• Science

Sea Ice

Author: David N. Thomas
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118778359
Category: Science
Page: 664
View: 2896
Over the past 20 years the study of the frozen Arctic and Southern Oceans and sub-arctic seas has progressed at a remarkable pace. This third edition of Sea Ice gives insight into the very latest understanding of the how sea ice is formed, how we measure (and model) its extent, the biology that lives within and associated with sea ice and the effect of climate change on its distribution. How sea ice influences the oceanography of underlying waters and the influences that sea ice has on humans living in Arctic regions are also discussed. Featuring twelve new chapters, this edition follows two previous editions (2001 and 2010), and the need for this latest update exhibits just how rapidly the science of sea ice is developing. The 27 chapters are written by a team of more than 50 of the worlds’ leading experts in their fields. These combine to make the book the most comprehensive introduction to the physics, chemistry, biology and geology of sea ice that there is. This third edition of Sea Ice will be a key resource for all policy makers, researchers and students who work with the frozen oceans and seas.

    • Science

On Sea Ice

Author: Willy Weeks
Publisher: University of Alaska Press
ISBN: 160223101X
Category: Science
Page: 664
View: 5284
Covering more than seven percent of the earth’s surface, sea ice is crucial to the functioning of the biosphere—and is a key component in our attempts to understand and combat climate change. With On Sea Ice, geophysicist W. F. Weeks delivers a natural history of sea ice, a fully comprehensive and up-to-date account of our knowledge of its creation, change, and function. The volume begins with the earliest recorded observations of sea ice, from 350 BC, but the majority of its information is drawn from the period after 1950, when detailed study of sea ice became widespread. Weeks delves into both micro-level characteristics—internal structure, component properties, and phase relations—and the macro-level nature of sea ice, such as salinity, growth, and decay. He also explains the mechanics of ice pack drift and the recently observed changes in ice extent and thickness. An unparalleled account of a natural phenomenon that will be of increasing importance as the earth’s temperature rises, On Sea Ice will unquestionably be the standard for years to come.

    • Science

The Drift of Sea Ice

Author: Matti Leppäranta
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642046834
Category: Science
Page: 350
View: 5432
The Second Edition of The Drift of Sea Ice presents the fundamental laws of sea ice drift which come from the material properties of sea ice and the basic laws of mechanics. The resulting system of equations is analysed for the general properties of sea ice drift, the free drift model and analytical models for ice drift in the presence of internal friction, and the construction of numerical ice drift models is detailed. This second edition of a much lauded work, unique on this topic in the English language, has been revised, updated and expanded with much new information and outlines recent results, in particular in relation to the climate problem, mathematical modelling and ice engineering applications. The current book presents the theory, observations, mathematical modelling techniques, and applications of sea ice drift science. The theory is presented from the beginning on a graduate student level, so that students and researchers coming from other fields such as physical oceanography, meteorology, physics, engineering, environmental sciences or geography can use the book as a source book or self-study material. First the drift ice material is presented ending with the concept of ‘ice state’ – the relevant properties in sea ice dynamics. Ice kinematics observations are widely presented with the mathematical analysis methods, and thereafter come drift ice rheology – to close the triangle material – kinematics – stress. The momentum equation of sea ice is derived in detail and its general properties are carefully analysed. Then follow two chapters on analytical models: free drift and drift in the presence of internal friction: These are very important tools in understanding the dynamical behaviour of sea ice. The last topical chapter is numerical models, which are the modern tool to solve ice dynamics problem in short term and long term problems. The closing chapter summarises sea ice dynamics applications and the need of sea ice dynamic knowledge and gives some final remarks on the future of this branch of science.

    • Science

Arctic Sea Ice Ecosystem

Author: Alexander Melnikov
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9782919875047
Category: Science
Page: 221
View: 9889
This book is dedicated to the study of the composition, structure and dynamics of the Arctic sea ice ecosystem. It considers the permanent Arctic sea ice cover as an integral steady-state ecological system. Detailed descriptions are given of time-scale characteristics, physical and chemical sea ice properties, and the species composition of sea ice biota. The ecological mechanisms which govern the ecosystem on both the vertical and lateral scales are discussed, including the function of microcommunities during seasonal sea ice evolution. The Arctic Sea Ice Ecosystem will be an invaluable reference source for all researchers and students of polar ecology.

    • Science

Field Techniques for Sea-Ice Research

Author: Hajo Eicken,Maya Salganek
Publisher: University of Alaska Press
ISBN: 1602231079
Category: Science
Page: 588
View: 5267
As much as one-tenth of the world’s oceans are covered with sea ice, or frozen ocean water, at some point during the annual cycle. Sea ice thus plays an important, often defining, role in the natural environment and the global climate system. This book is a global look at the changes in sea ice and the tools and techniques used to measure and record those changes. The first comprehensive research done on sea-ice field techniques, this volume will be indispensable for the study of northern sea ice and a must-have for scientists in the field of climate change research.

    • Science

Sea Ice Analysis and Forecasting

Towards an Increased Reliance on Automated Prediction Systems
Author: Tom Carrieres,Mark Buehner,Jean-Franҫois Lemieux,Leif Toudal Pedersen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108417426
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 4461
This book provides an advanced introduction to the science behind automated prediction systems, focusing on sea ice analysis and forecasting. Starting from basic principles, fundamental concepts in sea ice physics, remote sensing, numerical methods, and statistics are explained at an accessible level. Existing operational automated prediction systems are described and their impacts on information providers and end clients are discussed. The book also provides insight into the likely future development of sea ice services and how they will evolve from mainly manual processes to increasing automation, with a consequent increase in the diversity and information content of new ice products. With contributions from world-leading experts in the fields of sea ice remote sensing, data assimilation, numerical modelling, and verification and operational prediction, this comprehensive reference is ideal for students, sea ice analysts, and researchers, as well as decision-makers and professionals working in the ice service industry.

    • Technology & Engineering

Arctic sea ice, 1973-1976

satellite passive-microwave observations
Author: Claire L. Parkinson,United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Scientific and Technical Information Branch
Publisher: N.A
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 296
View: 8091

    • Science

Sea Ice

Physics and Remote Sensing
Author: Mohammed Shokr,Nirmal Sinha
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119027969
Category: Science
Page: 600
View: 4449
Sea Ice: Physics and Remote Sensing addresses experiences acquired mainly in Canada by researchers in the fields of ice physics and growth history in relation to its polycrystalline structure as well as ice parameters retrieval from remote sensing observations. The volume describes processes operating at the macro- and microscale (e.g., brine entrapment in sea ice, crystallographic texture of ice types, brine drainage mechanisms, etc.). The information is supported by high-quality photographs of ice thin-sections prepared from cores of different ice types, all obtained by leading experts during field experiments in the 1970s through the 1990s, using photographic cameras and scanning microscopy. In addition, this volume presents techniques to retrieve a suite of sea ice parameters (e.g. ice type, concentration, extent, thickness, surface temperature, surface deformation, etc.) from space-borne and airborne sensor data. The breadth of the material on this subject is designed to appeal to researchers and users of remote sensing data who want to develop quick familiarity with the capabilities of this technology or detailed knowledge about major techniques for retrieval of key ice parameters. Volume highlights include: • Detailed crystallographic classification of natural sea ice, the key information from which information about ice growth conditions can be inferred. Many examples are presented with material to support qualitative and quantitative interpretation of the data. • Methods developed for revealing microstructural characteristics of sea ice and performing forensic investigations. • Data sets on radiative properties and satellite observations of sea ice, its snow cover, and surrounding open water. • Methods of retrieval of ice surface features and geophysical parameters from remote sensing observations with a focus on critical issues such as the suitability of different sensors for different tasks and data synergism. Sea Ice: Physics and Remote Sensing is intended for a variety of sea ice audiences interested in different aspects of ice related to physics, geophysics, remote sensing, operational monitoring, mechanics, and cryospheric sciences.

    • Science

Arctic Sea Ice Decline

Observations, Projections, Mechanisms, and Implications
Author: Eric T. DeWeaver,Cecilia M. Bitz,L.-Bruno Tremblay
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118671589
Category: Science
Page: 269
View: 6601
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 180. This volume addresses the rapid decline of Arctic sea ice, placing recent sea ice decline in the context of past observations, climate model simulations and projections, and simple models of the climate sensitivity of sea ice. Highlights of the work presented here include An appraisal of the role played by wind forcing in driving the decline; A reconstruction of Arctic sea ice conditions prior to human observations, based on proxy data from sediments; A modeling approach for assessing the impact of sea ice decline on polar bears, used as input to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's decision to list the polar bear as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act; Contrasting studies on the existence of a "tipping point," beyond which Arctic sea ice decline will become (or has already become) irreversible, including an examination of the role of the small ice cap instability in global warming simulations; A significant summertime atmospheric response to sea ice reduction in an atmospheric general circulation model, suggesting a positive feedback and the potential for short-term climate prediction. The book will be of interest to researchers attempting to understand the recent behavior of Arctic sea ice, model projections of future sea ice loss, and the consequences of sea ice loss for the natural and human systems of the Arctic.

    • Fiction

Beyond the Sea of Ice

Author: William Sarabande
Publisher: Domain
ISBN: 0553268899
Category: Fiction
Page: 373
View: 3144
When humans first walked the world and learn to live in an exotic new world of mystery and danger.

    • Social Science

SIKU: Knowing Our Ice

Documenting Inuit Sea Ice Knowledge and Use
Author: Igor Krupnik,Claudio Aporta,Shari Gearheard,Gita J. Laidler,Lene Kielsen Holm
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9048185874
Category: Social Science
Page: 501
View: 335
By exploring indigenous people’s knowledge and use of sea ice, the SIKU project has demonstrated the power of multiple perspectives and introduced a new field of interdisciplinary research, the study of social (socio-cultural) aspects of the natural world, or what we call the social life of sea ice. It incorporates local terminologies and classifications, place names, personal stories, teachings, safety rules, historic narratives, and explanations of the empirical and spiritual connections that people create with the natural world. In opening the social life of sea ice and the value of indigenous perspectives we make a novel contribution to IPY, to science, and to the public

    • History

The Meaning of Ice

People and Sea Ice in Three Arctic Communities
Author: Shari Fox Gearheard,Lene Kielsen Holm,Andrew R. Mahoney,Henry Huntington
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780996193856
Category: History
Page: 416
View: 916
The Inuit relationship with sea ice told through stories, artwork and photographs

    • Science

Physical and dynamic properties of sea ice in the Polar Oceans

Author: Anthony Jack Gow,W. B. Tucker,Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.),United States. Office of Naval Research
Publisher: N.A
Category: Science
Page: 46
View: 7655
Monograph addressing the physical and dynamic characteristics of sea ice covering the polar oceans.

    • Science

Microwave Remote Sensing of Sea Ice

Author: Frank D. Carsey
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
ISBN: 087590033X
Category: Science
Page: 462
View: 9792
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 68. Human activities in the polar regions have undergone incredible changes in this century. Among these changes is the revolution that satellites have brought about in obtaining information concerning polar geophysical processes. Satellites have flown for about three decades, and the polar regions have been the subject of their routine surveillance for more than half that time. Our observations of polar regions have evolved from happenstance ship sightings and isolated harbor icing records to routine global records obtained by those satellites. Thanks to such abundant data, we now know a great deal about the ice-covered seas, which constitute about 10% of the Earth's surface. This explosion of information about sea ice has fascinated scientists for some 20 years. We are now at a point of transition in sea ice studies; we are concerned less about ice itself and more about its role in the climate system. This change in emphasis has been the prime stimulus for this book.

    • Science

Introduction to the Physics of the Cryosphere

Author: Melody Sandells,Daniela Flocco
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 162705605X
Category: Science
Page: 88
View: 7206
The cryosphere encompasses all regions of the planet that experiences water in ice form for some portion of the year. In this book, authors Melody Sandells and Daniela Flocco deliver an introduction to the physics of the cryosphere. This includes the Arcti

    • Science

Antarctic Sea Ice

Biological Processes, Interactions and Variability
Author: Michael P. Lizotte,Kevin R. Arrigo
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Category: Science
Page: 198
View: 8510
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Antarctic Research Series, Volume 73. The 4 million to 20 million square kilometers of sea ice that surrounds the Antarctic continent represents one of the largest and most dynamic ecosystems on Earth. This sea ice matrix provides a habitat for a wide variety of organisms, some of which live their entire lives within the ice while others are only occasional visitors. Large grazers, such as copepods and krill which come to the sea ice to feed, represent important links between sea ice biota and the pelagic environment. Unfortunately, because of the inherent difficulty of sampling such an environment, many aspects of this unique habitat are still poorly understood. The purpose of this volume is to present new information about this ecosystem so that its role within the Antarctic food-web (and as a sink for carbon dioxide) and its susceptibility to environmental changes can be better understood.

    • Nature

A Farewell to Ice

A Report from the Arctic
Author: P. Wadhams
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190691158
Category: Nature
Page: 240
View: 6351
Ice, the magic crystal -- A brief history of ice on planet Earth -- The modern cycle of ice ages -- The greenhouse effect -- Sea ice meltback begins -- The future of Arctic sea ice the death spiral -- The accelerating effects of Arctic feedbacks -- Arctic methane, a catastrophe in the making -- Strange weather -- The secret life of chimneys -- What's happening to the Antarctic? -- The state of the planet -- A call to arms

    • Technology & Engineering

Sea Ice Image Processing with MATLAB®

Author: Qin Zhang,Roger Skjetne
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351069187
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 242
View: 6923
The ice concentration data on a global scale are available on a daily basis due to microwave satellite sensors. Image processing for sea ice is vital to estimate the sea ice properties and understand the behavior of sea ice especially on a relatively small scale. Currently, sea ice concentration is estimated from lower-resolution passive microwave sensors. This book aims to present the most recent image processing techniques including the so-called gradient vector flow snake algorithm to identify individual ice floes from the ice images. It makes an extensive use of this powerful technique to extract or estimate the sea-ice parameters and to develop tools useful to scientists and engineers.

    • Sea ice

Benefits of Remote Sensing of Sea Ice

Author: Archibald Kenneth McQuillan,Donald J. Clough
Publisher: Department of Energy, Mines and Resources
Category: Sea ice
Page: 30
View: 1293