Models, Mathematics, and Simulations
Author: Margaret Morrison
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199380279
Category: Philosophy
Page: 334
View: 8728
This text examines issues related to the way modelling and simulation enable us to reconstruct aspects of the world we are investigating. It also investigates the processes by which we extract concrete knowledge from those reconstructions and how that knowledge is legitimated.
Mathematics and Scientific Representation
Author: Christopher Pincock
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190208570
Category: Philosophy
Page: 352
View: 3614
Simulation and Similarity
Using Models to Understand the World
Author: Michael Weisberg
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 0199933669
Category: Science
Page: 224
View: 1916
This book is an account of modeling and idealization in modern scientific practice, focusing on concrete, mathematical, and computational models. The main topics of this book are the nature of models, the practice of modeling, and the nature of the relationship between models and real-world phenomena. In order to elucidate the model/world relationship, Weisberg develops a novel account of similarity called weighted feature matching.
Author: Michael Weisberg
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 0199933669
Category: Science
Page: 224
View: 1916
Science in the Age of Computer Simulation
Author: Eric Winsberg
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226902048
Category: Computers
Page: 152
View: 8984
Models as Mediators
Perspectives on Natural and Social Science
Author: Mary S. Morgan,Margaret Morrison
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521655712
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 401
View: 705
Edited collection examining the ways in which models are used in modern science.
Author: Mary S. Morgan,Margaret Morrison
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521655712
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 401
View: 705
What Makes Time Special?
Author: Craig Callender
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192517856
Category: Science
Page: 336
View: 6929
The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Science
Author: Paul Humphreys
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199368821
Category: Science
Page: 800
View: 9121
Mathematics as a Tool
Tracing New Roles of Mathematics in the Sciences
Author: Johannes Lenhard,Martin Carrier
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319544691
Category: Science
Page: 286
View: 9506
This book puts forward a new role for mathematics in the natural sciences. In the traditional understanding, a strong viewpoint is advocated, on the one hand, according to which mathematics is used for truthfully expressing laws of nature and thus for rendering the rational structure of the world. In a weaker understanding, many deny that these fundamental laws are of an essentially mathematical character, and suggest that mathematics is merely a convenient tool for systematizing observational knowledge. The position developed in this volume combines features of both the strong and the weak viewpoint. In accordance with the former, mathematics is assigned an active and even shaping role in the sciences, but at the same time, employing mathematics as a tool is taken to be independent from the possible mathematical structure of the objects under consideration. Hence the tool perspective is contextual rather than ontological. Furthermore, tool-use has to respect conditions like suitability, efficacy, optimality, and others. There is a spectrum of means that will normally differ in how well they serve particular purposes. The tool perspective underlines the inevitably provisional validity of mathematics: any tool can be adjusted, improved, or lose its adequacy upon changing practical conditions.
Author: Johannes Lenhard,Martin Carrier
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319544691
Category: Science
Page: 286
View: 9506
Generative Social Science: Studies in Agent-Based Computational Modeling
Studies in Agent-Based Computational Modeling
Author: Joshua M. Epstein
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400842875
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 384
View: 5575
Agent-based computational modeling is changing the face of social science. In Generative Social Science, Joshua Epstein argues that this powerful, novel technique permits the social sciences to meet a fundamentally new standard of explanation, in which one "grows" the phenomenon of interest in an artificial society of interacting agents: heterogeneous, boundedly rational actors, represented as mathematical or software objects. After elaborating this notion of generative explanation in a pair of overarching foundational chapters, Epstein illustrates it with examples chosen from such far-flung fields as archaeology, civil conflict, the evolution of norms, epidemiology, retirement economics, spatial games, and organizational adaptation. In elegant chapter preludes, he explains how these widely diverse modeling studies support his sweeping case for generative explanation. This book represents a powerful consolidation of Epstein's interdisciplinary research activities in the decade since the publication of his and Robert Axtell's landmark volume, Growing Artificial Societies. Beautifully illustrated, Generative Social Science includes a CD that contains animated movies of core model runs, and programs allowing users to easily change assumptions and explore models, making it an invaluable text for courses in modeling at all levels.
Author: Joshua M. Epstein
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400842875
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 384
View: 5575
Approaches and Methodologies in the Social Sciences
A Pluralist Perspective
Author: Donatella Della Porta,Michael Keating
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139474596
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 6320
A revolutionary textbook introducing masters and doctoral students to the major research approaches and methodologies in the social sciences. Written by an outstanding set of scholars, and derived from successful course teaching, this volume will empower students to choose their own approach to research, to justify this approach, and to situate it within the discipline. It addresses questions of ontology, epistemology and philosophy of social science, and proceeds to issues of methodology and research design essential for producing a good research proposal. It also introduces researchers to the main issues of debate and contention in the methodology of social sciences, identifying commonalities, historic continuities and genuine differences.
Author: Donatella Della Porta,Michael Keating
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139474596
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 6320
Science and Partial Truth
A Unitary Approach to Models and Scientific Reasoning
Author: Newton C. A. da Costa,Steven French
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198035534
Category: Philosophy
Page: 272
View: 4961
In the past thirty years, two fundamental issues have emerged in the philosophy of science. One concerns the appropriate attitude we should take towards scientific theories--whether we should regard them as true or merely empirically adequate, for example. The other concerns the nature of scientific theories and models and how these might best be represented. In this ambitious book, da Costa and French bring these two issues together by arguing that theories and models should be regarded as partially rather than wholly true. They adopt a framework that sheds new light on issues to do with belief, theory acceptance, and the realism-antirealism debate. The new machinery of "partial structures" that they develop offers a new perspective from which to view the nature of scientific models and their heuristic development. Their conclusions will be of wide interest to philosophers and historians of science.
Author: Newton C. A. da Costa,Steven French
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198035534
Category: Philosophy
Page: 272
View: 4961
Because Without Cause
Non-Causal Explanations in Science and Mathematics
Author: Marc Lange
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190269499
Category: Science
Page: 464
View: 8392
Not all scientific explanations work by describing causal connections between events or the world's overall causal structure. Some mathematical proofs explain why the theorems being proved hold. In this book, Marc Lange proposes philosophical accounts of many kinds of non-causal explanations in science and mathematics. These topics have been unjustly neglected in the philosophy of science and mathematics. One important kind of non-causal scientific explanation is termed explanation by constraint. These explanations work by providing information about what makes certain facts especially inevitable - more necessary than the ordinary laws of nature connecting causes to their effects. Facts explained in this way transcend the hurly-burly of cause and effect. Many physicists have regarded the laws of kinematics, the great conservation laws, the coordinate transformations, and the parallelogram of forces as having explanations by constraint. This book presents an original account of explanations by constraint, concentrating on a variety of examples from classical physics and special relativity. This book also offers original accounts of several other varieties of non-causal scientific explanation. Dimensional explanations work by showing how some law of nature arises merely from the dimensional relations among the quantities involved. Really statistical explanations include explanations that appeal to regression toward the mean and other canonical manifestations of chance. Lange provides an original account of what makes certain mathematical proofs but not others explain what they prove. Mathematical explanation connects to a host of other important mathematical ideas, including coincidences in mathematics, the significance of giving multiple proofs of the same result, and natural properties in mathematics. Introducing many examples drawn from actual science and mathematics, with extended discussions of examples from Lagrange, Desargues, Thomson, Sylvester, Maxwell, Rayleigh, Einstein, and Feynman, Because Without Cause's proposals and examples should set the agenda for future work on non-causal explanation.
Author: Marc Lange
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190269499
Category: Science
Page: 464
View: 8392
Simulation For The Social Scientist
Author: Gilbert, Nigel,Troitzsch, Klaus
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)
ISBN: 9780335216000
Category: Social Science
Page: 295
View: 6421
Philosophy and Computing
An Introduction
Author: Luciano Floridi
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134679599
Category: Philosophy
Page: 256
View: 5543
Philosophy and Computing explores each of the following areas of technology: the digital revolution; the computer; the Internet and the Web; CD-ROMs and Mulitmedia; databases, textbases, and hypertexts; Artificial Intelligence; the future of computing. Luciano Floridi shows us how the relationship between philosophy and computing provokes a wide range of philosophical questions: is there a philosophy of information? What can be achieved by a classic computer? How can we define complexity? What are the limits of quantam computers? Is the Internet an intellectual space or a polluted environment? What is the paradox in the Strong Artificial Intlligence program? Philosophy and Computing is essential reading for anyone wishing to fully understand both the development and history of information and communication technology as well as the philosophical issues it ultimately raises.
Author: Luciano Floridi
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134679599
Category: Philosophy
Page: 256
View: 5543
The Book of Evidence
Author: Peter Achinstein
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198032919
Category: Science
Page: 304
View: 2833
The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Physics
Author: Robert Batterman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199908354
Category: Philosophy
Page: 704
View: 8666
Scientific Knowledge and Its Social Problems
Author: N.A
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 9781412833783
Category: Education
Page: 449
View: 5436
Applications of Mathematics in Models, Artificial Neural Networks and Arts
Mathematics and Society
Author: Vittorio Capecchi,Massimo Buscema,Pierluigi Contucci,Bruno D'Amore
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048185818
Category: Social Science
Page: 617
View: 9116
The book shows a very original organization addressing in a non traditional way, but with a systematic approach, to who has an interest in using mathematics in the social sciences. The book is divided in four parts: (a) a historical part, written by Vittorio Capecchi which helps us understand the changes in the relationship between mathematics and sociology by analyzing the mathematical models of Paul F. Lazarsfeld, the model of simulation and artificial societies, models of artificial neural network and considering all the changes in scientific paradigms considered; (b) a part coordinated by Pier Luigi Contucci on mathematical models that consider the relationship between the mathematical models that come from physics and linguistics to arrive at the study of society and those which are born within sociology and economics; (c) a part coordinated by Massimo Buscema analyzing models of artificial neural networks; (d) a part coordinated by Bruno D’Amore which considers the relationship between mathematics and art. The title of the book "Mathematics and Society" was chosen because the mathematical applications exposed in the book allow you to address two major issues: (a) the general theme of technological innovation and quality of life (among the essays are on display mathematical applications to the problems of combating pollution and crime, applications to mathematical problems of immigration, mathematical applications to the problems of medical diagnosis, etc.) (b) the general theme of technical innovation and creativity, for example the art and mathematics section which connects to the theme of creative cities. The book is very original because it is not addressed only to those who are passionate about mathematical applications in social science but also to those who, in different societies, are: (a) involved in technological innovation to improve the quality of life; (b) involved in the wider distribution of technological innovation in different areas of creativity (as in the project "Creative Cities Network" of UNESCO).
Author: Vittorio Capecchi,Massimo Buscema,Pierluigi Contucci,Bruno D'Amore
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048185818
Category: Social Science
Page: 617
View: 9116
The World in the Model
How Economists Work and Think
Author: Mary S. Morgan
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139560417
Category: Business & Economics
Page: N.A
View: 6862
During the last two centuries, the way economic science is done has changed radically: it has become a social science based on mathematical models in place of words. This book describes and analyses that change - both historically and philosophically - using a series of case studies to illuminate the nature and the implications of these changes. It is not a technical book; it is written for the intelligent person who wants to understand how economics works from the inside out. This book will be of interest to economists and science studies scholars (historians, sociologists and philosophers of science). But it also aims at a wider readership in the public intellectual sphere, building on the current interest in all things economic and on the recent failure of the so-called economic model, which has shaped our beliefs and the world we live in.
Author: Mary S. Morgan
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139560417
Category: Business & Economics
Page: N.A
View: 6862
Computational Philosophy of Science
Author: Paul Thagard
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262700481
Category: Philosophy
Page: 240
View: 3254