• Computers

The Sciences of the Artificial


Author: Herbert A. Simon
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262264495
Category: Computers
Page: 248
View: 7893
Continuing his exploration of the organization of complexity and the science of design, this new edition of Herbert Simon's classic work on artificial intelligence adds a chapter that sorts out the current themes and tools -- chaos, adaptive systems, genetic algorithms -- for analyzing complexity and complex systems. There are updates throughout the book as well. These take into account important advances in cognitive psychology and the science of design while confirming and extending the book's basic thesis: that a physical symbol system has the necessary and sufficient means for intelligent action. The chapter "Economic Reality" has also been revised to reflect a change in emphasis in Simon's thinking about the respective roles of organizations and markets in economic systems.

    • Computers

The Book of Why

The New Science of Cause and Effect
Author: Judea Pearl,Dana Mackenzie
Publisher: Basic Books
ISBN: 0465097618
Category: Computers
Page: 432
View: 6500
How the study of causality revolutionized science and the world "Correlation is not causation." This mantra, chanted by scientists for more than a century, has led to a virtual prohibition on causal talk. Today, that taboo is dead. The causal revolution, instigated by Judea Pearl and his colleagues, has cut through a century of confusion and established causality--the study of cause and effect--on a firm scientific basis. His work explains how we can know easy things, like whether it was rain or a sprinkler that made a sidewalk wet; and how to answer hard questions, like whether a drug cured an illness. Pearl's work enables us to know not just whether one thing causes another: it lets us explore the world that is and the worlds that could have been. It shows us the essence of human thought and key to artificial intelligence. Anyone who wants to understand either needs The Book of Why.

    • Computers

Machinery of the Mind


Author: George Johnson
Publisher: Crown
ISBN: 0307799395
Category: Computers
Page: 336
View: 6213
Machinery of Mind is a full-scale, indispensable examination of the history, content, politics, and philosophy of Artificial Intelligence. In detail, consecutively but with a keen awareness of the interdisciplinary nature of the field, Johnson traces the history of the burgeoning science from its earliest practitioners to corporation-funded engineers and experts: Roger Schank, Terry Winograd, Doug Lenat and others who are struggling to create machines that can actually think independently, going beyond man-made programs and "games." Johnson presents the counterarguments of some theorists that intelligence is less than soul and that the "new science" moves arrogantly into dangerous territory. Necessarily inconclusive, this fascinating study is clear, comprehensive, richly detailed, and endlessly provocative.

    • Computers

God from the Machine

Artificial Intelligence Models of Religious Cognition
Author: William Sims Bainbridge
Publisher: Rowman Altamira
ISBN: 9780759107441
Category: Computers
Page: 179
View: 3003
A demonstration of how religion and religious belief can emerge using computer simulations

    • Science

Swarm Intelligence

From Natural to Artificial Systems
Author: Eric Bonabeau,Marco Dorigo,Guy Theraulaz
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198030157
Category: Science
Page: 320
View: 2029
Social insects--ants, bees, termites, and wasps--can be viewed as powerful problem-solving systems with sophisticated collective intelligence. Composed of simple interacting agents, this intelligence lies in the networks of interactions among individuals and between individuals and the environment. A fascinating subject, social insects are also a powerful metaphor for artificial intelligence, and the problems they solve--finding food, dividing labor among nestmates, building nests, responding to external challenges--have important counterparts in engineering and computer science. This book provides a detailed look at models of social insect behavior and how to apply these models in the design of complex systems. The book shows how these models replace an emphasis on control, preprogramming, and centralization with designs featuring autonomy, emergence, and distributed functioning. These designs are proving immensely flexible and robust, able to adapt quickly to changing environments and to continue functioning even when individual elements fail. In particular, these designs are an exciting approach to the tremendous growth of complexity in software and information. Swarm Intelligence draws on up-to-date research from biology, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, robotics, operations research, and computer graphics, and each chapter is organized around a particular biological example, which is then used to develop an algorithm, a multiagent system, or a group of robots. The book will be an invaluable resource for a broad range of disciplines.

    • Computers

Artificial Minds


Author: Stan Franklin
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262561099
Category: Computers
Page: 449
View: 3538
Stan Franklin is the perfect tour guide through the contemporary interdisciplinary matrix of artificial intelligence, cognitive science, cognitive neuroscience, artificial neural networks, artificial life, and robotics that is producing a new paradigm of mind. Along the way, Franklin makes the case for a perspective that rejects a rigid distinction between mind and non-mind in favor of a continuum from less to more mind.

    • Computers

Artificial life II

proceedings of the workshop on artificial life held February, 1990 in Santa Fe, New Mexico
Author: Christopher G. Langton
Publisher: Addison-Wesley Longman
ISBN: 9780201525700
Category: Computers
Page: 854
View: 2018

    • Computers

50 Years of Artificial Intelligence

Essays Dedicated to the 50th Anniversary of Artificial Intelligence
Author: Max Lungarella,Fumiya Iida,Josh Bongard
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540772952
Category: Computers
Page: 398
View: 6562
This Festschrift volume, published in celebration of the 50th Anniversary of Artificial Intelligence, includes 34 refereed papers written by leading researchers in the field of Artificial Intelligence. The papers were carefully selected from the invited lectures given at the 50th Anniversary Summit of AI, held at the Centro Stefano Franscini, Monte Verità, Ascona, Switzerland, July 9-14, 2006. The summit provided a venue for discussions on a broad range of topics.

    • Technology & Engineering

Life 3.0

Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence
Author: Max Tegmark
Publisher: Vintage
ISBN: 1101946601
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 384
View: 9430
New York Times Best Seller How will Artificial Intelligence affect crime, war, justice, jobs, society and our very sense of being human? The rise of AI has the potential to transform our future more than any other technology—and there’s nobody better qualified or situated to explore that future than Max Tegmark, an MIT professor who’s helped mainstream research on how to keep AI beneficial. How can we grow our prosperity through automation without leaving people lacking income or purpose? What career advice should we give today’s kids? How can we make future AI systems more robust, so that they do what we want without crashing, malfunctioning or getting hacked? Should we fear an arms race in lethal autonomous weapons? Will machines eventually outsmart us at all tasks, replacing humans on the job market and perhaps altogether? Will AI help life flourish like never before or give us more power than we can handle? What sort of future do you want? This book empowers you to join what may be the most important conversation of our time. It doesn’t shy away from the full range of viewpoints or from the most controversial issues—from superintelligence to meaning, consciousness and the ultimate physical limits on life in the cosmos.

    • Computers

Artificial Unintelligence

How Computers Misunderstand the World
Author: Meredith Broussard
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262346745
Category: Computers
Page: 248
View: 3634
A guide to understanding the inner workings and outer limits of technology and why we should never assume that computers always get it right. In Artificial Unintelligence, Meredith Broussard argues that our collective enthusiasm for applying computer technology to every aspect of life has resulted in a tremendous amount of poorly designed systems. We are so eager to do everything digitally—hiring, driving, paying bills, even choosing romantic partners—that we have stopped demanding that our technology actually work. Broussard, a software developer and journalist, reminds us that there are fundamental limits to what we can (and should) do with technology. With this book, she offers a guide to understanding the inner workings and outer limits of technology—and issues a warning that we should never assume that computers always get things right. Making a case against technochauvinism—the belief that technology is always the solution—Broussard argues that it's just not true that social problems would inevitably retreat before a digitally enabled Utopia. To prove her point, she undertakes a series of adventures in computer programming. She goes for an alarming ride in a driverless car, concluding “the cyborg future is not coming any time soon”; uses artificial intelligence to investigate why students can't pass standardized tests; deploys machine learning to predict which passengers survived the Titanic disaster; and attempts to repair the U.S. campaign finance system by building AI software. If we understand the limits of what we can do with technology, Broussard tells us, we can make better choices about what we should do with it to make the world better for everyone.

    • Psychology

Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems

An Introductory Analysis with Applications to Biology, Control, and Artificial Intelligence
Author: John Henry Holland
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262581110
Category: Psychology
Page: 211
View: 4821
List of figures. Preface to the 1992 edition. Preface. The general setting. A formal framework. lustrations. Schemata. The optimal allocation of trials. Reproductive plans and genetic operators. The robustness of genetic plans. Adaptation of codings and representations. An overview. Interim and prospectus. Glossary of important symbols.

    • Science

The Artificial and the Natural

An Evolving Polarity
Author: Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent,William R. Newman
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262026201
Category: Science
Page: 331
View: 1819
Notions of nature and art as they have been defined and redefined in Western culture,from the Hippocratic writers and Aristotle of Ancient Greece to nineteenth-century chemistry andtwenty-first century biomimetics.

    • Computers

Cognitive Science and the Mind-body Problem

From Philosophy to Psychology to Artificial Intelligence to Imaging of the Brain
Author: Morton Wagman
Publisher: Praeger Publishers
ISBN: N.A
Category: Computers
Page: 147
View: 4277
A scholarly examination of the centrality of the mind-body problem within and across the science of cognition--from philosophy to psychology to artificial intelligence to neural science. Conceptions of the mind-body problem range from the heritage of Cartesianism to the identification of the circumscribed brain structures responsible for domain specific cognitive mechanisms. Neither narrowly technical nor philosophically vague, this is a structured and detailed account of advancing intellectual developments in theory, research, and knowledge illumined by the conceptual vicissitudes of the mind-body problem. This unique treatment will be of special interest to creative scholars in the disciplines of he sciences of cognition.

    • Science

Artificial life III

proceedings of the Workshop on Artificial Life, held June 1992 in Santa Fe, New Mexico
Author: Christopher G. Langton
Publisher: Addison-Wesley Longman
ISBN: 9780201624922
Category: Science
Page: 599
View: 2558

    • Computers

The Quest for Artificial Intelligence


Author: Nils J. Nilsson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139642820
Category: Computers
Page: N.A
View: 3685
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a field within computer science that is attempting to build enhanced intelligence into computer systems. This book traces the history of the subject, from the early dreams of eighteenth-century (and earlier) pioneers to the more successful work of today's AI engineers. AI is becoming more and more a part of everyone's life. The technology is already embedded in face-recognizing cameras, speech-recognition software, Internet search engines, and health-care robots, among other applications. The book's many diagrams and easy-to-understand descriptions of AI programs will help the casual reader gain an understanding of how these and other AI systems actually work. Its thorough (but unobtrusive) end-of-chapter notes containing citations to important source materials will be of great use to AI scholars and researchers. This book promises to be the definitive history of a field that has captivated the imaginations of scientists, philosophers, and writers for centuries.

    • Artificial intelligence

Android Dreams

The Past, Present and Future of Artificial Intelligence
Author: Toby Walsh
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 1849048711
Category: Artificial intelligence
Page: 256
View: 2145
The development of thinking machines is an adventure as bold and ambitious as any that humans have attempted. And the truth is that Artificial Intelligence is already an indispensable part of our daily lives. Without it, Google wouldn't have answers and your smartphone would just be a phone.But how will AI change society by 2050? Will it destroy jobs? Or even pose an existential threat?Android Dreams is a lively exploration of how AI will transform our societies, economies and selves. From robot criminals to cyber healthcare, and a sky full of empty planes, Toby Walsh's predictions about AI are guaranteed to surprise you.