• Technology & Engineering

Modern Crystallography III

Crystal Growth
Author: A.A. Chernov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642818358
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 517
View: 8227
Early in this century, the newly discovered x-ray diffraction by crystals made a complete change in crystallography and in the whole science of the atomic structure of matter, thus giving a new impetus to the development of solid-state physics. Crystallographic methods, pri marily x-ray diffraction analysis, penetrated into materials sciences, mol ecular physics, and chemistry, and also into many other branches of science. Later, electron and neutron diffraction structure analyses be came important since they not only complement x-ray data, but also supply new information on the atomic and the real structure of crystals. Electron microscopy and other modern methods of investigating mat ter-optical, electronic paramagnetic, nuclear magnetic, and other res onance techniques-yield a large amount of information on the atomic, electronic, and real crystal structures. Crystal physics has also undergone vigorous development. Many re markable phenomena have been discovered in crystals and then found various practical applications. Other important factors promoting the development of crystallog raphy were the elaboration of the theory of crystal growth (which brought crystallography closer to thermodynamics and physical chem istry) and the development of the various methods of growing synthetic crystals dictated by practical needs. Man-made crystals became increas ingly important for physical investigations, and they rapidly invaded technology. The production . of synthetic crystals made a tremendous impact on the traditional branches: the mechanical treatment of mate rials, precision instrument making, and the jewelry industry.

    • Science

Modern Crystallography

Crystal growth
Author: A a Chernov
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783540115168
Category: Science
Page: 517
View: 6907

    • Science

Multiple Diffraction of X-Rays in Crystals


Author: Chung In-Hang
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642821669
Category: Science
Page: 300
View: 5883
The three-dimensional arrangement of atoms and molecules in crystals and the comparable magnitude of x-ray wavelengths and interatomic distances make it possible for crystals to have more than one set of atomic planes that satisfy Bragg's law and simultaneously diffract an incident x-ray beam - this is the so-called multiple diffraction. This type of diffraction should, in prin ciple, reflect three-dimensional information about the structure of the dif fracting material. Recent progress in understanding this diffraction phenome non and in utilizing this diffraction technique in solid-state and materials sciences reveals the diversity as well as the importance of multiple diffraction of x-rays in application. Unfortunately, there has been no single book written that gives a sys tematic review of this type of diffraction, encompasses its diverse applica tions, and foresees future trends gf development. It is for this purpose that this book is designed. It is hoped that its appearance may possibly turn more attention of condensed-matter physicists, chemists and material scientists toward this particular phenomenon, and that new methods of non-destructive analysis of matter using this diffraction technique may be developed in the future.

    • Science

Handbook of Crystal Growth

Bulk Crystal Growth
Author: Peter Rudolph
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444633065
Category: Science
Page: 1418
View: 7692
Vol 2A: Basic Technologies Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIA (Basic Technologies) presents basic growth technologies and modern crystal cutting methods. Particularly, the methodical fundamentals and development of technology in the field of bulk crystallization on both industrial and research scales are explored. After an introductory chapter on the formation of minerals, ruling historically the basic crystal formation parameters, advanced basic technologies from melt, solution, and vapour being applied for research and production of the today most important materials, like silicon, semiconductor compounds and oxides are presented in detail. The interdisciplinary and general importance of crystal growth for human live are illustrated. Vol 2B: Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIB (Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics) deals with characteristic mechanisms and dynamics accompanying each bulk crystal growth method discussed in Volume IIA. Before the atoms or molecules pass over from a position in the fluid medium (gas, melt or solution) to their place in the crystalline face they must be transported in the fluid over macroscopic distances by diffusion, buoyancy-driven convection, surface-tension-driven convection, and forced convection (rotation, acceleration, vibration, magnetic mixing). Further, the heat of fusion and the part carried by the species on their way to the crystal by conductive and convective transport must be dissipated in the solid phase by well-organized thermal conduction and radiation to maintain a stable propagating interface. Additionally, segregation and capillary phenomena play a decisional role for chemical composition and crystal shaping, respectively. Today, the increase of high-quality crystal yield, its size enlargement and reproducibility are imperative conditions to match the strong economy. Volume 2A Presents the status and future of Czochralski and float zone growth of dislocation-free silicon Examines directional solidification of silicon ingots for photovoltaics, vertical gradient freeze of GaAs, CdTe for HF electronics and IR imaging as well as antiferromagnetic compounds and super alloys for turbine blades Focuses on growth of dielectric and conducting oxide crystals for lasers and non-linear optics Topics on hydrothermal, flux and vapour phase growth of III-nitrides, silicon carbide and diamond are explored Volume 2B Explores capillarity control of the crystal shape at the growth from the melt Highlights modeling of heat and mass transport dynamics Discusses control of convective melt processes by magnetic fields and vibration measures Includes imperative information on the segregation phenomenon and validation of compositional homogeneity Examines crystal defect generation mechanisms and their controllability Illustrates proper automation modes for ensuring constant crystal growth process Exhibits fundamentals of solution growth, gel growth of protein crystals, growth of superconductor materials and mass crystallization for food and pharmaceutical industries

    • Science

Modern Theory of Crystal Growth I


Author: A.A. Chernov,Heiner Müller-Krumbhaar
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642689388
Category: Science
Page: 148
View: 4209
Our understanding of the basic processes of crystal growth has meanwhile reached the level of maturity at least in the phenomenological concepts. This concerns for example the growth of pure crystals from a low-density nutrient phase like vapor or dilute solution with various aspects of pattern formation like spiral and layer growth, facetting and roughening, and the stability of smooth macroscopic shapes, as well as basic mechanisms of impurity incorporation in melt growth of (in this sense) simple materials like silicon or organic model substances. In parallel the experimental techniques to quantitatively ana lyze the various growth mechanisms have also reached a high level of reproducibility and precision, giving reliable tests on theoretical predictions. These basic concepts and appli cations to experiments have been recently reviewed by one of us (A. A. C. ) in "Modern Crystallography III. Crystal Growth" (Springer Series on Solid State Sciences, 1983). It has to be emphasized, however, that for practical applications we are still unable to quantitatively calculate many important parameters like kinetic coefficients from first principles. For mixed systems such as complex oxides, solutions and systems with chemi cal reactions, our degree of understanding is even lower. As a few examples for present achievements we note that experiments with vapour and molecular beam condensation of alkali halides confirmed the qualitatively predicted mechanisms of screw dislocations and two-dimensional nucleation for layer-growth.

    • Science

Comprehensive Semiconductor Science and Technology

Online version
Author: N.A
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0080932282
Category: Science
Page: 3608
View: 2446
Semiconductors are at the heart of modern living. Almost everything we do, be it work, travel, communication, or entertainment, all depend on some feature of semiconductor technology. Comprehensive Semiconductor Science and Technology captures the breadth of this important field, and presents it in a single source to the large audience who study, make, and exploit semiconductors. Previous attempts at this achievement have been abbreviated, and have omitted important topics. Written and Edited by a truly international team of experts, this work delivers an objective yet cohesive global review of the semiconductor world. The work is divided into three sections. The first section is concerned with the fundamental physics of semiconductors, showing how the electronic features and the lattice dynamics change drastically when systems vary from bulk to a low-dimensional structure and further to a nanometer size. Throughout this section there is an emphasis on the full understanding of the underlying physics. The second section deals largely with the transformation of the conceptual framework of solid state physics into devices and systems which require the growth of extremely high purity, nearly defect-free bulk and epitaxial materials. The last section is devoted to exploitation of the knowledge described in the previous sections to highlight the spectrum of devices we see all around us. Provides a comprehensive global picture of the semiconductor world Each of the work's three sections presents a complete description of one aspect of the whole Written and Edited by a truly international team of experts

    • Science

Crystal growth of organic materials


Author: Allan S. Myerson,E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company,Biosym/Molecular Simulations Inc,American Institute of Chemical Engineers
Publisher: An American Chemical Society Publication
ISBN: N.A
Category: Science
Page: 291
View: 6030
Examines emerging technologies in the use of crystallization as a purification and separation process in the food, pharmaceutical, and commodity and specialty chemical industries. Discusses the application of molecular modeling and calculation chemistry to crystallization. Includes chapters focusing on crystal morphology and chirality.

    • Technology & Engineering

High Magnetic Fields in Semiconductor Physics III

Quantum Hall Effect, Transport and Optics
Author: Gottfried Landwehr
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642844081
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 698
View: 8226
High magnetic fields have, for a long time, been an important tool in the investigation of the electronic structure of semiconductors. In recent yearsstudies of heterostructures and superlattices have predominated, and this emphasis is reflected in these proceedings. The contributions concentrate on experiments using transport and optical methods, but recent theoretical developments are also covered. Special attention is paid to the quantum Hall effect, including the problem of edge currents, the influence of contacts, and Wigner condensation in the fractional quantum Hall effect regime. The 27 invited contributions by renowned expertsprovide an excellent survey of the field that is complemented by numerous contributed papers.

    • Physics

Acta Physica Polonica

A
Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Physics
Page: N.A
View: 774

    • Science

Crystal Growth in Science and Technology


Author: H. Arend,J. Hulliger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461305497
Category: Science
Page: 438
View: 8831
Science and art of crystal growth represent an interdisciplinary activity based on fundamental principles of physics, chemistry and crystallography. Crystal growth has contributed over the years essentially to a widening of knowledge in its basic disciplines and has penetrated practically into all fields of experimental natural sciences. It has acted, more over, in a steadily increasing manner as a link between science and technology as can be seen best, for example, from the achievements in modern microelectronics. The aim of the course "Crystal Growth in Science and Technology" being to stress the interdisciplinary character of the subject, selected fundamental principles are reviewed in the following contributions and cross links between basic and applied aspects are illustrated. It is a very well-known fact that the intensive development of crystal growth has led to a progressive narrowing of interests in highly specialized directions which is in particular harmful to young research scientists. The organizers of the course did sincerely hope that the program would help to broaden up the horizon of the participants. It was equally their wish to contribute within the traditional spirit of the school of crystallography in Erice to the promotion of mutual understanding, personal friendship and future collaboration between all those who were present at the school.

    • Science

Point Defects in Semiconductors II

Experimental Aspects
Author: J. Bourgoin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642818323
Category: Science
Page: 295
View: 1315
In introductory solid-state physics texts we are introduced to the concept of a perfect crystalline solid with every atom in its proper place. This is a convenient first step in developing the concept of electronic band struc ture, and from it deducing the general electronic and optical properties of crystalline solids. However, for the student who does not proceed further, such an idealization can be grossly misleading. A perfect crystal does not exist. There are always defects. It was recognized very early in the study of solids that these defects often have a profound effect on the real physical properties of a solid. As a result, a major part of scientific research in solid-state physics has,' from the early studies of "color centers" in alkali halides to the present vigorous investigations of deep levels in semiconductors, been devoted to the study of defects. We now know that in actual fact, most of the interest ing and important properties of solids-electrical, optical, mechanical- are determined not so much by the properties of the perfect crystal as by its im perfections.

    • Science

Electron Correlations in Molecules and Solids


Author: Peter Fulde
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642973094
Category: Science
Page: 422
View: 1434
Quantum chemistry and solid-state theory are two important related fields of research that have grown up with almost no cross communication. This book bridges the gap between the two. In the first half, new concepts for treating weak and strong correlations are developed, and standard quantum-chemical methods, as well as density functional, Green's function, functional integral, and Monte Carlo methods are discussed. The second half discusses applications of the theory to molecules, semiconductors, homogeneous metallic systems, transition metals, and strongly correlated systems such as heavy-fermion systems and the new high-Tc superconducting materials.

    • Science

Crystal growth


Author: Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain). Faraday Division
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Science
Page: 407
View: 1368

    • Science

Crystal Growth For Beginners: Fundamentals Of Nucleation, Crystal Growth And Epitaxy (Third Edition)


Author: Markov Ivan Vesselinov
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 981314386X
Category: Science
Page: 632
View: 2115
The processes of new phase formation and growth are of fundamental importance in numerous rapidly developing scientific fields such as modern materials science, micro- and optoelectronics, and environmental science. Crystal Growth for Beginners combines the depth of information in monographs, with the thorough analysis of review papers, and presents the resulting content at a level understandable by beginners in science. The book covers, in practice, all fundamental questions and aspects of nucleation, crystal growth, and epitaxy. This book is a non-eclectic presentation of this interdisciplinary topic in materials science. The third edition brings existing chapters up to date, and includes new chapters on the growth of nanowires by the vapor–liquid–solid mechanism, as well as illustrated short biographical texts about the scientists who introduced the basic ideas and concepts into the fields of nucleation, crystal growth and epitaxy. All formulae and equations are illustrated by examples that are of technological importance. The book presents not only the fundamentals but also the state of the art in the subject. Crystal Growth for Beginners is a valuable reference for both graduate students and researchers in materials science. The reader is required to possess some basic knowledge of mathematics, physics and thermodynamics.


    • Science

Group Theory and Its Applications in Physics


Author: Teturo Inui,Yukito Tanabe,Yositaka Onodera
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642800211
Category: Science
Page: 397
View: 7464
This book has been written to introduce readers to group theory and its ap plications in atomic physics, molecular physics, and solid-state physics. The first Japanese edition was published in 1976. The present English edi tion has been translated by the authors from the revised and enlarged edition of 1980. In translation, slight modifications have been made in. Chaps. 8 and 14 to update and condense the contents, together with some minor additions and improvements throughout the volume. The authors cordially thank Professor J. L. Birman and Professor M. Car dona, who encouraged them to prepare the English translation. Tokyo, January 1990 T. Inui . Y. Tanabe Y. Onodera Preface to the Japanese Edition As the title shows, this book has been prepared as a textbook to introduce readers to the applications of group theory in several fields of physics. Group theory is, in a nutshell, the mathematics of symmetry. It has three main areas of application in modern physics. The first originates from early studies of crystal morphology and constitutes a framework for classical crystal physics. The analysis of the symmetry of tensors representing macroscopic physical properties (such as elastic constants) belongs to this category. The sec ond area was enunciated by E. Wigner (1926) as a powerful means of handling quantum-mechanical problems and was first applied in this sense to the analysis of atomic spectra. Soon, H.

    • Science

Thermodynamic Basis of Crystal Growth

P-T-X Phase Equilibrium and Non-Stoichiometry
Author: Jacob Greenberg
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540412465
Category: Science
Page: 251
View: 7683
This book presents a new and promising technique to grow single crystalline compound semiconductor materials with defined stoichometry. The technique is based on the high-precision experimental determination of the boundaries of the single-phase volume of the solid in the pressure-temperature-composition P-T-X phase space. Alongside test results obtained by the author and his colleagues, the P-T-X diagrams of other important materials (e.g., III-V, V-VI semiconductors) are also discussed.

    • Science

Introduction to Frustrated Magnetism

Materials, Experiments, Theory
Author: Claudine Lacroix,Philippe Mendels,Frédéric Mila
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642105890
Category: Science
Page: 682
View: 3869
The field of highly frustrated magnetism has developed considerably and expanded over the last 15 years. Issuing from canonical geometric frustration of interactions, it now extends over other aspects with many degrees of freedom such as magneto-elastic couplings, orbital degrees of freedom, dilution effects, and electron doping. Its is thus shown here that the concept of frustration impacts on many other fields in physics than magnetism. This book represents a state-of-the-art review aimed at a broad audience with tutorial chapters and more topical ones, encompassing solid-state chemistry, experimental and theoretical physics.

    • Science

Springer Handbook of Crystal Growth


Author: Govindhan Dhanaraj,Kullaiah Byrappa,Vishwanath Prasad,Michael Dudley
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540747611
Category: Science
Page: 1818
View: 5532
Over the years, many successful attempts have been chapters in this part describe the well-known processes made to describe the art and science of crystal growth, such as Czochralski, Kyropoulos, Bridgman, and o- and many review articles, monographs, symposium v- ing zone, and focus speci cally on recent advances in umes, and handbooks have been published to present improving these methodologies such as application of comprehensive reviews of the advances made in this magnetic elds, orientation of the growth axis, intro- eld. These publications are testament to the grow- duction of a pedestal, and shaped growth. They also ing interest in both bulk and thin- lm crystals because cover a wide range of materials from silicon and III–V of their electronic, optical, mechanical, microstructural, compounds to oxides and uorides. and other properties, and their diverse scienti c and The third part, Part C of the book, focuses on - technological applications. Indeed, most modern ad- lution growth. The various aspects of hydrothermal vances in semiconductor and optical devices would growth are discussed in two chapters, while three other not have been possible without the development of chapters present an overview of the nonlinear and laser many elemental, binary, ternary, and other compound crystals, KTP and KDP. The knowledge on the effect of crystals of varying properties and large sizes. The gravity on solution growth is presented through a c- literature devoted to basic understanding of growth parison of growth on Earth versus in a microgravity mechanisms, defect formation, and growth processes environment.

    • Photography

Journal of Imaging Science


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Photography
Page: N.A
View: 8551