• Science

Ocean Dynamics and the Carbon Cycle

Principles and Mechanisms
Author: Richard G. Williams,Michael J. Follows
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139496778
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 2303
This textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate students presents a multidisciplinary approach to understanding ocean circulation and how it drives and controls marine biogeochemistry and biological productivity at a global scale. Background chapters on ocean physics, chemistry and biology provide students with the tools to examine the range of large-scale physical and dynamic phenomena that control the ocean carbon cycle and its interaction with the atmosphere. Throughout the text observational data is integrated with basic physical theory to address cutting-edge research questions in ocean biogeochemistry. Simple theoretical models, data plots and schematic illustrations summarise key results and connect the physical theory to real observations. Advanced mathematics is provided in boxes and appendices where it can be drawn on to assist with the worked examples and homework exercises available online. Further reading lists for each chapter and a comprehensive glossary provide students and instructors with a complete learning package.

    • Science

Ocean Dynamics and the Carbon Cycle

Principles and Mechanisms
Author: Richard G. Williams,Michael J. Follows
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521843690
Category: Science
Page: 434
View: 8961
This textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate students presents a multidisciplinary approach to understanding ocean circulation and how it drives and controls marine biogeochemistry and biological productivity at a global scale. Background chapters on ocean physics, chemistry and biology provide students with the tools to examine the range of large-scale physical and dynamic phenomena that control the ocean carbon cycle and its interaction with the atmosphere. Throughout the text observational data is integrated with basic physical theory to address cutting-edge research questions in ocean biogeochemistry. Simple theoretical models, data plots and schematic illustrations summarise key results and connect the physical theory to real observations. Advanced mathematics is provided in boxes and appendices where it can be drawn on to assist with the worked examples and homework exercises available online. Further reading lists for each chapter and a comprehensive glossary provide students and instructors with a complete learning package.

    • Science

Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics


Author: Jorge L. Sarmiento
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400849071
Category: Science
Page: 528
View: 6506
Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics provides a broad theoretical framework upon which graduate students and upper-level undergraduates can formulate an understanding of the processes that control the mean concentration and distribution of biologically utilized elements and compounds in the ocean. Though it is written as a textbook, it will also be of interest to more advanced scientists as a wide-ranging synthesis of our present understanding of ocean biogeochemical processes. The first two chapters of the book provide an introductory overview of biogeochemical and physical oceanography. The next four chapters concentrate on processes at the air-sea interface, the production of organic matter in the upper ocean, the remineralization of organic matter in the water column, and the processing of organic matter in the sediments. The focus of these chapters is on analyzing the cycles of organic carbon, oxygen, and nutrients. The next three chapters round out the authors' coverage of ocean biogeochemical cycles with discussions of silica, dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity, and CaCO3. The final chapter discusses applications of ocean biogeochemistry to our understanding of the role of the ocean carbon cycle in interannual to decadal variability, paleoclimatology, and the anthropogenic carbon budget. The problem sets included at the end of each chapter encourage students to ask critical questions in this exciting new field. While much of the approach is mathematical, the math is at a level that should be accessible to students with a year or two of college level mathematics and/or physics.

    • Science

The Ocean Carbon Cycle and Climate


Author: Mick Follows,Temel Oguz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402020872
Category: Science
Page: 395
View: 314
Our desire to understand the global carbon cycle and its link to the climate system represents a huge challenge. These overarching questions have driven a great deal of scientific endeavour in recent years: What are the basic oceanic mechanisms which control the oceanic carbon reservoirs and the partitioning of carbon between ocean and atmosphere? How do these mechanisms depend on the state of the climate system and how does the carbon cycle feed back on climate? What is the current rate at which fossil fuel carbon dioxide is absorbed by the oceans and how might this change in the future? To begin to answer these questions we must first understand the distribution of carbon in the ocean, its partitioning between different ocean reservoirs (the "solubility" and "biological" pumps of carbon), the mechanisms controlling these reservoirs, and the relationship of the significant physical and biological processes to the physical environment. The recent surveys from the JGOFS and WOCE (Joint Global Ocean Flux Study and World Ocean Circulation Ex periment) programs have given us a first truly global survey of the physical and biogeochemical properties of the ocean. These new, high quality data provide the opportunity to better quantify the present oceans reservoirs of carbon and the changes due to fossil fuel burning. In addition, diverse process studies and time-series observations have clearly revealed the complexity of interactions between nutrient cycles, ecosystems, the carbon-cycle and the physical envi ronment.

    • Science

Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter


Author: Dennis A. Hansell,Craig A. Carlson
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0124071538
Category: Science
Page: 712
View: 7500
Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a complex mixture of molecules found throughout the world's oceans. It plays a key role in the export, distribution, and sequestration of carbon in the oceanic water column, posited to be a source of atmospheric climate regulation. Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, Second Edition, focuses on the chemical constituents of DOM and its biogeochemical, biological, and ecological significance in the global ocean, and provides a single, unique source for the references, information, and informed judgments of the community of marine biogeochemists. Presented by some of the world's leading scientists, this revised edition reports on the major advances in this area and includes new chapters covering the role of DOM in ancient ocean carbon cycles, the long term stability of marine DOM, the biophysical dynamics of DOM, fluvial DOM qualities and fate, and the Mediterranean Sea. Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, Second Edition, is an extremely useful resource that helps people interested in the largest pool of active carbon on the planet (DOC) get a firm grounding on the general paradigms and many of the relevant references on this topic. Features up-to-date knowledge of DOM, including five new chapters The only published work to synthesize recent research on dissolved organic carbon in the Mediterranean Sea Includes chapters that address inputs from freshwater terrestrial DOM

    • Science

Ocean Biogeochemistry

The Role of the Ocean Carbon Cycle in Global Change
Author: Michael J.R. Fasham
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540423980
Category: Science
Page: 301
View: 6388
Oceans account for 50% of the anthropogenic CO2 released into the atmosphere. During the past 15 years an international programme, the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), has been studying the ocean carbon cycle to quantify and model the biological and physical processes whereby CO2 is pumped from the ocean's surface to the depths of the ocean, where it can remain for hundreds of years. This project is one of the largest multi-disciplinary studies of the oceans ever carried out and this book synthesises the results. It covers all aspects of the topic ranging from air-sea exchange with CO2, the role of physical mixing, the uptake of CO2 by marine algae, the fluxes of carbon and nitrogen through the marine food chain to the subsequent export of carbon to the depths of the ocean. Special emphasis is laid on predicting future climatic change.

    • Science

Global Biogeochemical Cycles in the Climate System


Author: Ernst-Detlef Schulze,Martin Heimann,Sandy Harrison,Elisabeth Holland,Jonathan Lloyd,Ian Colin Prentice,David S. Schimel
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080507408
Category: Science
Page: 350
View: 4939
The interactions of biogeochemical cycles influence and maintain our climate system. Land use and fossil fuel emissions are currently impacting the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur on land, in the atmosphere, and in the oceans. This edited volume brings together 27 scholarly contributions on the state of our knowledge of earth system interactions among the oceans, land, and atmosphere. A unique feature of this treatment is the focus on the paleoclimatic and paleobiotic context for investigating these complex interrelationships. * Eight-page colour insert to highlight the latest research * A unique feature of this treatment is the focus on the paleoclimatic context for investigating these complex interrelationships.

    • Science

Dynamics of Marine Ecosystems

Biological-Physical Interactions in the Oceans
Author: K. H. Mann,John R. N. Lazier
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118687914
Category: Science
Page: 512
View: 8198
The new edition of this widely respected text provides comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of the effects of biological–physical interactions in the oceans from the microscopic to the global scale. considers the influence of physical forcing on biological processes in a wide range of marine habitats including coastal estuaries, shelf-break fronts, major ocean gyres, coral reefs, coastal upwelling areas, and the equatorial upwelling system investigates recent significant developments in this rapidly advancing field includes new research suggesting that long-term variability in the global atmospheric circulation affects the circulation of ocean basins, which in turn brings about major changes in fish stocks. This discovery opens up the exciting possibility of being able to predict major changes in global fish stocks written in an accessible, lucid style, this textbook is essential reading for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students studying marine ecology and biological oceanography

    • Science

Deep-Sea Food Chains and the Global Carbon Cycle


Author: G.T. Rowe,Vita Pariente
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401124523
Category: Science
Page: 400
View: 2098
Carbon dioxide and other `greenhouse' gases are increasing in the atmosphere due to the burning of fossil fuels, the destruction of rain forests, etc., leading to predictions of a gradual global warming which will perturb the global biosphere. An important process which counters this trend toward potential climate change is the removal of carbon dioxide from the surface ocean by photosynthesis. This process packages carbon in phytoplankton which enter the food chain or sink into the deep sea. Their ultimate fate is a `rain' of organic debris out of the surface-mixed layer of the ocean. On a global scale, the mechanisms and overall rate of this process are poorly known. The authors of the 25 papers in this volume present their state-of-the-art approaches to quantifying the mechanisms by which the `rain' of biogenic debris nourishes deep ocean life. Prominent deep sea ecologists, geochemists and modelers address relationships between data and models of carbon fluxes and food chains in the deep ocean. An attempt is made to estimate the fate of carbon in the deep sea on a global scale by summing up the utilization of organic matter among all the populations of the abyssal biosphere. Comparisons are made between these ecological approaches and estimates of geochemical fluxes based on sediment trapping, one-dimensional geochemical models and horizontal (physical) input from continental margins. Planning interdisciplinary enterprises between geochemists and ecologists, including new field programs, are summarized in the final chapter. The summary includes a list of the important gaps in understanding which must be addressed before the role of the deep-sea biota in global-scale processes can be put in perspective.

    • Science

Modeling Methods for Marine Science


Author: David M. Glover,William J. Jenkins,Scott C. Doney
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139500716
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 4885
This advanced textbook on modeling, data analysis and numerical techniques for marine science has been developed from a course taught by the authors for many years at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. The first part covers statistics: singular value decomposition, error propagation, least squares regression, principal component analysis, time series analysis and objective interpolation. The second part deals with modeling techniques: finite differences, stability analysis and optimization. The third part describes case studies of actual ocean models of ever increasing dimensionality and complexity, starting with zero-dimensional models and finishing with three-dimensional general circulation models. Throughout the book hands-on computational examples are introduced using the MATLAB programming language and the principles of scientific visualization are emphasised. Ideal as a textbook for advanced students of oceanography on courses in data analysis and numerical modeling, the book is also an invaluable resource for a broad range of scientists undertaking modeling in chemical, biological, geological and physical oceanography.

    • Science

Lagrangian Analysis and Prediction of Coastal and Ocean Dynamics


Author: Annalisa Griffa,A. D. Kirwan, Jr.,Arthur J. Mariano,Tamay Özgökmen,H. Thomas Rossby
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 113946308X
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 3188
Written by a group of international experts in their field, this book is a review of Lagrangian observation, analysis and assimilation methods in physical and biological oceanography. This multidisciplinary text presents new results on nonlinear analysis of Lagrangian dynamics, the prediction of particle trajectories, and Lagrangian stochastic models. It includes historical information, up-to-date developments, and speculation on future developments in Lagrangian-based observations, analysis, and modeling of physical and biological systems. Containing contributions from experimentalists, theoreticians, and modellers in the fields of physical oceanography, marine biology, mathematics, and meteorology, this book will be of great interest to researchers and graduate students looking for both practical applications and information on the theory of transport and dispersion in physical systems, biological modelling, and data assimilation.

    • Science

Atmosphere—Ocean Dynamics


Author: Adrian E. Gill
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483281582
Category: Science
Page: 682
View: 2566
Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics deals with a systematic and unified approach to the dynamics of the ocean and atmosphere. The book reviews the relationship of the ocean-atmosphere and how this system functions. The text explains this system through radiative equilibrium models; the book also considers the greenhouse effect, the effects of convection and of horizontal gradients, and the variability in radiative driving of the earth. Equations in the book show the properties of a material element, mass conservation, the balance of scalar quantity (such as salinity), and the mathematical behavior of the ocean and atmosphere. The book also addresses how the ocean-atmosphere system tends to adjust to equilibrium, both in the absence and presence of driving forces such as gravity. The text also explains the effect of the earth's rotation on the system, as well as the application of forced motions such as that produced by wind or temperature changes. The book explains tropical dynamics and the effects of variation of the Coriolis parameter with latitude. The text will be appreciated by meteorologists, environmentalists, students studying hydrology, and people working in general earth sciences.

    • Science

Climate and the Oceans


Author: Geoffrey K. Vallis
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691150281
Category: Science
Page: 231
View: 8881
Explores climate and oceans, providing a look at the basics of climate, a descriptive overview of the oceans, a brief introduction to dynamics, and coverage of other related topics.

    • Science

Marine Geochemistry

Ocean Circulation, Carbon Cycle and Climate Change
Author: Matthieu Roy-Barman,Catherine Jeandel
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191091421
Category: Science
Page: 384
View: 2477
Marine geochemistry uses chemical elements and their isotopes to study how the ocean works in terms of ocean circulation, chemical composition, biological activity and atmospheric CO2 regulation. This rapidly growing field is at a crossroad for many disciplines (physical, chemical and biological oceanography, geology, climatology, ecology, etc.). It provides important quantitative answers to questions such as: What is the deep ocean mixing rate? How much atmospheric CO2 is pumped by the ocean? How fast are pollutants removed from the ocean? How do ecosystems react to anthropogenic pressure? This text gives a simple introduction to the concepts, the methods and the applications of marine geochemistry with a particular emphasis on isotopic tracers. Overall introducing a very large number of topics (physical oceanography, ocean chemistry, isotopes, gas exchange, modelling, biogeochemical cycles), with a balance of didactic and indepth information, it provides an outline and a complete course in marine geochemistry. Throughout, the book uses a hands-on approach with worked out exercises and problems (with answers provided at the end of the book), to help the students work through the concepts presented. A broad scale approach is take including ocean physics, marine biology, ocean-climate relations, remote sensing, pollutions and ecology, so that the reader acquires a global perspective of the ocean. It also includes new topics arising from ongoing research programs. This textbook is essential reading for students, scholars, researchers and other professionals.

    • Science

An Introduction to the Chemistry of the Sea


Author: Michael E. Q. Pilson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521887070
Category: Science
Page: 533
View: 313
Engagingly introduces marine chemistry and the ocean's geochemical interactions with the solid earth and atmosphere, for students of oceanography.

    • Science

Global Physical Climatology


Author: Dennis L. Hartmann
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080571638
Category: Science
Page: 411
View: 3811
Global Physical Climatology is an introductory text devoted to the fundamental physical principles and problems of climate sensitivity and change. Addressing some of the most critical issues in climatology, this text features incisive coverage of topics that are central to understanding orbital parameter theory for past climate changes, and for anthropogenic and natural causes of near-future changes-- Key Features * Covers the physics of climate change * Examines the nature of the current climate and its previous changes * Explores the sensitivity of climate and the mechanisms by which humans are likely to produce near-future climate changes * Provides instructive end-of-chapter exercises and appendices

    • Science

Ocean Circulation and Climate

A 21st Century Perspective
Author: N.A
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123918537
Category: Science
Page: 904
View: 9334
The book represents all the knowledge we currently have on ocean circulation. It presents an up-to-date summary of the state of the science relating to the role of the oceans in the physical climate system. The book is structured to guide the reader through the wide range of world ocean circulation experiment (WOCE) science in a consistent way. Cross-references between contributors have been added, and the book has a comprehensive index and unified reference list. The book is simple to read, at the undergraduate level. It was written by the best scientists in the world who have collaborated to carry out years of experiments to better understand ocean circulation. Presents in situ and remote observations with worldwide coverage Provides theoretical understanding of processes within the ocean and at its boundaries to other Earth System components Allows for simulating ocean and climate processes in the past, present and future using a hierarchy of physical-biogeochemical models

    • Science

Chemical Oceanography and the Marine Carbon Cycle


Author: Steven Emerson,John Hedges
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139471619
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 7564
The principles of chemical oceanography provide insight into the processes regulating the marine carbon cycle. The text offers a background in chemical oceanography and a description of how chemical elements in seawater and ocean sediments are used as tracers of physical, biological, chemical and geological processes in the ocean. The first seven chapters present basic topics of thermodynamics, isotope systematics and carbonate chemistry, and explain the influence of life on ocean chemistry and how it has evolved in the recent (glacial-interglacial) past. This is followed by topics essential to understanding the carbon cycle, including organic geochemistry, air-sea gas exchange, diffusion and reaction kinetics, the marine and atmosphere carbon cycle and diagenesis in marine sediments. Figures are available to download from www.cambridge.org/9780521833134. Ideal as a textbook for upper-level undergraduates and graduates in oceanography, environmental chemistry, geochemistry and earth science and a valuable reference for researchers in oceanography.