• Science

Synthetic Biology - a Primer (revised Edition)


Author: Paul S. FREEMONT,Richard I. KITNEY
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 1783268808
Category: Science
Page: 196
View: 2961

    • Science

Synthetic Biology

Tools and Applications
Author: Huimin Zhao
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123978203
Category: Science
Page: 352
View: 9074
Synthetic Biology provides a framework to examine key enabling components in the emerging area of synthetic biology. Chapters contributed by leaders in the field address tools and methodologies developed for engineering biological systems at many levels, including molecular, pathway, network, whole cell, and multi-cell levels. The book highlights exciting practical applications of synthetic biology such as microbial production of biofuels and drugs, artificial cells, synthetic viruses, and artificial photosynthesis. The roles of computers and computational design are discussed, as well as future prospects in the field, including cell-free synthetic biology and engineering synthetic ecosystems. Synthetic biology is the design and construction of new biological entities, such as enzymes, genetic circuits, and cells, or the redesign of existing biological systems. It builds on the advances in molecular, cell, and systems biology and seeks to transform biology in the same way that synthesis transformed chemistry and integrated circuit design transformed computing. The element that distinguishes synthetic biology from traditional molecular and cellular biology is the focus on the design and construction of core components that can be modeled, understood, and tuned to meet specific performance criteria and the assembly of these smaller parts and devices into larger integrated systems that solve specific biotechnology problems. Includes contributions from leaders in the field presents examples of ambitious synthetic biology efforts including creation of artificial cells from scratch, cell-free synthesis of chemicals, fuels, and proteins, engineering of artificial photosynthesis for biofuels production, and creation of unnatural living organisms Describes the latest state-of-the-art tools developed for low-cost synthesis of ever-increasing sizes of DNA and efficient modification of proteins, pathways, and genomes Highlights key technologies for analyzing biological systems at the genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic levels which are especially valuable in pathway, whole cell, and multi-cell applications Details mathematical modeling tools and computational tools which can dramatically increase the speed of the design process as well as reduce the cost of development.

    • Science

Regenesis

How Synthetic Biology Will Reinvent Nature and Ourselves
Author: George M. Church,Ed Regis
Publisher: Basic Books
ISBN: 0465038654
Category: Science
Page: 304
View: 9757
“Bold and provocative… Regenesis tells of recent advances that may soon yield endless supplies of renewable energy, increased longevity and the return of long-extinct species.”—New Scientist In Regenesis, Harvard biologist George Church and science writer Ed Regis explore the possibilities—and perils—of the emerging field of synthetic biology. Synthetic biology, in which living organisms are selectively altered by modifying substantial portions of their genomes, allows for the creation of entirely new species of organisms. These technologies—far from the out-of-control nightmare depicted in science fiction—have the power to improve human and animal health, increase our intelligence, enhance our memory, and even extend our life span. A breathtaking look at the potential of this world-changing technology, Regenesis is nothing less than a guide to the future of life.

    • Science

Synthetic Biology

A Lab Manual
Author: Josefine Liljeruhm,Erik Gullberg,Anthony C Forster
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814579564
Category: Science
Page: 204
View: 6589
Synthetic Biology: A Lab Manual is the first manual for laboratory work in the new and rapidly expanding field of synthetic biology. Aimed at non-specialists, it details protocols central to synthetic biology in both education and research. In addition, it provides all the information that teachers and students from high schools and tertiary institutions need for a colorful lab course in bacterial synthetic biology using chromoproteins and designer antisense RNAs. As a bonus, practical material is provided for students of the annual international Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) competition. The manual is based upon a highly successful course at Sweden's Uppsala University and is coauthored by one of the pioneers of synthetic biology and two bioengineering postgraduate students. An inspiring foreword is written by another pioneer in the field, Harvard's George Church: “Synthetic biology is to early recombinant DNA as a genome is to a gene. Is there anything that SynBio will not impact? There was no doubt that the field of SynBio needed ‘A Lab Manual’ such as the one that you now hold in your hands.” Read about the interview with the authors! Contents:Introduction:What is Synthetic Biology, Exactly?The iGEM OutbreakA Synthetic Biology Lab ManualGenes, Chromoproteins and Antisense RNAs:E. coli DNA: Chromosomes, Plasmids and Copy NumberCoupling of Transcription and Translation in BacteriaPromoter and Terminator for TranscriptionRibosome Binding Site (RBS)Codon BiasChromoproteinsSmall Regulatory RNAs (sRNAs)Lab Rooms and Equipment:The Physical Lab SpacesEquipmentSafety is Priority #1:FiresChemicalsBiological Safety and DisposalDangerous EquipmentLab Course Projects:Time and ResourcesProject Overview and Learning ObjectivesThe Lab NotebookLab Section 1. Preparation of Chemical Solutions and Agar PlatesLab Section 2. Coloring Bacteria by Adding a Promoter to a Chromoprotein GeneLab Section 3: Rational Engineering of Chromoprotein Expression LevelLab Section 4. Other ExperimentsThe “Dreaded” ExamProtocols:IntroductionProtocol 1. Preparation of Solutions and Agar PlatesProtocol 2. Overnight Cultures with Antibiotics, and Glycerol StocksProtocol 3. BioBrick™ 3A Assembly and Gel AnalysisProtocol 4. Agarose Gel ElectrophoresisProtocol 5. Preparation of Competent E. coli Cells Using CaCl2Protocol 6. Transformation of CaCl2-Competent E. coli CellsProtocol 7. Bacterial Re-Streaking TechniquesProtocol 8. Lysis of E. coli Cells with LysozymeProtocol 9. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)Protocol 10. Inverse PCR MutagenesisProtocol 11. Colony PCRProtocol 12. Gibson AssemblyAdvanced Methods:Flow Cytometry and Cell SortingRecombination in Plasmids and the ChromosomeElectrocompetent CellsThe International Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) Competition:How to Start an iGEM TeamUppsala iGEM 2011 — Show Color with ColorUppsala iGEM 2012 — Resistance is FutileUppsala iGEM 2013 — Lactonutritious — It's DeliciousAppendices Readership: Students and researchers in biotechnology, cell/molecular biology and genetics. Keywords:Synthetic Biology;Genetic Engineering;DNA Cloning;Polymerase Chain Reaction;Molecular Biology;Laboratory;Biobrick;Chromoprotein;Manual;CourseReviews: It provides an introductory workflow for common techniques and would be of definite use to educators wanting to bring synthetic biology into the classroom or for motivated undergraduate students with the desire to start thir own iGEM team.” Synthetic Biology See Full Review

    • Medical

Synthetic Biology Handbook


Author: Darren N. Nesbeth
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466568488
Category: Medical
Page: 318
View: 3035
The Synthetic Biology Handbook explains the major goals of the field of synthetic biology and presents the technical details of the latest advances made in achieving those goals. Offering a comprehensive overview of the current areas of focus in synthetic biology, this handbook: Explores the standardisation of classic molecular bioscience approaches Addresses the societal context and potential impacts of synthetic biology Discusses the use of legacy systems as tools for new product development Examines the design and construction of de novo cells and genetic codes Describes computational methods for designing genes and gene networks Thus, the Synthetic Biology Handbook provides an accurate sense of the scope of synthetic biology today. The handbook also affords readers with an opportunity to scrutinize the underlying science and decide for themselves what aspects of synthetic biology are most valuable to their research and practice.

    • Science

Synthetic

How Life Got Made
Author: Sophia Roosth
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022644046X
Category: Science
Page: 256
View: 3797
In the final years of the twentieth century, emigres from mechanical and electrical engineering and computer science resolved that if the aim of biology was to understand life, then making life would yield better theories than experimentation. Sophia Roosth, a cultural anthropologist, takes us into the world of these self-named synthetic biologists who, she shows, advocate not experiment but manufacture, not reduction but construction, not analysis but synthesis. Roosth reveals how synthetic biologists make new living things in order to understand better how life works. What we see through her careful questioning is that the biological features, theories, and limits they fasten upon are determined circularly by their own experimental tactics. This is a story of broad interest, because the active, interested making of the synthetic biologists is endemic to the sciences of our time."

    • Medical

Synthetic Aesthetics

Investigating Synthetic Biology's Designs on Nature
Author: Alexandra Daisy Ginsberg,Jane Calvert,Pablo Schyfter,Alistair Elfick,Drew Endy
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 026201999X
Category: Medical
Page: 376
View: 6763
As synthetic biology transforms living matter into a medium for making, what is the role of design and its associated values?

    • Science

Synthetic Biology

Tools for Engineering Biological Systems
Author: Clyde A. Hutchinson, III,Daniel G. Gibson,J. Craig Venter,Hamilton O. Smith
Publisher: Perspectives Cshl
ISBN: 9781621821182
Category: Science
Page: 350
View: 4975
Synthetic biology involves the rational design and construction of biological components and systemsfrom genetic elements and metabolic pathways to entirely new organisms. Progress in this field has been rapid, and it promises to significantly expand our capabilities in biotechnology, medicine, and agriculture. Written and edited by experts in the field, this collection from Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology examines the tools and techniques employed by synthetic biologists, how these may be used to develop new drugs, diagnostic approaches, food sources, and clean energy, and what the field of synthetic biology has taught us about natural living systems. The contributors discuss advances in DNA synthesis and assembly, genome editing (e.g., CRISPR/Cas9), and artificial genetic systems. Progress in designing complex genetic switches and circuits, expanding the genetic code, modifying cellular organization, producing proteins using cell-free systems, and developing biodesign automation tools is also covered. The authors also explore ways to produce new organisms and products that have particular attributesfor example, microbial "molecular factories," synthetic organs and tissues, and plants with novel traits. This volume is an essential resource for molecular, cell, and systems biologists who seek to engineer living systems for human benefit.

    • Science

Biology Is Technology


Author: Robert H. Carlson
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674053621
Category: Science
Page: 288
View: 9868
In Biology Is Technology, author Robert Carlson offers a uniquely informed perspective on the endeavors that contribute to current progress in the science of biological systems and the technology used to manipulate them.

    • Technology & Engineering

Fundamentals of Systems Biology

From Synthetic Circuits to Whole-cell Models
Author: Markus W. Covert
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498728472
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 367
View: 5140
For decades biology has focused on decoding cellular processes one gene at a time, but many of the most pressing biological questions, as well as diseases such as cancer and heart disease, are related to complex systems involving the interaction of hundreds, or even thousands, of gene products and other factors. How do we begin to understand this complexity? Fundamentals of Systems Biology: From Synthetic Circuits to Whole-cell Models introduces students to methods they can use to tackle complex systems head-on, carefully walking them through studies that comprise the foundation and frontier of systems biology. The first section of the book focuses on bringing students quickly up to speed with a variety of modeling methods in the context of a synthetic biological circuit. This innovative approach builds intuition about the strengths and weaknesses of each method and becomes critical in the book’s second half, where much more complicated network models are addressed—including transcriptional, signaling, metabolic, and even integrated multi-network models. The approach makes the work much more accessible to novices (undergraduates, medical students, and biologists new to mathematical modeling) while still having much to offer experienced modelers--whether their interests are microbes, organs, whole organisms, diseases, synthetic biology, or just about any field that investigates living systems.

    • Computers

A First Course in Systems Biology


Author: Eberhard Voit
Publisher: Garland Science
ISBN: 1351332945
Category: Computers
Page: 480
View: 7214
A First Course in Systems Biology is an introduction for advanced undergraduate and graduate students to the growing field of systems biology. Its main focus is the development of computational models and their applications to diverse biological systems. The book begins with the fundamentals of modeling, then reviews features of the molecular inventories that bring biological systems to life and discusses case studies that represent some of the frontiers in systems biology and synthetic biology. In this way, it provides the reader with a comprehensive background and access to methods for executing standard systems biology tasks, understanding the modern literature, and launching into specialized courses or projects that address biological questions using theoretical and computational means. New topics in this edition include: default modules for model design, limit cycles and chaos, parameter estimation in Excel, model representations of gene regulation through transcription factors, derivation of the Michaelis-Menten rate law from the original conceptual model, different types of inhibition, hysteresis, a model of differentiation, system adaptation to persistent signals, nonlinear nullclines, PBPK models, and elementary modes. The format is a combination of instructional text and references to primary literature, complemented by sets of small-scale exercises that enable hands-on experience, and large-scale, often open-ended questions for further reflection.

    • Science

Systems Biology: Simulation of Dynamic Network States


Author: Bernhard Ø. Palsson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139495429
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 3132
Biophysical models have been used in biology for decades, but they have been limited in scope and size. In this book, Bernhard Ø. Palsson shows how network reconstructions that are based on genomic and bibliomic data, and take the form of established stoichiometric matrices, can be converted into dynamic models using metabolomic and fluxomic data. The Mass Action Stoichiometric Simulation (MASS) procedure can be used for any cellular process for which data is available and allows a scalable step-by-step approach to the practical construction of network models. Specifically, it can treat integrated processes that need explicit accounting of small molecules and protein, which allows simulation at the molecular level. The material has been class-tested by the author at both the undergraduate and graduate level. All computations in the text are available online in MATLAB and MATHEMATICA® workbooks, allowing hands-on practice with the material.

    • Science

BioBuilder

Synthetic Biology in the Lab
Author: Natalie Kuldell PhD.,Rachel Bernstein,Karen Ingram,Kathryn M Hart
Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."
ISBN: 1491907533
Category: Science
Page: 238
View: 7861
Today’s synthetic biologists are in the early stages of engineering living cells to help treat diseases, sense toxic compounds in the environment, and produce valuable drugs. With this manual, you can be part of it. Based on the BioBuilder curriculum, this valuable book provides open-access, modular, hands-on lessons in synthetic biology for secondary and post-secondary classrooms and laboratories. It also serves as an introduction to the field for science and engineering enthusiasts. Developed at MIT in collaboration with award-winning high school teachers, BioBuilder teaches the foundational ideas of the emerging synthetic biology field, as well as key aspects of biological engineering that researchers are exploring in labs throughout the world. These lessons will empower teachers and students to explore and be part of solving persistent real-world challenges. Learn the fundamentals of biodesign and DNA engineering Explore important ethical issues raised by examples of synthetic biology Investigate the BioBuilder labs that probe the design-build-test cycle Test synthetic living systems designed and built by engineers Measure several variants of an enzyme-generating genetic circuit Model "bacterial photography" that changes a strain’s light sensitivity Build living systems to produce purple or green pigment Optimize baker’s yeast to produce ?-carotene

    • Mathematics

An Introduction to Systems Biology

Design Principles of Biological Circuits
Author: Uri Alon
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1584886420
Category: Mathematics
Page: 320
View: 8126
Thorough and accessible, this book presents the design principles of biological systems, and highlights the recurring circuit elements that make up biological networks. It provides a simple mathematical framework which can be used to understand and even design biological circuits. The textavoids specialist terms, focusing instead on several well-studied biological systems that concisely demonstrate key principles. An Introduction to Systems Biology: Design Principles of Biological Circuits builds a solid foundation for the intuitive understanding of general principles. It encourages the reader to ask why a system is designed in a particular way and then proceeds to answer with simplified models.

Synthetic Biology

Safety, Security, and Promise
Author: Gigi Gronvall
Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781539336839
Category:
Page: 198
View: 2065
Synthetic biology aims to make biology easier to engineer and to program. Thanks to advances in computing power, the ability to make long tracts of DNA, new tools like CRISPR that can be used to edit genomes, and the enthusiasm of young scientists and even amateurs who want to enter the field, synthetic biology is poised to change the future of medicine, agriculture, and manufacturing. Yet, while this new field promises vast opportunities and benefits, there are also risks. There are biosecurity risks that these technologies will be deliberately used for harm; safety risks to people and the environment; ethical and social considerations for how to apply these technologies; and there are risks to the competitiveness of nations that do not invest in these technologies that are likely to spur economic growth. This volume is dedicated to a discussion of what can be done to minimize risks and maximize the benefits of synthetic biology. Praise for Synthetic Biology: Safety, Security, and Promise "There can be no doubt that advances in the life sciences, including new insights and tools provided by synthetic biology, place us in a position to create exciting and novel products and approaches for patients in need. Gigi Gronvall describes that promise but also lays forth critical policy concerns that need to be addressed so that we don't risk safety, security, or the competitiveness of US science." - Margaret Hamburg, MD, Former FDA Commissioner and Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Medicine "Synthetic biology gives us tools that can help tackle global problems that affect humanity-but for that to happen, the risks of bioterror or bio-error need to be dealt with and managed, as well. Gronvall clearly describes the policy challenges that must be addressed and concludes with steps to enhance US leadership and competitiveness in the global bio-economy." - J. Craig Venter, PhD, founder, chairman, and CEO of the J. Craig Venter Institute and co-founder, executive chairman and co-chief scientist of Synthetic Genomics, Inc. "For those of us working in the lab, it is important to embrace conversations with those who aren't - including strategies for biological security, to create new synthetic biology products - with respect for facts about GMO risk/benefit balances, creating a culture of safe lab practices and norms worldwide. Gigi Gronvall dissects such issues at stake in synthetic biology and presents a pragmatic and scientifically responsive path forward for anyone in a position to influence, regulate, decide upon, or benefit from the science to follow." - George Church, PhD, Professor of Genetics Harvard Medical School and Director of PersonalGenomes.org "Synthetic biology presents some of the greatest challenges and opportunities of the 21st Century. Gigi Gronvall navigates a path to follow, to make sure risks are addressed and opportunities are not squandered. It should be read by all concerned about national security." - The Honorable Andrew Weber, head of global partnerships for Metabiota and former Assistant Secretary of Defense for Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Defense Programs

    • Medical

A Guide to Human Gene Therapy


Author: Roland W. Herzog,Sergei Zolotukhin
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814280917
Category: Medical
Page: 388
View: 7025
Ever since the birth of molecular biology, the tantalizing possibility of treating disease at its genetic roots has become increasingly feasible. Gene therapy - though still in its infancy - remains one of the hottest areas of research in medicine. Its approach utilizes a gene transfer vehicle ( vector) to deliver therapeutic DNA or RNA to cells of the body in order to rectify the defect that is causing the disease. Successful therapies have been reported in humans in recent years such as cures in boys with severe immune deficiencies. Moreover, gene therapy strategies are being adapted in numerous biomedical laboratories to obtain novel treatments for a variety of diseases and to study basic biological aspects of disease. Correction of disease in animal studies, is steadily gaining ground, highlighting the immense potential of gene therapy in the medical profession. This book will cover topics that are at the forefront of biomedical research such as RNA interference, viral and non-viral gene transfer systems, treatment of hematological diseases and disorders of the central nervous system.Leading experts on the respective vector or disease will contribute the individual chapters and explain cutting-edge technologies. It also gives a broad overview of the most important gene transfer vectors and most extensively studied target diseases. This comprehensive guide is therefore a must-read for anyone in the biotechnology, biomedical or medical industries seeking to further their knowledge in the area of human gene therapy.

    • Science

Principles of Cell Biology, Second Edition Includes Navigate Advantage Access


Author: George Plopper,Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute George Plopper
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Publishers
ISBN: 1284047628
Category: Science
Page: 576
View: 997
Each new print copy includes Navigate 2 Advantage Access that unlocks a comprehensive and interactive eBook, student practice activities and assessments, a full suite of instructor resources, and learning analytics reporting tools.Written for undergraduate cell biology courses, Principles of Cell Biology, Second Edition provides students with the formula for understanding the fundamental concepts of cell biology. This practical text focuses on the underlying principles that illustrate both how cells function as well as how we study them. It identifies 10 specific principles of cell biology and devotes a separate chapter to illustrate each. The result is a shift away from the traditional focus on technical details and towards a more integrative view of cellular activity that is flexible and can be tailored to suit students with a broad range of backgrounds. The Second Edition features a fully revised art program with new full-color images and illustrations that simplify key concepts and cell function. Concept Check questions at the end of each section along with new end-of-chapter questions assess student comprehension, ensuring retention of key cell biology principles. An informal, narrative writing style makes even the most complex concepts accessible to students new to the scientific field, making Principles of Cell Biology the clear choice for anyone studying the fascinating field of cell biologyWith Navigate 2, technology and content combine to expand the reach of your classroom. Whether you teach an online, hybrid, or traditional classroom-based course, Navigate 2 delivers unbeatable value. Experience Navigate 2 today at www.jblnavigate.com/2

    • Technology & Engineering

UHMWPE Biomaterials Handbook

Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene in Total Joint Replacement and Medical Devices
Author: Steven M. Kurtz
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 0323354351
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 840
View: 9824
UHMWPE Biomaterials Handbook, Third Edition, describes the science, development, properties, and application of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) used in artificial joints. UHMWPE is now the material of choice for joint replacements, and is increasingly being used in fibers for sutures. This book is a one-stop reference for information on this advanced material, covering both introductory topics and the most advanced developments. The third edition adds six new chapters on a range of topics, including the latest in anti-oxidant technologies for stabilizing HXLPE and up-to-date systematic reviews of the clinical literature for HXLPE in hips and knees. The book chronicles the rise and fall of all-metal hip implants, as well as the increased use of ceramic biomaterials and UHMWPE for this application. This book also brings orthopedic researchers and practitioners up to date on the stabilization of UHMWPE with antioxidants, as well as the choices of antioxidant available for practitioners. The book also thoroughly assesses the clinical performance of HXLPE, as well as alternative bearings in knee replacement and UHMWPE articulations with polyether ether ketone (PEEK). Written and edited by the top experts in the field of UHMWPE, this is the only state-of-the-art reference for professionals, researchers, and clinicians working with this material. The only complete reference for professionals, researchers, and clinicians working with ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene biomaterials technologies for joint replacement and implants New edition includes six new chapters on a wide range of topics, including the clinical performance of highly crosslinked polyethylene (HXLPE) in hip and knee replacement, an overview of antioxidant stabilization for UHMWPE, and the medical applications of UHMWPE fibers State-of-the-art coverage of the latest UHMWPE technology, orthopedic applications, biomaterial characterization, and engineering aspects from recognized leaders in the field

    • Medical

Systems Biology


Author: Bernhard Palsson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107038855
Category: Medical
Page: 550
View: 885
The first comprehensive single-authored textbook on genome-scale models and the bottom-up approach to systems biology.

    • Nature

The Synthetic Age

Outdesigning Evolution, Resurrecting Species, and Reengineering Our World
Author: Christopher J. Preston
Publisher: Mit Press
ISBN: 9780262037617
Category: Nature
Page: 224
View: 5563
Imagining a future in which humans fundamentally reshape the natural world using nanotechnology, synthetic biology, de-extinction, and climate engineering. We have all heard that there are no longer any places left on Earth untouched by humans. The significance of this goes beyond statistics documenting melting glaciers and shrinking species counts. It signals a new geological epoch. In The Synthetic Age, Christopher Preston argues that what is most startling about this coming epoch is not only how much impact humans have had but, more important, how much deliberate shaping they will start to do. Emerging technologies promise to give us the power to take over some of Nature's most basic operations. It is not just that we are exiting the Holocene and entering the Anthropocene; it is that we are leaving behind the time in which planetary change is just the unintended consequence of unbridled industrialism. A world designed by engineers and technicians means the birth of the planet's first Synthetic Age. Preston describes a range of technologies that will reconfigure Earth's very metabolism: nanotechnologies that can restructure natural forms of matter; "molecular manufacturing" that offers unlimited repurposing; synthetic biology's potential to build, not just read, a genome; "biological mini-machines" that can outdesign evolution; the relocation and resurrection of species; and climate engineering attempts to manage solar radiation by synthesizing a volcanic haze, cool surface temperatures by increasing the brightness of clouds, and remove carbon from the atmosphere with artificial trees that capture carbon from the breeze. What does it mean when humans shift from being caretakers of the Earth to being shapers of it? And in whom should we trust to decide the contours of our synthetic future? These questions are too important to be left to the engineers.