• Science

Nitrogen in the Marine Environment

Author: Edward J. Carpenter,Douglas G. Capone
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483288293
Category: Science
Page: 900
View: 3812
Nitrogen in the Marine Environment provides information pertinent to the many aspects of the nitrogen cycle. This book presents the advances in ocean productivity research, with emphasis on the role of microbes in nitrogen transformations with excursions to higher trophic levels. Organized into 24 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the abundance and distribution of the various forms of nitrogen in a number of estuaries. This text then provides a comparison of the nitrogen cycling of various ecosystems within the marine environment. Other chapters consider chemical distributions and methodology as an aid to those entering the field. This book discusses as well the enzymology of the initial steps of inorganic nitrogen assimilation. The final chapter deals with the philosophy and application of modeling as an investigative method in basic research on nitrogen dynamics in coastal and open-ocean marine environments. This book is a valuable resource for plant biochemists, microbiologists, aquatic ecologists, and bacteriologists.

    • Technology & Engineering

Nitrogen in the Environment

Author: J.L. Hatfield,R.F. Follett
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080569895
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 720
View: 6221
Nitrogen is one of the most critical elements for all life forms. In agricultural systems it is essential for the production of crops for feed, food, and fiber. The ever-increasing world population requires increasing use of nitrogen in agriculture to supply human needs for dietary protein. Worldwide demand for nitrogen will increase as a direct response to increasing population. Nitrogen in the Environment provides a wholistic perspective and comprehensive treatment of nitrogen. The scope of this book is diverse covering a range of topics and issues related to furthering our understanding of nitrogen in the environment at farm and national levels. Issues of nitrogen from its effects on crops and human nutrition to nitrogen in ground water, watersheds, streams, rivers, and coastal marine environments are discussed to provide a broad view of the problem and support scientists, researchers, and engineers in formulating comprehensive solutions. * The only source which presents an international, wholistic perspective of the effects of nitrogen in the environment with worldwide mitigation practices * Provides details on how to improve the quality of the environment by analyzing the development of emerging technologies * Develops strategies to be used by soil scientists, agronomists, hydrologists, and geophysicists for broad scale improvement of nitrogen efficiency

    • Science

Stressors in the Marine Environment

Physiological and ecological responses; societal implications
Author: Martin Solan,Nia Whiteley
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191028894
Category: Science
Page: 384
View: 1100
A multitude of direct and indirect human influences have significantly altered the environmental conditions, composition, and diversity of marine communities. However, understanding and predicting the combined impacts of single and multiple stressors is particularly challenging because observed ecological feedbacks are underpinned by a number of physiological and behavioural responses that reflect stressor type, severity, and timing. Furthermore, integration between the traditional domains of physiology and ecology tends to be fragmented and focused towards the effects of a specific stressor or set of circumstances. This novel volume summarises the latest research in the physiological and ecological responses of marine species to a comprehensive range of marine stressors, including chemical and noise pollution, ocean acidification, hypoxia, UV radiation, thermal and salinity stress before providing a perspective on future outcomes for some of the most pressing environmental issues facing society today. Stressors in the Marine Environment synthesises the combined expertise of a range of international researchers, providing a truly interdisciplinary and accessible summary of the field. It is essential reading for graduate students as well as professional researchers in environmental physiology, ecology, marine biology, conservation biology, and marine resource management. It will also be of particular relevance and use to the regulatory agencies and authorities tasked with managing the marine environment, including social scientists and environmental economists.

    • Science

The Indian Nitrogen Assessment

Sources of Reactive Nitrogen, Environmental and Climate Effects, Management Options, and Policies
Author: YP Abrol,TK Adhya,Viney P. Aneja,N. Raghuram,Himanshu Pathak,Umesh Kulshrestha,Chhemendra Sharma,Bijay Singh
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128119047
Category: Science
Page: 568
View: 9304
The Indian Nitrogen Assessment: Sources of Reactive Nitrogen, Environmental and Climate Effects, and Management Options and Policies provides a reference for anyone interested in Reactive N, from researchers and students, to environmental managers. Although the main processes that affect the N cycle are well known, this book is focused on the causes and effects of disruption in the N cycle, specifically in India. The book helps readers gain a precise understanding of the scale of nitrogen use, misuse, and release through various agricultural, industrial, vehicular, and other activities, also including discussions on its contribution to the pollution of water and air. Drawing upon the collective work of the Indian Nitrogen Group, this reference book helps solve the challenges associated with providing reliable estimates of nitrogen transfers within different ecosystems, also presenting the next steps that should be taken in the development of balanced, cost-effective, and feasible strategies to reduce the amount of reactive nitrogen. Identifies all significant sources of reactive nitrogen flows and their contribution to the nitrogen-cycle on a national, regional, and global level Covers nitrogen management across sectors, including the environment, food security, energy, and health Provides a single reference on reactive nitrogen in India to help in a number of activities, including the evaluation, analysis, synthesis, documentation, and communications on reactive nitrogen

    • Nature

Nitrogen Cycling in Coastal Marine Environments

Author: T. Henry Blackburn,Jan Sorensen
Publisher: John Wiley & Son Limited
Category: Nature
Page: 451
View: 465
Nitrogen discharge to the coastal environment has been increasing, posing the threat of accelerated eutrofication. Considerable research has been conducted in recent years to examine the impact of the nitrogen loading in coastal ecosystems. Based on proceedings from a SCOPE symposium held at the University of Aarhus in July of 1985, this volume covers a variety of up-to-date developments in research on nitrogen cycling in coastal marine environments. Topics include the role of nitrogen in algal productivity, regeneration of nutrients in the water column and the sediments, and the flow of nitrogen in coastal ecosystems.

    • Political Science

Reactive Nitrogen in the Environment

Too Much Or Too Little of a Good Thing
Author: Elizabeth Braun,United Nations Environment Programme. Division of Technology, Industry, and Economics,Woods Hole Research Center (Woods Hole, Mass.)
Publisher: UNEP/Earthprint
ISBN: 9789280727838
Category: Political Science
Page: 51
View: 752
This non-technical report summarises the present scientific understanding of the major issues surrounding reactive nitrogen, and discusses the overarching environmental, human health and economic issues created by both excesses and deficiencies. The report provides case studies of effective policy implementation and reviews emerging policies to show how negative impacts associated with reactive nitrogen may be successfully addressed locally, nationally and regionally, given similar challenges, shared experiences and effective solutions.

    • Science

Photosynthesis in the Marine Environment

Author: Sven Beer,Mats Björk,John Beardall
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119979587
Category: Science
Page: 208
View: 5733
T for marine management professionals and researchers in the fields of terrestrial plant and general marine sciences wanting to brush up on photosynthesis. Book jacket.

    • Science

The European Nitrogen Assessment

Sources, Effects and Policy Perspectives
Author: Mark A. Sutton,Clare M. Howard,Jan Willem Erisman,Gilles Billen,Albert Bleeker,Peringe Grennfelt,Hans van Grinsven,Bruna Grizzetti
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139501372
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 5795
Presenting the first continental-scale assessment of reactive nitrogen in the environment, this book sets the related environmental problems in context by providing a multidisciplinary introduction to the nitrogen cycle processes. Issues of upscaling from farm plot and city to national and continental scales are addressed in detail with emphasis on opportunities for better management at local to global levels. The five key societal threats posed by reactive nitrogen are assessed, providing a framework for joined-up management of the nitrogen cycle in Europe, including the first cost-benefit analysis for different reactive nitrogen forms and future scenarios. Incorporating comprehensive maps, a handy technical synopsis and a summary for policy makers, this landmark volume is an essential reference for academic researchers across a wide range of disciplines, as well as stakeholders and policy makers. It is also a valuable tool in communicating the key environmental issues and future challenges to the wider public.

    • Science

Carbon and Nitrogen in the Terrestrial Environment

Author: R. Nieder,D.K. Benbi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402084331
Category: Science
Page: 430
View: 6867
Carbon and Nitrogen in the Terrestrial Environment is a comprehensive, interdisciplinary description of C and N fluxes between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere; issues related to C and N management in different ecosystems and their implications for the environment and global climate change; and the approaches to mitigate emission of greenhouse gases. Drawing upon the most up-to-date books, journals, bulletins, reports, symposia proceedings and internet sources documenting interrelationships between different aspects of C and N cycling in the terrestrial environment, Carbon and Nitrogen in the Terrestrial Environment fills the gap left by most of the currently available books on C and N cycling. They either deal with a single element of an ecosystem, or are related to one or a few selected aspects like soil organic matter (SOM) and agricultural or forest management, emission of greenhouse gases, global climate change or modeling of SOM dynamics.

    • Science

Phosphorus in Fresh Water and the Marine Environment

Progress in Water Technology
Author: S. H. Jenkins,K. J. Ives
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483147266
Category: Science
Page: 360
View: 7949
Phosphorus in Fresh Water and the Marine Environment investigates sources of phosphorus in fresh water and the marine environment and the problems it causes. The importance of phosphate precipitation as an inbuilt safety device against overproduction of algae in the oceans is discussed, along with the deposition and absorption of phosphates in sediments. The source of the phosphorus in lakes and rivers is considered in relation to population density and distribution. This book is comprised of 26 chapters and begins with a discussion on natural phosphate sources in relation to phosphate budgets, paying particular attention to eutrophication and soil erosion. The significance of man-made sources of phosphorus, such as fertilizers and farming, detergents and sewage, is then examined. Subsequent chapters focus on the role of phosphorus in the growth of plants and animals in rivers, lakes, and the sea; the hydrogeochemical cycling of phosphorus; phosphorus analysis in sea water; and safety evaluation of substitutes for phosphates in detergents. The microbiology of an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant chemically treated for phosphorus removal is also explored. This monograph will be of interest to policymakers concerned with water pollution control.

    • Science

Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter

Author: Dennis A. Hansell,Craig A. Carlson
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0124071538
Category: Science
Page: 712
View: 1828
Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a complex mixture of molecules found throughout the world's oceans. It plays a key role in the export, distribution, and sequestration of carbon in the oceanic water column, posited to be a source of atmospheric climate regulation. Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, Second Edition, focuses on the chemical constituents of DOM and its biogeochemical, biological, and ecological significance in the global ocean, and provides a single, unique source for the references, information, and informed judgments of the community of marine biogeochemists. Presented by some of the world's leading scientists, this revised edition reports on the major advances in this area and includes new chapters covering the role of DOM in ancient ocean carbon cycles, the long term stability of marine DOM, the biophysical dynamics of DOM, fluvial DOM qualities and fate, and the Mediterranean Sea. Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, Second Edition, is an extremely useful resource that helps people interested in the largest pool of active carbon on the planet (DOC) get a firm grounding on the general paradigms and many of the relevant references on this topic. Features up-to-date knowledge of DOM, including five new chapters The only published work to synthesize recent research on dissolved organic carbon in the Mediterranean Sea Includes chapters that address inputs from freshwater terrestrial DOM

    • Science

Past and Present Water Column Anoxia

Author: Lev N. Neretin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402042973
Category: Science
Page: 522
View: 2724
Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, held in Yalta, Crimea, Ukraine, 4-8 October 2003

    • Science

Interactions of C, N, P and S Biogeochemical Cycles and Global Change

Author: Roland Wollast,Fred T. Mackenzie,Lei Chou
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642760643
Category: Science
Page: 521
View: 9505
This book is a natural extension of the SCOPE (Scientific Committee of Problems on the Environment) volumes on the carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S) biogeochemical cycles and their interactions (Likens, 1981; Bolin and Cook, 1983). Substantial progress in the knowledge of these cycles has been made since publication of those volumes. In particular, the nature and extent of biological and inorganic interactions between these cycles have been identified, positive and negative feedbacks recognized and the relationship between the cycles and global environmental change preliminarily elucidated. In March 1991, a NATO Advanced Research Workshop was held for one week in Melreux, Belgium to reexamine the biogeochemical cycles of C, N, P and S on a variety of time and space scales from a holistic point of view. This book is the result of that workshop. The biogeochemical cycles of C, N, P and S are intimately tied to each other through biological productivity and subsequently to problems of global environmental change. These problems may be the most challenging facing humanity in the 21 st century. In the broadest sense, "global change" encompasses both changes to the status of the large, globally connected atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial environments (e. g. tropospheric temperature increase) and change occurring as the result of nearly simultaneous local changes in many regions of the world (e. g. eutrophication).

    • Science

Primary Productivity in the Sea

Author: Paul Falkowski
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1468438905
Category: Science
Page: 532
View: 8144
Primary productivity in the sea accounts for ~30% of the total global annual production. Holistic understanding of the factors determining marine productivity requires detailed knowl edge of algal physiology and of hydrodynamics. Traditionally studies of aquatic primary productivity have heen conducted hy workers in two major schools: experimental laboratory biology, and empirical field ecology. Here an attempt was made .to hring together people from both schools to share information and con cepts; each author was charged with reviewing his field of exoer tise. The scope of the Symposium is broad, which we feel is its strength. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the Depart ment of Energy, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, including the NMFS Northeast Fisheries Center and the MESA New York Bight Project. Thanks are due to Mrs. Margaret Dienes, with out whose editorial skills this volume could not have been pro duced, and to Mrs. Helen Kondratuk as Symposium Coordinator. Finally, we wish to record our indebtedness to Dr. Alexander Hollaender for his tireless efforts and valuable advice in sup porting all aspects of this Symposium.

    • Technology & Engineering

Nitrogen in the Environment: Sources, Problems and Management

Author: R.F. Follett,J.L. Hatfield
Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing
ISBN: 9780080537566
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 538
View: 4272
Nitrogen in the Environment: Sources, Problems, and Management is the first volume to provide a holistic perspective and comprehensive treatment of nitrogen from field, to ecosystem, to treatment of urban and rural drinking water supplies, while also including a historical overview, human health impacts and policy considerations. It provides a worldwide perspective on nitrogen and agriculture. Nitrogen is one of the most critical elements required in agricultural systems for the production of crops for feed, food and fiber. The ever-increasing world population requires increasing use of nitrogen in agriculture to supply human needs for dietary protein. Worldwide demand for nitrogen will increase as a direct response to increasing population. Strategies and perspectives are considered to improve nitrogen-use efficiency. Issues of nitrogen in crop and human nutrition, and transport and transformations along the continuum from farm field to ground water, watersheds, streams, rivers, and coastal marine environments are discussed. Described are aerial transport of nitrogen from livestock and agricultural systems and the potential for deposition and impacts. The current status of nitrogen in the environment in selected terrestrial and coastal environments and crop and forest ecosystems and development of emerging technologies to minimize nitrogen impacts on the environment are addressed. The nitrogen cycle provides a framework for assessing broad scale or even global strategies to improve nitrogen use efficiency. Growing human populations are the driving force that requires increased nitrogen inputs. These increasing inputs into the food-production system directly result in increased livestock and human-excretory nitrogen contribution into the environment. The scope of this book is diverse, covering a range of topics and issues from furthering our understanding of nitrogen in the environment to policy considerations at both farm and national scales.

    • Science

Molecular Approaches to the Study of the Ocean

Author: K.E. Cooksey
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401149283
Category: Science
Page: 549
View: 9046
Marine biological science is now studied at the molecular level and although research scientists depend on information gained using molecular techniques, there is no book explaining the philosophy of this approach. Molecular Approaches to the Study of the Ocean introduces the reasons why molecular technology is such a powerful tool in the study of the oceans, describing the types of techniques that can be used, why they are useful and gives examples of their application. Molecular biological techniques allow phylogenetic relationships to be explored in a manner that no macroscopic method can; although the book deals with organisms near the base of the marine food web, the ideas can be used in studies of macroorganisms as well as those in freshwater environments.

The microbial nitrogen cycle

Author: Bess B Ward,Marlene Mark Jensen
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889194124
Page: N.A
View: 1640
Nitrogen is an essential element in biological systems, and one that often limits production in both aquatic and terrestrial systems. Due to its requirement in biological macromolecules, its acquisition and cycling have the potential to structure microbial communities, as well as to control productivity on the ecosystem scale. In addition, its versatile redox chemistry is the basis of complex biogeochemical transformations that control the inventory of fixed nitrogen, both in local environments and over geological time. Although many of the pathways in the microbial nitrogen cycle were described more than a century ago, additional fundamental pathways have been discovered only recently. These findings imply that we still have much to learn about the microbial nitrogen cycle, the organisms responsible for it, and their interactions in natural and human environments. Progress in nitrogen cycle research has been facilitated by recent rapid technological advances, especially in genomics and isotopic approaches. In this Research Topic, we reviewed the leading edge of nitrogen cycle research based on these approaches, as well as by exploring microbial processes in modern ecosystems.

    • Science

Marine Coastal Eutrophication

Proceedings of an International Conference, Bologna, Italy, 21-24 March 1990
Author: R.A. Vollenweider,R. Marchetti,R. Viviani
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483291588
Category: Science
Page: 1341
View: 8504
Eutrophication in the transitional marine coastal waters has increased dramatically in many parts of the world, and this evolution has shifted attention to the anthropogenic factor. The problem has become the theme of many conferences and workshops, as well as being given priority in international organizations. This volume has been brought about by the desire to assess both our scientific understanding as well as the means and technologies available to combat the problem of marine coastal eutrophication. It discusses the results of research and surveillance programmes carried out in the last decades, confronting these results with experience gained elsewhere, and reviewing current proposals of what can be done about the problem. This volume will be invaluable to environmental scientists and marine ecologists, as well as to those who wish to resolve the many large-scale environmental problems, specifically marine eutrophication and marine pollution in general.

    • Science

Primary Productivity and Biogeochemical Cycles in the Sea

Author: Paul G. Falkowski,Avril D. Woodhead
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1489907629
Category: Science
Page: 550
View: 1191
Biological processes in the oceans play a crucial role in regulating the fluxes of many important elements such as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, phosphorus, and silicon. As we come to the end of the 20th century, oceanographers have increasingly focussed on how these elements are cycled within the ocean, the interdependencies of these cycles, and the effect of the cycle on the composition of the earth's atmosphere and climate. Many techniques and tools have been developed or adapted over the past decade to help in this effort. These include satellite sensors of upper ocean phytoplankton distributions, flow cytometry, molecular biological probes, sophisticated moored and shipboard instrumentation, and vastly increased numerical modeling capabilities. This volume is the result of the 37th Brookhaven Symposium in Biology, in which a wide spectrum of oceanographers, chemists, biologists, and modelers discussed the progress in understanding the role of primary producers in biogeochemical cycles. The symposium is dedicated to Dr. Richard W. Eppley, an intellectual giant in biological oceanography, who inspired a generation of scientists to delve into problems of understanding biogeochemical cycles in the sea. We gratefully acknowledge support from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Electric Power Research Institute, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Special thanks to Claire Lamberti for her help in producing this volume.

    • Science

Microbial Ecology of the Oceans

Author: Josep M. Gasol,David L. Kirchman
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119107202
Category: Science
Page: 528
View: 965
The newly revised and updated third edition of the bestselling book on microbial ecology in the oceans The third edition of Microbial Ecology of the Oceans features new topics, as well as different approaches to subjects dealt with in previous editions. The book starts out with a general introduction to the changes in the field, as well as looking at the prospects for the coming years. Chapters cover ecology, diversity, and function of microbes, and of microbial genes in the ocean. The biology and ecology of some model organisms, and how we can model the whole of the marine microbes, are dealt with, and some of the trophic roles that have changed in the last years are discussed. Finally, the role of microbes in the oceanic P cycle are presented. Microbial Ecology of the Oceans, Third Edition offers chapters on The Evolution of Microbial Ecology of the Ocean; Marine Microbial Diversity as Seen by High Throughput Sequencing; Ecological Significance of Microbial Trophic Mixing in the Oligotrophic Ocean; Metatranscritomics and Metaproteomics; Advances in Microbial Ecology from Model Marine Bacteria; Marine Microbes and Nonliving Organic Matter; Microbial Ecology and Biogeochemistry of Oxygen-Deficient Water Columns; The Ocean’s Microscale; Ecological Genomics of Marine Viruses; Microbial Physiological Ecology of The Marine Phosphorus Cycle; Phytoplankton Functional Types; and more. A new and updated edition of a key book in aquatic microbial ecology Includes widely used methodological approaches Fully describes the structure of the microbial ecosystem, discussing in particular the sources of carbon for microbial growth Offers theoretical interpretations of subtropical plankton biogeography Microbial Ecology of the Oceans is an ideal text for advanced undergraduates, beginning graduate students, and colleagues from other fields wishing to learn about microbes and the processes they mediate in marine systems.