Russia's Warplanes

Russian-Made Military Aircraft and Helicopters Today:
Author: Piotr Butowski
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780997309201
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 7433
Following the success of the first offering in the series, Harpia Publishing presents the second volume of Russia's Warplanes, completing what has become a standard reference work on the subject. Once again researched and written by the acknowledged expert in the field, the book draws upon the author's unrivaled connections within the Russian aerospace industry to conclude this comprehensive directory of the country's latest military aviation hardware. The result forms an essential companion to Volume 1, which detailed tactical combat aircraft, attack and transport helicopters, reconnaissance and surveillance aircraft, and special mission aircraft including airborne command posts and relay aircraft. Between them, the two works present in full detail the fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters that equip the various Russian air arms, as well as those developed for and operated by foreign states in the post-Soviet era. Alongside technical descriptions for each military aircraft - and every significant sub-variant - currently available from Russia's aerospace industry, or otherwise in large-scale service, Piotr Butowski provides historical background and accurate data relating to production and operators around the world. Full coverage is extended to upgrades, as well as the new avionics and advanced weapons that these introduce. The second volume in the series is dedicated to long-range bombers - including the Tu-95MS and Tu-160 that recently made their combat debuts over Syria - maritime patrol and antisubmarine warfare aircraft, strategic transport and tanker aircraft, theater transports, and trainers. The work provides authoritative accounts of Russia's current and future strategic bomber programs, as well as other fascinating types including the world's largest military transport, the An-124, and the new-generation Yak-130 advanced trainer and light attack aircraft. In common with previous Harpia titles, the book contains a wealth of high-quality photographs, many of which have never previously been published.

    • Air weapons

Russia's Air-Launched Weapons


Author: Piotr Butowski
Publisher: Harpia Publishing
ISBN: 9780997309218
Category: Air weapons
Page: 80
View: 8900
This latest volume in Harpia's new-look format continues the publisher's aim of providing unrivalled detail and accuracy in its coverage of lesser-known areas of air warfare research. Following Harpia Publishing's acclaimed two-volume series Russia's Warplanes, author and researcher Piotr Butowski sheds light on the full range of air-launched ordnance of Russian origin that can be found in large-scale service today. This unique reference work provides a wealth of information - most of which has been gained from first-hand and internal industry sources - on the full spectrum of Russian aircraft-launched weapons. Supported by newly commissioned artworks and extensive specification tables, chapters describe in detail air-to-air missiles, air-to-surface missiles, guided and free-fall bombs and cluster munitions, rockets, as well as aircraft guns. Also included are the range of strategic munitions currently fielded or in development for the Russian Air Force, including cruise missiles and nuclear bombs. Addressing a previously neglected field within aerospace research and publishing, Russia's Air-launched Weapons will appeal to aircraft and weapons enthusiasts and conflict researchers alike. This latest volume in Harpia's new-look format continues the publisher's aim of providing unrivalled detail and accuracy in its coverage of lesser-known areas of air warfare research.

    • History

Russia's Military Aircraft in the 21st Century


Author: Yefim Gordon
Publisher: Ian Allen Pub
ISBN: 9781857802245
Category: History
Page: 127
View: 4770
This interesting survey looks at Russian military aviation in the post-Soviet era. While difficulties with funding means that the large new aircraft programs of the Cold War era are likely to remain things of the past, military aviation in Russia is not standing still. Upgrades to existing programs and reorganization of current resources are two of the ways in which combat capability is being not just maintained but enhanced. This volume looks at programs like the new Mi-8MTKO and Mi-24PN night-capable helicopters from Mil. The latest Sukhoi upgrades such as the Su-24M2, Su-25SM, and Su-27SM are also explored, along with the programs designed to extend the capabilties of the Tu-95MS and Tu-160 bombers by allowing for the carriage of new and more capable missiles. The revamping of the Russian Air Force's training fleet with the Yakovlev's Yak-130 is also considered, contrasting the differences between the first ones built and production-standard aircraft.

    • History

Russian Gunship Helicopters


Author: Yefim Gordon
Publisher: Pen and Sword
ISBN: 1473831393
Category: History
Page: 96
View: 9408
Features;??* Profiles of iconic types such as the Mil MI-24 'Hind', the Mil-28 and the Kamov Ka-52 'Alligator'.?* Summary of design histories and careers?* Colour reference for paint schemes ?* Critical review of available kits?* Over 180 colour and black and white illustrations, including 20 full colour side-views and a range of various 3-view line-drawings. ??With profiles of a host of exciting designs, accompanied by a descriptive narrative history of the various types, this volume combines practical information with reflective historical analysis, making for a visually rich volume providing modellers with all they need to know about the most exciting Russian Gunship helicopter designs and associated model kits.??This edition deals primarily with the three principal attack helicopter types of the present-day Russian Army;??The Mil MI-24 'Hind' – otherwise known as 'the Flying Crocodile' – has been produced in large numbers with many versions and variants produced. It has been supplied to a host of countries and seen considerable combat action in conflicts both in the Soviet Union and abroad. It still forms the backbone of army aviation in Russia and remains at the forefront of national exposure.??The Mil-28 is a more contemporary type and is broadly the equivalent of the McDonnell Douglas AH-64 Apache. ??The Kamov Ka-52 'Alligator' – NATO name 'Hokum-B' – also features. This helicopter is in service with the Army and is entering service also with the Russian Navy. ??Well-illustrated histories and structural analyses are supplemented with detailed descriptions of the various plastic scale model kits which have been released, along with commentary concerning their accuracy and available modifications and decals. This level of detail and insight is sure to prove invaluable to a wide community of model-makers, both at home and overseas.

    • History

Modern Chinese Warplanes

Combat Aircraft and Units of the Chinese Air Force and Naval Aviation
Author: Andreas Rupprecht,Tom Cooper
Publisher: Casemate Publishers
ISBN: 9780985455408
Category: History
Page: 256
View: 9235
Much of the fascination that Chinese military aviation holds for the analyst and enthusiast stems from the thick veil of secrecy that surrounds it. This uniquely compact yet comprehensive directory serves as a magnificently illustrated, in-depth analysis and directory of modern Chinese air power. It is organized in three parts: the most important military aircraft and their weapons found in Chinese service today; aircraft markings and serial number systems; and orders of battle for the People's Liberation Army Air Force and Naval Air Force. The study includes the latest developments emerging from behind the 'Bamboo Curtain', including the J-20 stealth fighter program and other indigenous projects that are equipping a rapidly modernizing air arm. The centerpiece consists of almost 100 fully illustrated pages detailing the organizational structure of the Air Force and Naval Aviation, providing an easy-to-use review of all known flying units, their equipment and their markings. No other book has ever attempted to present this level of accuracy in this way: 'Modern Chinese Air Power' portrays the PLAAF and the PLANAF in a degree of detail that was previously unavailable.

    • History

The Osprey encyclopedia of Russian aircraft


Author: Bill Gunston
Publisher: Osprey Pub Co
ISBN: N.A
Category: History
Page: 560
View: 8942
Comprehensive, illustrated guide to more than 1,000 types built from 1917 until the fall of the Berlin Wall. Covers engines, air-launched weapons, and X-planes.

Soviet and Russian Military Aircraft in the Americas


Author: Yefim Gordon,Dmitriy Komissarov
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781902109541
Category:
Page: 272
View: 5967
The first recipient of Soviet military hardware in the Americas was Cuba in 1959. Since then the Cuban Air Force has operated the MiG-15 to the MiG-29, An-26 and Il-76MD transports and more. Cuban combat aircraft have seen action against the ships and aircraft used by the CIA in its subversive activities against Cuba. Other Latin American nations have also ordered Russian military aircraft - based on common sense and economic expediency rather than political affiliations. These include Mexico; Brazil; neighboring Colombia; the Argentina Air Force and Bolivia which is among the latest customers for the Mi-17, with plans to use for drug-busting operations. Another major customer for Soviet aircraft was Peru, which ordered An-26 and An-32 transports, MiG-29 fighters, Su-20/Su-22 fighter-bombers and Su-25 attack aircraft. Peruvian Su-22s have been involved in the border conflict with neighboring Ecuador and Soviet aircraft (notably Mi-17 and Mi-24 helicopters) have been actively used by the Sandinista regime in Nicaragua against the US-backed Contras insurgents during the civil war. More recently, Venezuela, another country noted for its anti-US stance, purchased a large batch of Su-30MKV multi-role fighters, as well as Mi-17 and Mi-26 helicopters. Written by the acknowledged experts in the field and illustrated throughout with photographs and color artwork, this is the definitive record of Soviet and Russian military aircraft and their combat operations in this region.

    • History

Soviet Naval Aviation, 1946-1991


Author: Yefim Gordon,Dmitriy Komissarov
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781902109312
Category: History
Page: 368
View: 8119
Early in the 20th century, shortly after military aviation came on the scene, Imperialist Russia started using aircraft to support the operations of the Russian Navy. Rapid development of naval aviation continued after the October Revolution of 1917 and Soviet naval airmen flying fighters and torpedo-bombers made a significant contribution to the defeat of Nazi Germany in the Great Patriotic War. Yet the heyday of Soviet Naval Aviation (or AVMF) was in the post-war years. While in the late 1940s the AVMF relied largely on indigenous and American propeller-driven aircraft that had survived the fray, in the 1950s the naval airmen began mastering jets. The AVMF units started re-equipping with Il'yushin IL-28 Beagle twinjet bombers and were the sole operator of the Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun torpedo-bomber. In the 1960s the AVMF kept a close watch on the world's oceans with the help of its Tu-95RTs Bear-D long-range maritime reconnaissance/over-the-horizon targeting aircraft which transmitted the coordinates of NATO warships not only to the General Staff in Moscow but also to Soviet submarines armed with torpedoes. The AVMF's fighter element's primary mission was to protect Soviet Navy bases and naval task forces at sea and as technology progressed, the 1950s-vintage Mikoyan MiG-15bis Fagot-B and MiG-17F Fresco-C subsonic fighters were superseded by various versions of the supersonic MiG-21 Fishbed, MiG-29 Fulcrum and Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker fourth-generation fighters in the final years of the Soviet era. Along with a chapter devoted to the Soviet aircraft carriers, Soviet Naval Aviation is the definitive reference book of the Soviet maritime presence, both on the sea and in the air.

    • History

Russian Tactical Aviation: Since 2001


Author: Dmitriy Komissarov,Yefim Gordon
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781902109527
Category: History
Page: 272
View: 5952
The Tactical Aviation branch (FA – Frontovaya aviatsiya) has always occupied an important place in the structure of the Soviet, and subsequently Russian, Air Force. In the 20-odd post-Soviet years the Russian Air Force has been repeatedly reformed and in the course of the reforms the importance of Tactical Aviation has risen. The brief military conflict with Georgia in August 2008 highlighted poor organization of operations and in 2009 the customary air armies, air divisions and air regiments were replaced by aviation bases. Much importance has attached to fleet renewal and upgrading of the Russian Tactical Aviation capability. The Su-35S 'Generation 4++' single-seat fighter is entering full-scale production and service. Deliveries of single-seat Su-27SM3 (a mid-life update) and two-seat Su-30SM and Su-30M2 multi-role fighters are also underway. The Beriyev A-50 AWACS aircraft, which supports the Tactical Aviation's air defense role, are also being updated. Production and deliveries of the Su-34 tactical bomber are continuing and for want of a next-generation attack aircraft, the Russian Air Force is continuing to upgrade its Su-25 fleet--the latest Su-25SM3 is now in service. Much attention has been paid to combat training. Exercises are being held more frequently than in the 1990s and in-flight refuelling of various aircraft, including tactical bombers, is practiced on a much wider scale than before, as are long-range flights by groups of fighters. The book, companion to the highly successful Soviet Tactical Aviation, illustrates the current state of the Russian Air Force's tactical aviation as well as its recent history in various overseas conflicts. Details are given of the aviation bases (units), their locations and the principal types currently in service. Russian Tactical Aviationis illustrated throughout with many previously unpublished photos, including air-to-air shots during recent Russian Force exercises, as well as color profiles of Russian tactical aircraft and helicopters operated by various aviation bases.

    • History

Russian Air Power

Current Organisation and Aircraft of All Russian Air Forces
Author: Yefim Gordon,Dmitriy Komissarov
Publisher: Crecy Pub
ISBN: 9781857803433
Category: History
Page: 368
View: 5123
A follow up to the hugely popular first publication of Russian Air Power in 2009, Yefim Gordon and Dmitriy Komissarov bring readers the fully updated and revised new edition. The original volume was the first comprehensive survey published on all the Russian Air Forces and was the result of Yefim Gordon's unrivalled access to information on Russian air forces. Since the first edition was published Russia has undergone a complete restructuring of its air forces. The previous edition of Russian Air Power described the Russian Air Force's post-Soviet organisation, order of battle and, to a certain extent, the types in Russian Air Force service. In the course of the 20 years that have had elapsed since the demise of the Soviet Union the Russian Air Force and Russian Naval Aviation have had repeatedly been reformed; still, the Russian government was not happy with the results. The Russian President voiced his dissatisfaction with the Air Force's performance especially strongly after the August 2008 operation in the Caucasus whose aim was to 'compel Georgia to peace'. The many reforms of the Russian aircraft industry, too, have failed to yield the desired results. Therefore, the Russian political leaders and military top brass took the decision in 2009 to launch yet another reform of the Russian Armed Forces, including the Air Force. The new Air Force organisation is to improve the control of first-line units by eliminating superfluous and inefficient links in the chain of command. In 2009 the customary air armies, air divisions and air regiments were replaced by aviation bases, each of which comprises two or three squadrons operating a single type or several types of aircraft. In the course of reorganisation a sizeable number of airbases (military airfields) were transferred to the Air Force reserve and are presently unoccupied. Many air regiments were disbanded, their personnel and aircraft being transferred to other aviation bases. Each aviation base has its unique number and is a direct reporting unit. Moreover, in late 2008 the Russian Air Force started fielding new aircraft and helicopter types. The long-awaited maiden flight of the Sukhoi T-50 (alias PAK FA) – Russia's fifth-generation fighter – took place in late January 2010. The Russian Air Force has a lot riding on this aircraft; some defence analysts believe that the T-50 outperforms the Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor in several parameters. The Russian Navy has ordered the new MiG-29K/MiG-29KUB shipboard fighter to complement the Su-33; for the Russian Air Force's strategic arm, funding has been allocated for further work on the PAK DA, a new bomber that is to be far superior to both the Russian Tu-160 and the American B-2. Following a re structuring to Russian's air forces, Yefim Gordon and Dmitriy Komissarov provide readers with a fully revised and updated new edition of the popular Russian Air Power.The title will include any updates made since the publication of the first edition and provide a true picture of Russian Air Power and forces today. The new book will describe all the changes that have taken place in the Russian Air Force. The contents are completely revised and packed with extensive detail, photographs and colour artworks.

    • History

Modern Israeli Air Power

Aircraft and Units of the Israeli Air Force
Author: Thomas Newdick,Ofer Zidon
Publisher: Harpia Pub Llc
ISBN: 9780985455422
Category: History
Page: 256
View: 5586
Israel remains the cornerstone of Middle East conflicts and tensions, and the spearhead of Israeli military might remain the Air Corps (Kheil Ha'Avir) of the Israeli Defense Forces. Renowned for its continuous efforts to maintain dominance in every dimension of air warfare, improve its capabilities, and outsmart its opponents, the Israeli Air Force has recently been moving away from preparations for interstate wars towards improving its potential to wage asymmetric conflicts, counterinsurgency campaigns and special operations. It has become smaller and leaner, but also much more efficient, and is foremost a force with much improved quick-reaction capabilities. Nowadays the IAF employs cutting-edge domestic and imported technology for gathering intelligence, in its command and communication systems, and in its flying units, with the aim of obtaining real-time targeting information, making it prepared for every eventuality, no matter when or where. This book provides a compact yet comprehensive, up-to-date, and in-depth analysis and directory of modern Israeli air power, detailing flying units and relevant infrastructure, its aircraft and the armament they use. Using text and superb illustrations, the title covers every flying unit and every base, every aircraft type flown and every weapons system, offering a unique insight into what Israel considers its 'best defense'. REVIEWS Harpia has forged a deservedly brilliant reputation with gems like these. Interested in modern Israeli airpower? A student of Middle East conflict? Get this book.Cybermodeler

    • Aeronautics, Military

Russian Military Aviation Directory


Author: Piotr Butowski
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781880588512
Category: Aeronautics, Military
Page: 208
View: 6938
9 x 12 208 pgs 500 color photos 10 color full-page 3-view artworks, 25+ side-view color profiles 15 large cutaways hundreds of technical & line drawings There is no comparable work. The material presented is the latest available and has been researched and written by one of the foremost authors in the field of Russian military aviation. Russia's aircraft and air forces remain the hottest topics within the field of contemporary military aviation. This book is an incredible value at $29.95.

    • History

Soviet Cold War Fighters


Author: Alexander Mladenov
Publisher: Fonthill Media
ISBN: N.A
Category: History
Page: 352
View: 1053
Beautifully illustrated with many rare and unpublished photographs, Soviet Cold War Fighters looks at the main development periods of Soviet fighter designs and covers all the important features and developments for each - a total of four generations of fighter were developed from the late 1940s to the early 1980s - that witnessed the most iconic and powerful fighters such as the legendary MiG-15, MiG-21, Tu-128, Su-9, MiG-23, MiG-25 reach for the skies, followed by the modern day MiG-29, MiG-31 and Su-27, which strike fear in the West for their phenomenal weaponry and blistering performance. All aircraft are described in detail with facts and figures, including their weapons and instances of combat employment, as well as explaining how the Cold War drastically changed Soviet fighter design to counter the West. Researched and written by Alexander Mladenov, a leading aviation journalist, this is a highly detailed testament to leading Soviet fighter design and development.

    • History

Soviet and Russian Military Aircraft in Africa


Author: Yefim Gordon,Dmitriy Komissarov
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781902109275
Category: History
Page: 272
View: 5667
From the outset, the export of revolution and Communist ideology had been one of the cornerstones of Soviet Russia's (and later the Soviet Union's) foreign policy and by the mid-1950s the export of Soviet arms expanded into Africa with Algeria being amongst the first African countries to receive Soviet combat aircraft. By the 1960s and 1970s, a large number of African states had gained independence and the Soviet Union increased supply. This situation persisted until the early 1990s when most of the former Soviet allies shed socialism and switched allegiance to the West. Having often been flown by foreign volunteer or mercenary pilots such as the Cubans in Angola and South Africans in Sierra Leone, Soviet/Russian military aircraft can now be seen in countries as varied as Algeria, Libya, the Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Uganda, and Sudan. Combat types from the MiG-15 to the latest Su-30MK fighters, Su-24MK tactical bombers, Su-25 attack aircraft, Mi-24/25/35 helicopters and transports from the Antonov An-12 to the Il'yushin Il-76 can all be seen across Africa. Arranged by country and using previously classified sources, "Soviet and Russian Military Aircraft in Africa" includes comprehensive fleet lists of all known Soviet/Russian military aircraft together with their Chinese derivatives. Highly illustrated with contemporary photographs, air force insignia and color profiles this book forms an invaluable reference for modellers, enthusiasts and aviation historians alike. As every conflict involving Egyptian aircraft has been fought in the Middle East, full details of those aircraft will feature in the forthcoming companion volume "Soviet and Russian Military Aircraft in the Middle East."

    • History

Soviet Spyplanes of the Cold War


Author: Yefim Gordon
Publisher: Pen and Sword
ISBN: 1473831407
Category: History
Page: 96
View: 9368
Spy in the Sky' matters have long been a source of interest and fascination for aircraft enthusiasts, historians and modellers and none more so than the elusive and secretive Soviet types of the Cold War era. Yefim Gordon presents us here with a range of such types, presenting a collection of photographs, profiles and line drawings together with supplementary text detailing the history of each craft, encompassing the various developmental milestones, successes and pitfalls experienced along the way.??The Soviet Union's two dedicated spyplane types, the Yakovlev Yak-25RV 'Mandrake' (the Soviet equivalent of the Lockheed U-2) and the MiG-25R 'Foxbat' are profiled, supplemented by details garnered from a host of original sources.??Well-illustrated histories and structural analyses are set alongside detailed descriptions of the various plastic scale model kits that have been released, along with commentary concerning their accuracy and available modifications and decals.??With an unparalleled level of visual information - paint schemes, models, line drawings and photographs - it is simply the best reference for any model-maker setting out to build a variant of this iconic craft.

    • History

Sukhoi Su-34 'Fullback': Russia's 21st Century Striker


Author: Hugh Harkins
Publisher: Centurion Publishing
ISBN: 9781903630341
Category: History
Page: 80
View: 9797
Su-34 The Su-34 'Fullback' was developed from the Su-27 'Flanker' interceptor/fighter as a fourth plus generation stike aircraft for service with the Russian Air Force. Conceived in the twilight years of the Soviet Union, the aircraft weathered the finacial crisis that gripped post cominist Russia following the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990's, maturing into an advanced strike aircraft, deliveries to the Russian Air Force commencing in late 2006. The aircraft is currently in service with increasing numbers being ordered to replace that countries aging fleet of Su-24M/M2 strike aircraft. It is also planned for the Su-34 to replace the Su-24MR in the tactical reconnaissance role. This volune covers the program from conception to operational service with chapters describing the aircraft, systems and weapons, production, flight testing and initial service. The text is complimented by black and white photographs

    • History

Beyond the Horizon

The History of Aew&c Aircraft
Author: Sergio Santana,Ian Shaw
Publisher: Harpia Pub Llc
ISBN: 9780985455439
Category: History
Page: 256
View: 2634
No modern air force would contemplate a critical air operation without the involvement of some kind of airborne early warning component. What we now know as airborne early warning began as long ago as the early 1940s, as part of a British project that has long been shrouded in secrecy. For the first time, Harpia Publishing presents the full history of the airborne early warning mission and its various aircraft, from these first tentative steps in World War II up to the present day, and the use of AEW and control (AEW&C) platforms as a familiar 'force multiplier' in modern air warfare. Detailed, precise and above all accurate, Sérgio Santana and Ian Shaw draw upon a myriad of technical data, archive material and extensive interviews with the personnel who operated AEW&C aircraft throughout the years. As well as detailing the development of technology and daily operations of the airborne early warning community, attention is also given to the deployment of these critical capabilities in combat, from World War II, via Korea and Southeast Asia to the various Arab-Israeli Wars, Operation Desert Storm and more recent campaigns. Often, the story of airborne early warning was one of painstaking development and even frustration in the face of great technical challenge. More recently, rapid advances in electronics, miniaturization, and increased collaboration have brought AEW&C aircraft within reach of smaller nations. As well as the familiar players such as the United States and Russia, therefore, coverage is also given to the more recent AEW&C developments -- both fixed- and rotary-wing -- that have taken place in Brazil, China, Sweden and elsewhere. Alongside a chronology that explains in unprecedented detail the development of the AEW&C mission, its assorted platforms, and their employment in operational scenarios, the book provides extensive technical specifications for every AEW&C aircraft that has entered front-line service, as well as detailing the air arms and individual units that have operated these types through the years. Using Harpia's established combination of eyewitness accounts and lavish illustrations including specially commissioned artworks, Beyond the Horizon provides a definitive account of how AEW&C has developed from its humble beginnings to become an essential element of modern warfare. REVIEWS provides a definitive account of how AEW&C has developed from its humble beginnings to become an essential element of modern warfare. Aeroscale

    • Geopolitics

The Russian Military and the Georgia War

Lessons and Implications
Author: Ariel Cohen,Robert E. Hamilton
Publisher: Strategic Studies Institute
ISBN: 1584874910
Category: Geopolitics
Page: 100
View: 748
In this monograph, the authors state that Russia planned the war against Georgia in August 2008 aiming for the annexation of Abkhazia, weakening the Saakashvili regime, and prevention of NATO enlargement. According to them, while Russia won the campaign, it also exposed its own military as badly needing reform. The war also demonstrated weaknesses of the NATO and the European Union security systems.

    • History

Russia's Long Twentieth Century

Voices, Memories, Contested Perspectives
Author: Choi Chatterjee,Lisa A. Kirschenbaum,Deborah A. Field
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317221222
Category: History
Page: 290
View: 4825
Covering the sweep of Russian history from empire to Soviet Union to post-Soviet state, Russia's Long Twentieth Century is a comprehensive yet accessible textbook that situates modern Russia in the context of world history and encourages students to analyse the ways in which citizens learnt to live within its system and create distinctly Soviet identities from its structures and ideologies. Chronologically organised but moving beyond the traditional Cold War framework, this book covers topics such as the accelerating social, economic and political shifts in the Russian empire before the Revolution of 1905, the construction of the socialist order under Bolshevik government, and the development of a new state structure, political ideology and foreign policy in the decades since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The authors highlight the polemics and disagreements that energize the field, discussing interpretations from Russian, émigré, and Western historiographies and showing how scholars diverge sharply in their understanding of key events, historical processes, and personalities. Each chapter contains a selection of primary sources and discussion questions, engaging with the voices and experiences of ordinary Soviet citizens and familiarizing students with the techniques of source criticism. Illustrated with images and maps throughout, this book is an essential introduction to twentieth-century Russian history.