extraterrestrial, non-standard amino acids in meteorites are dealt with in detail, as well as their subsequent transfer to proteinogenic amino acids. The concept of asymmetric organo-catalysis for the synthesis of carbohydrates and ribonucleosides are considered. The notion of a single amino acid that functions as an enzyme is developed. Attempts to simulate ancient world scenarios are critically reviewed. There is a special focus on ribozymes and the resulting RNA world. Combinations of different world scenarios are discussed in view of an on-going evolution. The currently most plausible hypotheses and visions of ancient world scenarios that led to today’s DNA world are also provided. Included is a pre-cellular world of viruses that is presented for the first time.

    • Science

Comets And Their Origin

The Tools To Decipher A Comet
Author: Uwe Meierhenrich
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527412816
Category: Science
Page: 352
View: 345
Divided into two parts, the first four chapters of Comets and their Origin refer to comets and their formation in general, describing cometary missions, comet remote observations, astrochemistry, artificial comets, and the chirality phenomenon. The second part covers the cometary ROSETTA mission, its launch, journey, scientific objectives, and instrumentations, as well as the landing scenario on a cometary nucleus. Along the way, the author presents general questions concerning the origin of terrestrial water and the molecular beginnings of life on Earth, as well as how the instruments used on a space mission like ROSETTA can help answer them. The text concludes with a chapter on what scientists expect from the ROSETTA mission and how its data will influence our life on Earth. As a result, the author elucidates highly topical and fascinating knowledge to scientists and students of various scientific backgrounds, allowing them to work with ROSETTA's data.

    • Technology & Engineering

Chirality at the Nanoscale

Nanoparticles, Surfaces, Materials and More
Author: David B. Amabilino
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527625356
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 380
View: 8999
The only standard reference in this exciting new field combines the physical, chemical and material science perspectives in a synergic way. This monograph traces the development of the preparative methods employed to create nanostructures, in addition to the experimental techniques used to characterize them, as well as some of the surprising physical effects. The chapters cover every category of material, from organic to coordination compounds, metals and composites, in zero, one, two and three dimensions. The book also reviews structural, chemical, optical, and other physical properties, finishing with a look at the future for chiral nanosystems.

    • Science

Chiral Nanomaterials

Preparation, Properties and Applications
Author: Zhiyong Tang
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527337571
Category: Science
Page: 296
View: 2780
Thorough and up-to-date, this book presents recent developments in this exciting research field. To begin with, the text covers the fabrication of chiral nanomaterials via various synthesis methods, including electron beam lithography, ion beam etching, chemical synthesis and biological DNA directed assembly. This is followed by the relevant theory and reaction mechanisms, with a discussion of the characterization of chiral nanomaterials according to the optical properties of metal nanoparticles, semiconductor nanocrystals, and nanoclusters. The whole is rounded off by a summary of applications in the field of catalysis, sensors, and biomedicine. With its comprehensive yet concise coverage of the whole spectrum of research, this is invaluable reading for senior researchers and entrants to the field of nanoscience and materials science.

    • Chaotic behavior in systems

Structure, Coherence and Chaos in Dynamical Systems


Author: Peter L. Christiansen
Publisher: Manchester University Press
ISBN: 9780719026102
Category: Chaotic behavior in systems
Page: 663
View: 8718

    • Medical

Protein Folds

A Distance-Based Approach
Author: Henrik Bohr,Soren Brunak
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780849340093
Category: Medical
Page: 336
View: 2309
Written by outstanding scientists in physics and molecular biology, this book addresses the most recent advances in the analysis of the protein folding processes and protein structure determination. Emphasis is also placed on modelling and presentation of experimental results of structural membrane bound proteins. Many color plates help to illustrate structural aspects covered including: Defining folds of protein domains Structure determination from sequence Distance geometry Lattice theories Membrane proteins Protein-Ligand interaction Topological considerations Docking onto receptors All analysis is presented with proven theory and experimentation. Protein Folds: A Distance-Based Approach is an excellent text/reference for biotechnologists and biochemists as well as graduate students studying in the research sciences.

    • Science

Principles and Applications of Asymmetric Synthesis


Author: Guo-Qiang Lin,Yue-Ming Li,Albert S. C. Chan
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0471465240
Category: Science
Page: 536
View: 5535
Asymmetric synthesis remains a challenge to practicing scientists as the need for enantiomerically pure or enriched compounds continues to increase. Over the last decade, a large amount of literature has been published in this field. Principles and Applications of Asymmetric Synthesis consolidates and evaluates the most useful methodologies into a one-volume resource for the convenience of practicing scientists and students. Authored by internationally renowned scientists in the field, this reliable reference covers more than 450 reactions and includes important stoichiometric as well as catalytic asymmetric reactions. The first chapter reviews the basic principles, common nomenclature, and analytical methods, and the remainder of the book is organized according to reaction type. The text examines such topics as: Carbon-carbon bond formations involving carbonyls, enamines, imines, and enolates Asymmetric C-O bond formations including epoxidation, dihydroxylation, and aminohydroxylation Asymmetric synthesis using the Diels-Alder reaction and other cyclizations Applications to the total synthesis of natural products Use of enzymes in asymmetric synthesis Practicing chemists in the pharmaceutical, fine chemical, and agricultural professions as well as graduate students will find that Principles and Applications of Asymmetric Synthesis affords comprehensive and current coverage.

    • Science

Chiral Analysis


Author: Kenneth W. Busch,Marianna A. Busch
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080469287
Category: Science
Page: 720
View: 5693
Chiral Analysis covers an important area of analytical chemistry of relevance to a wide variety of scientific professionals. The target audience is scientific professionals with an undergraduate background in chemistry or a related discipline, specifically organic chemists, researchers in drug discovery, pharmaceutical researchers involved with process analysis or combinatorial libraries, and graduate students in chemistry. Chapters have been written with the nonspecialist in mind so as to be self-contained. * Broad coverage - spectroscopic and separation methods covered in a single volume * Up-to-date and detailed review of the various techniques available and/or under development in this field * Contributions from leading experts in the field

    • Science

Chiral Recognition in Separation Methods

Mechanisms and Applications
Author: Alain Berthod
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642124457
Category: Science
Page: 337
View: 8487
What drives a scientist to edit a book on a speci c scienti c subject such as chiral mechanisms in separation methods? Until December 2005, the journal Analytical Chemistry of the American Chemical Society (Washington, DC) had an A-page section that was dedicated to simple and clear presentations of the most recent te- niques or the state of the art in a particular eld or topic. The “A-page” section was prepared for a broad audience of chemists including industrial professionals, s- dents as well as academics looking for information outside their eld of expertise. 1 Daniel W. Armstrong, one of the editors of this journal and a twenty-year+ long friend, invited me to present my view on chiral recognition mechanisms in a simple and clear way in an “A-page” article. In 2006, the “A-page” section was maintained as the rst articles at the beginning of each rst bi-monthly issue but the pagination was no longer page distinguished from the regular research articles published by the journal. During the time between the invitation and the submission, the A-page section was integrated into the rest of the journal and the article appeared as (2006) Anal Chem (78):2093–2099.

    • Science

Molecules in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology

Molecular Phenomena in Biological Sciences
Author: Jean Maruani
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400911734
Category: Science
Page: 353
View: 394
Volume 1: General Introduction to Molecular Sciences Volume 2: Physical Aspects of Molecular Systems Volume 3: Electronic Structure and Chemical Reactivity Volume 4: Molecular Phenomena in Biological Sciences

    • Science

Structural Biology Using Electrons and X-rays

An Introduction for Biologists
Author: Michael F Moody
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080919454
Category: Science
Page: 450
View: 7380
Structural Biology Using Electrons and X-Rays discusses the diffraction and image-based methods used for the determination of complex biological macromolecules. The book focuses on the Fourier transform theory, which is a mathematical function that is computed to transform signals between time and frequency domain. Composed of five parts, the book examines the development of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), which allows the calculation of the images of a certain protein. Parts 1 to 4 provide the basic information and the applications of Fourier transforms, as well as the different methods used for image processing using X-ray crystallography and the analysis of electron micrographs. Part 5 focuses entirely on the mathematical aspect of Fourier transforms. In addition, the book examines detailed structural analyses of a specimen’s symmetry (i.e., crystals, helices, polyhedral viruses and asymmetrical particles). This book is intended for the biologist or biochemist who is interested in different methods and techniques for calculating the images of proteins using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It is also suitable for readers without a background in physical chemistry or mathematics. Emphasis on common principles underlying all diffraction-based methods Thorough grounding in theory requires understanding of only simple algebra Visual representations and explanations of challenging content Mathematical detail offered in short-course form to parallel the text

    • Technology & Engineering

Future Directions in Biocatalysis


Author: Tomoko Matsuda
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444637508
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 460
View: 9944
Future Directions in Biocatalysis, Second Edition, presents the future direction and latest research on how to utilize enzymes, i.e., natural catalysts, to make medicines and other necessities for humans. It emphasizes the most important and unique research on biocatalysis instead of simply detailing the ABC’s on the topic. This book is an indispensable tool for new researchers in the field to help identify specific needs, start new projects that address current environmental concerns, and develop techniques based on green technology. It provides invaluable hints and clues for conducting new research on enzymes, with final sections outlining future directions in biocatalysis further expanding the science into new applications. Gives future directions in the area of biocatalysis research Presents research topics based on their uniqueness, originality, and novelty Includes many explanatory figures to demonstrate concepts to both organic chemists and biochemists Shows that there is no boundary between organic chemistry and biochemistry

    • Science

Comprehensive Chirality


Author: N.A
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0080951686
Category: Science
Page: 5648
View: 1367
Although many books exist on the subject of chiral chemistry, they only briefly cover chiral synthesis and analysis as a minor part of a larger work, to date there are none that pull together the background information and latest advances in one comprehensive reference work. Comprehensive Chirality provides a complete overview of the field, and includes chiral research relevant to synthesis, analytic chemistry, catalysis, and pharmaceuticals. The individual chapters in each of the 9 volumes provide an in depth review and collection of references on definition, technology, applications and a guide/links to the related literature. Whether in an Academic or Corporate setting, these chapters will form an invaluable resource for advanced students/researchers new to an area and those who need further background or answers to a particular problem, particularly in the development of drugs. Chirality research today is a central theme in chemistry and biology and is growing in importance across a number of disciplinary boundaries. These studies do not always share a unique identifying factor or subject themselves to clear and concise definitions. This work unites the different areas of research and allows anyone working or researching in chiral chemistry to navigate through the most essential concepts with ease, saving them time and vastly improving their understanding. The field of chirality counts several journals that are directly and indirectly concerned with the field. There is no reference work that encompasses the entire field and unites the different areas of research through deep foundational reviews. Comprehensive Chirality fills this vacuum, and can be considered the definitive work. It will help users apply context to the diverse journal literature offering and aid them in identifying areas for further research and/or for solving problems. Chief Editors, Hisashi Yamamoto (University of Chicago) and Erick Carreira (ETH Zürich) have assembled an impressive, world-class team of Volume Editors and Contributing Authors. Each chapter has been painstakingly reviewed and checked for consistent high quality. The result is an authoritative overview which ties the literature together and provides the user with a reliable background information and citation resource.

    • Science

Progress in Biological Chirality


Author: Gyula Palyi,Claudia Zucchi,Luciano Caglioti
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080474038
Category: Science
Page: 444
View: 8928
Following on from Advances in BioChirality, Progress in Biological Chirality provides a unique summary and review of the most recent developments in the field of biochirality. Living organisms use only one enantiomer of chiral molecules in the majority of biologically important processes. The exact origin and mechanisms for this surprising selectivity are not yet known. This book discusses current research aimed at identifying the scientific reasons that may contribute to this phenomenon. Progress in Biological Chirality takes an interdisciplinary approach to this exciting field, covering a wide range of topics, such as, theory, palaeontology and food technology, to name but a few. This book presents findings via a broad spectrum of scientific approaches making it an excellent overview of Biological Chirality, suitable for postgraduate students, practitioners and researchers in the field of chemistry, biochemistry, biology, palaeontology, and food science with an interest in Chirality. This book contains 32 chapters written by Authors, who are leading authorities in the field Presents the most recent research taking place in this highly challenging field Contains both reference material for the specialist and provides an overview for those who are interested in the fundamental problems of biology and chemistry

    • Science

Reflections on Symmetry

In Chemistry ... and Elsewhere. Copublished with VHCA Publishers, Basel.
Author: Edgar Heilbronner,Jack D. Dunitz
Publisher: Wiley-VCH
ISBN: 9783527284887
Category: Science
Page: 160
View: 9166
What do Schrödinger's wave functions, Escher's intricate tiling patterns and chemistry's latest marvel, buckminsterfullerene, have in common? This stunning book, written by two world-famous scientists, introduces the reader to one of nature's most fundamental, and ubiquitous, phenomena: Symmetry. Enormous in scope, this scientific tour-de-force covers topics as diverse as quantum mechanics, stereochemistry, Penrose tilings and Raphael's Madonna. The authors connect these apparently unrelated fields in a completely non-mathematical fashion, which should appeal to the general and specialist reader alike. Lucidly written and beautifully illustrated, this book provides an eminently readable discussion of the omnipresent concept of symmetry, its application in all branches of science, and its perception in nature, art and elsewhere.

    • Science

The Science of Flavonoids


Author: Erich Grotewold
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387745503
Category: Science
Page: 273
View: 5230
The past few years have witnessed increasing research in the applications of flavonoids as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals as well as on their roles as signal molecules within plants and between plants and other organisms. This book provides an overview of the science of flavonoids in plants, detailing both research and applications. It first introduces flavonoids as chemical entities and then presents an overview of the tools currently available for their analysis.