• Science

Successes, Limitations, and Frontiers in Ecosystem Science


Author: Michael L. Pace,Peter M. Groffman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461217245
Category: Science
Page: 499
View: 6866
Ecosystem research has emerged in recent decades as a vital, successful, and sometimes controversial approach to environmental science. This book emphasizes the idea that much of the progress in ecosystem research has been driven by the emergence of new environmental problems that could not be addressed by existing approaches. By focusing on successes and limitations of ecosystems studies, the book explores avenues for future ecosystem-level research.

    • Science

Biogeochemical Investigations of Terrestrial, Freshwater, and Wetland Ecosystems across the Globe


Author: R. Kelman Wieder,Martin Novák,Melanie A. Vile
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400709528
Category: Science
Page: 748
View: 7299
Here is a collection of papers from BIOGEOMON, The Fourth International Symposium on Ecosystem Behavior. The contributions address a wider-than-ever range of concerns: aspects of catchment monitoring and modeling; nitrogen transformations and processes; stable and radiogenic isotopes; biogeochemistry of restored ecosystems; and the dynamics of such chemicals as mercury and phosphorous, among many other topics.

    • Science

Discontinuities in Ecosystems and Other Complex Systems


Author: Craig R. Allen,C. S. Holling
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231516827
Category: Science
Page: 288
View: 1803
Following the publication of C. S. Holling's seminal work on the relationship between animal body mass patterns and scale-specific landscape structure, ecologists began to explore the theoretical and applied consequences of discontinuities in ecosystems and other complex systems. Are ecosystems and their components continuously distributed and do they adhere to scaling laws, or are they discontinuous and more complex than early models would have us believe? The resulting propositions over the structure of complex systems sparked an ongoing debate regarding the mechanisms generating discontinuities and the statistical methods used for their detection. This volume takes the view that ecosystems and other complex systems are inherently discontinuous and that such fields as ecology, economics, and urban studies greatly benefit from this paradigm shift. Contributors present evidence of the ubiquity of discontinuous distributions in ecological and social systems and how their analysis provides insight into complex phenomena. The book is divided into three sections. The first focuses on background material and contrasting views concerning the discontinuous organization of complex systems. The second discusses discontinuous patterns detected in a number of different systems and methods for detecting them, and the third touches on the potential significance of discontinuities in complex systems. Science is still dominated by a focus on power laws, but the contributors to this volume are convinced power laws often mask the interesting dynamics of systems and that those dynamics are best revealed by investigating deviations from assumed power law distributions. In 2008, a grand conference on resilience was held in Stockholm, hosting 600 participants from around the world. There are now three big centers established with resilience, the most recent one being the Stockholm Resilience Center, with others in Australia (an international coral reef center), Arizona State University's new sustainability center focusing on anthropology, and Canada's emerging social sciences and resilience center. Activity continues to flourish in Alaska, South Africa, and the Untied Kingdom, and a new center is forming in Uruguay.

    • Science

The Ecology of Agricultural Landscapes

Long-Term Research on the Path to Sustainability
Author: Stephen K. Hamilton,Julie E. Doll,G. Philip Robertson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190266767
Category: Science
Page: 448
View: 1749
Evidence has been mounting for some time that intensive row-crop agriculture as practiced in developed countries may not be environmentally sustainable, with concerns increasingly being raised about climate change, implications for water quantity and quality, and soil degradation. This volume synthesizes two decades of research on the sustainability of temperate, row-crop ecosystems of the Midwestern United States. The overarching hypothesis guiding this work has been that more biologically based management practices could greatly reduce negative impacts while maintaining sufficient productivity to meet demands for food, fiber and fuel, but that roadblocks to their adoption persist because we lack a comprehensive understanding of their benefits and drawbacks. The research behind this book, based at the Kellogg Biological Station (Michigan State University) and conducted under the aegis of the Long-term Ecological Research network, is structured on a foundation of large-scale field experiments that explore alternatives to conventional, chemical-intensive agriculture. Studies have explored the biophysical underpinnings of crop productivity, the interactions of crop ecosystems with the hydrology and biodiversity of the broader landscapes in which they lie, farmers' views about alternative practices, economic valuation of ecosystem services, and global impacts such as greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. In contrast to most research projects, the long-term design of this research enables identification of slow or delayed processes of change in response to management regimes, and allows examination of responses across a broader range of climatic variability. This volume synthesizes this comprehensive inquiry into the ecology of alternative cropping systems, identifying future steps needed on the path to sustainability.

    • Nature

Kivalina

A Climate Change Story
Author: Christine Shearer
Publisher: Haymarket Books
ISBN: 1608461718
Category: Nature
Page: 240
View: 7826
“This story is a tragedy, and not just because of what’s happening to the people of Kivalina. It’s a tragedy because it’s unnecessary, the product, as the author shows, of calculation, deception, manipulation, and greed in some of the biggest and richest companies on earth.” —Bill McKibben, author Eaarth: Making a Life on a Tough New Planet "Christine Shearer's Kivalina: A Climate Change Story is a fast and bumpy ride that begins with the history of outrageous corporate deceptions through public relations and legal campaigns, continuing with building of the coal-and-oil empire to fuel progress in the United States, leading to the horrendous politics of climate crisis, and finally arriving at its destination, a ground-zero of climate refugee, Kivalina—an Inupiat community along the Chukchi Sea coast of arctic Alaska. I was angry when I turned the last page. I urge you to get a copy, read it, share the story, and join the new global climate justice movement."—Subhankar Banerjee, photographer, writer, activist, and author of Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Seasons of Life and Land While corporate funded scientists continue their effort to spread doubt about global climate change, for one native village in Alaska, the price of further denial could be the complete devastation of their homes and culture. Kivalina must be relocated to survive, but neither the oil giants nor the government have proven willing to take responsibility. Christine Shearer is a writer, journalist, activist, and academic. She is the environment and ecology editor of Economy Watch, and managing editor of the online progressive magazine Conducive. She is also a contributor to Coalswarm, part of the online corporate watch website SourceWatch.

    • Science

Value and Economy of Marine Resources


Author: Patrick Prouzet
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111900781X
Category: Science
Page: 316
View: 1391
Marine resources and their exploitation, recovery and economic networks they generate are here from the perspective now inevitable growing environmental constraints, policy management and technical innovation. The recent development of marine biotechnology , the discovery of a great pharmacopoeia especially in reef environments , the development of marine renewables , are examples which show that man can develop through these new technologies property and services of the ocean. But this development resources under pressure of global change requires not only taking into account technical, but also social and political. This is the price that the analysis of maritime activities will assess the sustainability and development of various economic sectors and coastal populations, faced with the objectives of a "blue growth" associated with a return to the "good state "of the marine environment.


    • Science

The Ecology and Etiology of Newly Emerging Marine Diseases


Author: James W. Porter
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401732841
Category: Science
Page: 228
View: 9682
The Ecology and Etiology of Newly Emerging Marine Diseases is a unique contribution to an entirely new field of scientific investigation. For the first time, material presented in this book identifies patterns and trends in the abundance and distribution of disease phenomena in the marine environment. These patterns have gone unrecognised and undetected in the past because the literature in this field is so widely scattered. The book is both interdisciplinary and synthetic. Studies in this book unequivocally link marine diseases to global climate change. The book changes our perspective on the major controls over the population dynamics of marine organisms. Papers in this volume clearly identify the intimate connection between public health and environmental health for marine-borne diseases such as cholera and human enteroviruses.

    • Nature

NEW CENTURY BIO


Author: KRESS J W
Publisher: Smithsonian
ISBN: 9781560989844
Category: Nature
Page: 159
View: 5890
In the 20th century, scientists in the relatively new field of biology played an important role in exposing the threats of environmental degradation, loss of species diversity, habitat fragmentation, scarce energy resources and human population growth. In these essays, 11 biologists consider how their discipline must evolve to address these problems in the 21st century.




Ecosystems and disease

amphibian malformations and zooplankton chytridiomycosis as model systems
Author: Pieter T Johnson
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category:
Page: 181
View: 9693

    • Nature

Interactions of the major biogeochemical cycles

global change and human impacts
Author: Jerry M. Melillo,Christopher B. Field,Bedřich Moldan,International Council for Science. Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment
Publisher: Island Pr
ISBN: 9781559630658
Category: Nature
Page: 357
View: 8224
The circulation and interactions of major elements such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur, oxygen, and hydrogen are critical for the maintenance of the earth's ecosystems. Human activities including agriculture, industry, and urbanization alter element interactions and contribute to major environmental problems ranging from climate change and depletion of the ozone layer to acidification of soils to the destruction of coral reefs. Interactions of the Major Biogeochemical Cycles is a new scientific assessment of element interactions in the biosphere. It provides an up-to-date review of biogeochemistry and its effects on earth's systems, with leading experts in biogeochemical cycling in atmospheric, land, freshwater, and marine environments offering chapters that summarize and synthesize information in each discipline. The book opens with chapters on cross-cutting issues that have significance in understanding global change effects and their potential management. These chapters address:* trends in element interactions in response to global change the effects of natural disturbances new approaches and methods for advancing our understanding of element interactions the potential for managing element interactions to address major environmental issues

    • Medical

Infectious Disease Ecology

The Effects of Ecosystems on Disease and of Disease on Ecosystems
Author: Richard S. Ostfeld,Felicia Keesing,Valerie T. Eviner
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Medical
Page: 506
View: 8704
News headlines are forever reporting diseases that take huge tolls on humans, wildlife, domestic animals, and both cultivated and native plants worldwide. These diseases can also completely transform the ecosystems that feed us and provide us with other critical benefits, from flood control to water purification. And yet diseases sometimes serve to maintain the structure and function of the ecosystems on which humans depend. Gathering thirteen essays by forty leading experts who convened at the Cary Conference at the Institute of Ecosystem Studies in 2005, this book develops an integrated framework for understanding where these diseases come from, what ecological factors influence their impacts, and how they in turn influence ecosystem dynamics. It marks the first comprehensive and in-depth exploration of the rich and complex linkages between ecology and disease, and provides conceptual underpinnings to understand and ameliorate epidemics. It also sheds light on the roles that diseases play in ecosystems, bringing vital new insights to landscape management issues in particular. While the ecological context is a key piece of the puzzle, effective control and understanding of diseases requires the interaction of professionals in medicine, epidemiology, veterinary medicine, forestry, agriculture, and ecology. The essential resource on the subject, Infectious Disease Ecology seeks to bridge these fields with an ecological approach that focuses on systems thinking and complex interactions.

    • Ecology

Ecology


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Ecology
Page: N.A
View: 5519

    • Science

Frontiers in Ecology, Evolution and Complexity


Author: Mariana Benítez,Octavio Miramontes,Alfonso Valiente-Banuet
Publisher: CopIt ArXives
ISBN: 1938128052
Category: Science
Page: 266
View: 3597
Advances in molecular biology, remote sensing, systems biology, bioinformatics, non-linear science, the physics of complex systems and other fields have rendered a great amount of data that remain to be integrated into models and theories that are capable of accounting for the complexity of ecological systems and the evolutionary dynamics of life. It is thus necessary to provide a solid basis to discuss and reflect on these and other challenges both at the local and global scales. This volume aims to delineate an integrative and interdisciplinary view that suggests new avenues in research and teaching, critically discusses the scope of the diverse methods in the study of complex systems, and points at key open questions. Finally, this book will provide students and specialists with a collection of high quality open access essays that will contribute to integrate Ecology, Evolution and Complexity in the context of basic research and in the field of Sustainability Sciences.

    • Science

Lipids in Freshwater Ecosystems


Author: Michael T. Arts,Bruce C. Wainmann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461205476
Category: Science
Page: 319
View: 1134
The fundamental purpose of this book is to synthesise the divergent literature on aquatic lipids into a co-ordinated, digestible form. A large part of the book addresses lipid composition and production in freshwater organisms, with chapters on phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthic invertebrates. A common theme throughout the book is the function of lipids in aquatic food webs, with a chapter devoted exclusively to lipids as indicators of health in fish populations. A complementary chapter highlights the role of lipids and essential fatty acids in mariculture. Methodologies to determine the lipid content of aquatic samples and suggestions as to the utility of fatty acids as trophic markers are included, as is one chapter on the role of lipids in the bioaccumulation and bioconcentration of toxicants and another on the relationships between lipids and surface films and foams. The final chapter highlights the similarities and differences between lipids of marine and freshwater origin. Students and researchers in ecology, phycology, aquatic toxicology, physiological ecology and limnology will find this an invaluable guide and reference.