• Philosophy

From a Logical Point of View

9 Logico-philosophical Essays
Author: Willard Van Orman Quine
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674323513
Category: Philosophy
Page: 184
View: 4087
These nine essays are largely concerned with the theory of meaning and referencesâe"semantics. At the same time adjacent portions of philosophy and logic are discussed. To the existence of what objects may a given scientific theory be said to be committed? And what considerations may suitably guide us in accepting or revising such ontological commitments? These are among the questions dealt with in this book, particular attention being devoted to the role of abstract entities in mathematics. There is speculation on the mechanism whereby objects of one sort or another come to be posited, a process in which the notion of identity plays an important part.

    • Mathematics

A Manual of Intensional Logic


Author: Johan F. A. K. van Benthem
Publisher: Center for the Study of Language and Information Publications
ISBN: 9780937073292
Category: Mathematics
Page: 145
View: 8061
Intensional logic is the technical study of such intensional phenomena in human reasoning as modality, knowledge, or flow of time. These all require a richer semantic picture than standard truth values in one static environment. Such a picture is provided by so-called possible worlds semantics, a paradigm which is surveyed in this book, both as to its external sources of motivation and as to the internal dynamics of the resulting program. In particular, Manual of Intensional Logic presents the major classical topics, including modal logic, tense logic, and conditional logic, all of which illustrate motivations coming from philosophy and linguistics. The Book also discusses recent computational applications in computer science and AI. Finally, Manual of Intensional Logic takes up recent developments in the study of language and information making themselves felt in the area. The Book examines the role of partial information--with illustrations drawn from different branches of Intensional Logic--and various influences stemming from current theories of the semantics of natural language, involving generalized quantifiers and theories of types.

    • Language Arts & Disciplines

The Mathematics of Language


Author: Marcus Kracht
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110895668
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 605
View: 1484
This book studies language(s) and linguistic theories from a mathematical point of view. Starting with ideas already contained in Montague's work, it develops the mathematical foundations of present day linguistics. It equips the reader with all the background necessary to understand and evaluate theories as diverse as Montague Grammar, Categorial Grammar, HPSG and GB. The mathematical tools are mainly from universal algebra and logic, but no particular knowledge is presupposed beyond a certain mathematical sophistication that is in any case needed in order to fruitfully work within these theories. The presentation focuses on abstract mathematical structures and their computational properties, but plenty of examples from different natural languages are provided to illustrate the main concepts and results. In contrast to books devoted to so-called formal language theory, languages are seen here as semiotic systems, that is, as systems of signs. A language sign correlates form with meaning. Using the principle of compositionality it is possible to gain substantial insight into the interaction between form and meaning in natural languages.

    • Technology & Engineering

Quantum (Un)speakables

From Bell to Quantum Information
Author: R.A. Bertlmann,A. Zeilinger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662050323
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 485
View: 484
This outstanding collection of essays leads the reader from the foundations of quantum mechanics to quantum entanglement, quantum cryptography, and quantum information, and is written for all those in need of a thorough insight into this new area of physics.

    • Philosophy

Rationality and Logic


Author: Hanna
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262263114
Category: Philosophy
Page: 344
View: 3835
In Rationality and Logic, Robert Hanna argues that logic is intrinsically psychological and that human psychology is intrinsically logical. He claims that logic is cognitively constructed by rational animals (including humans) and that rational animals are essentially logical animals. In order to do so, he defends the broadly Kantian thesis that all (and only) rational animals possess an innate cognitive "logic faculty." Hanna's claims challenge the conventional philosophical wisdom that sees logic as a fully formal or "topic-neutral" science irreconcilably separate from the species- or individual-specific focus of empirical psychology.Logic and psychology went their separate ways after attacks by Frege and Husserl on logical psychologism--the explanatory reduction of logic to empirical psychology. Hanna argues, however, that--despite the fact that logical psychologism is false--there is an essential link between logic and psychology. Rational human animals constitute the basic class of cognizers or thinkers studied by cognitive psychology; given the connection between rationality and logic that Hanna claims, it follows that the nature of logic is significantly revealed to us by cognitive psychology. Hanna's proposed "logical cognitivism" has two important consequences: the recognition by logically oriented philosophers that psychologists are their colleagues in the metadiscipline of cognitive science; and radical changes in cognitive science itself. Cognitive science, Hanna argues, is not at bottom a natural science; it is both an objective or truth-oriented science and a normative human science, as is logic itself.

    • Science

Foundations of Quantum Theory

From Classical Concepts to Operator Algebras
Author: Klaas Landsman
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319517775
Category: Science
Page: 861
View: 2345
This book studies the foundations of quantum theory through its relationship to classical physics. This idea goes back to the Copenhagen Interpretation (in the original version due to Bohr and Heisenberg), which the author relates to the mathematical formalism of operator algebras originally created by von Neumann. The book therefore includes comprehensive appendices on functional analysis and C*-algebras, as well as a briefer one on logic, category theory, and topos theory. Matters of foundational as well as mathematical interest that are covered in detail include symmetry (and its "spontaneous" breaking), the measurement problem, the Kochen-Specker, Free Will, and Bell Theorems, the Kadison-Singer conjecture, quantization, indistinguishable particles, the quantum theory of large systems, and quantum logic, the latter in connection with the topos approach to quantum theory. This book is Open Access under a CC BY licence.

Fuzzy Logic in Control


Author: N.A
Publisher: Rene Jager
ISBN: 9090083189
Category:
Page: 312
View: 7345

    • Philosophy

Paradigms and Paradoxes

The Philosophical Challenge of the Quantum Domain
Author: Robert G. Colodny
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Pre
ISBN: 082297598X
Category: Philosophy
Page: 466
View: 790
The revolution involving the foundations of the physical sciences heralded by relativity and quantum theories has been stimulating philosophers for many years. Both of these comprehensive sets of concepts have involved profound challenges to traditional theories of epistemology, ontology, and language. This volume gathers six experts in physics, logic and philosophy to discuss developments in space exploration and nuclear science and their impact on the philosophy of science.

    • Social Science

Communication, action, and meaning

the creation of social realities
Author: W. Barnett Pearce,Vernon E. Cronen
Publisher: Praeger Publishers
ISBN: N.A
Category: Social Science
Page: 362
View: 3275

    • Philosophy

Logic in Reality


Author: JOSEPH BRENNER
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402083750
Category: Philosophy
Page: 362
View: 3843
This book is both dif?cult and rewarding, affording a new perspective on logic and reality, basically seen in terms of change and stability, being and becoming. Most importantly it exemplifies a mode of doing philosophy of science that seems a welcome departure from the traditional focus on purely analytic arguments. The author approaches ontology, metaphysics, and logic as having offered a number of ways of constructing the description of reality, and aims at deepening their relationships in a new way. Going beyond the mere abstract and formal aspects of logical analysis, he offers a new architecture of logic that sees it as applied not only to the “reasoning processes” belonging to the first disciplinary group – ontology – but also directly concerned with en- ties, events, and phenomena studied by the second one – metaphysics. It is the task of the book to elaborate such a constructive logic, both by offering a lo- cal view of the structure of the reality in general and by proffering a wealth of models able to encompass its implications for science. In turning from the merely formal to the constructive account of logic Brenner overcomes the limitation of logic to linguistic concepts so that it can be not only a logic “of” reality but also “in” that reality which is constitutively characterized by a number of fundamental dualities (observer and observed, self and not-self, internal and external, etc.

    • Social Science

Evil Media


Author: Matthew Fuller,Andrew Goffey
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262304406
Category: Social Science
Page: 248
View: 2633
Evil Media develops a philosophy of media power that extends the concept of media beyond its tried and trusted use in the games of meaning, symbolism, and truth. It addresses the gray zones in which media exist as corporate work systems, algorithms and data structures, twenty-first century self-improvement manuals, and pharmaceutical techniques. Evil Media invites the reader to explore and understand the abstract infrastructure of the present day. From search engines to flirting strategies, from the value of institutional stupidity to the malicious minutiae of databases, this book shows how the devil is in the details. The title takes the imperative "Don't be evil" and asks, what would be done any differently in contemporary computational and networked media were that maxim reversed.Media here are about much more and much less than symbols, stories, information, or communication: media do things. They incite and provoke, twist and bend, leak and manage. In a series of provocative stratagems designed to be used, Evil Media sets its reader an ethical challenge: either remain a transparent intermediary in the networks and chains of communicative power or become oneself an active, transformative medium.

    • Mathematics

Russell's Logical Atomism


Author: David Bostock
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199651442
Category: Mathematics
Page: 302
View: 9108
David Bostock presents a detailed account and critical appraisal of the development of Bertrand Russell's philosophy from 1900 to 1924. He explores Russell's logical atomism, which applies logic to problems in the theory of knowledge and metaphysics and was central to Russell's work over this period.

    • Science

Emergence and Embodiment

New Essays on Second-Order Systems Theory
Author: Bruce Clarke,Mark B. N. Hansen
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 9780822391388
Category: Science
Page: 294
View: 1739
Emerging in the 1940s, the first cybernetics—the study of communication and control systems—was mainstreamed under the names artificial intelligence and computer science and taken up by the social sciences, the humanities, and the creative arts. In Emergence and Embodiment, Bruce Clarke and Mark B. N. Hansen focus on cybernetic developments that stem from the second-order turn in the 1970s, when the cyberneticist Heinz von Foerster catalyzed new thinking about the cognitive implications of self-referential systems. The crucial shift he inspired was from first-order cybernetics’ attention to homeostasis as a mode of autonomous self-regulation in mechanical and informatic systems, to second-order concepts of self-organization and autopoiesis in embodied and metabiotic systems. The collection opens with an interview with von Foerster and then traces the lines of neocybernetic thought that have followed from his work. In response to the apparent dissolution of boundaries at work in the contemporary technosciences of emergence, neocybernetics observes that cognitive systems are operationally bounded, semi-autonomous entities coupled with their environments and other systems. Second-order systems theory stresses the recursive complexities of observation, mediation, and communication. Focused on the neocybernetic contributions of von Foerster, Francisco Varela, and Niklas Luhmann, this collection advances theoretical debates about the cultural, philosophical, and literary uses of their ideas. In addition to the interview with von Foerster, Emergence and Embodiment includes essays by Varela and Luhmann. It engages with Humberto Maturana’s and Varela’s creation of the concept of autopoiesis, Varela’s later work on neurophenomenology, and Luhmann’s adaptations of autopoiesis to social systems theory. Taken together, these essays illuminate the shared commitments uniting the broader discourse of neocybernetics. Contributors. Linda Brigham, Bruce Clarke, Mark B. N. Hansen, Edgar Landgraf, Ira Livingston, Niklas Luhmann, Hans-Georg Moeller, John Protevi, Michael Schiltz, Evan Thompson, Francisco J. Varela, Cary Wolfe

    • Psychology

Metamagical Themas

Questing For The Essence Of Mind And Pattern
Author: Douglas Hofstadter
Publisher: Basic Books
ISBN: 0786723866
Category: Psychology
Page: 880
View: 2113
Hofstadter’s collection of quirky essays is unified by its primary concern: to examine the way people perceive and think.

    • Philosophy

Logical Syntax of Language


Author: Rudolf Carnap
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317830601
Category: Philosophy
Page: 368
View: 7559
First published in 2000. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

    • Medical

A New Foundation for Representation in Cognitive and Brain Science

Category Theory and the Hippocampus
Author: Jaime Gómez Ramirez
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400777388
Category: Medical
Page: 193
View: 8439
The purpose of the book is to advance in the understanding of brain function by defining a general framework for representation based on category theory. The idea is to bring this mathematical formalism into the domain of neural representation of physical spaces, setting the basis for a theory of mental representation, able to relate empirical findings, uniting them into a sound theoretical corpus. The innovative approach presented in the book provides a horizon of interdisciplinary collaboration that aims to set up a common agenda that synthesizes mathematical formalization and empirical procedures in a systemic way. Category theory has been successfully applied to qualitative analysis, mainly in theoretical computer science to deal with programming language semantics. Nevertheless, the potential of category theoretic tools for quantitative analysis of networks has not been tackled so far. Statistical methods to investigate graph structure typically rely on network parameters. Category theory can be seen as an abstraction of graph theory. Thus, new categorical properties can be added into network analysis and graph theoretic constructs can be accordingly extended in more fundamental basis. By generalizing networks using category theory we can address questions and elaborate answers in a more fundamental way without waiving graph theoretic tools. The vital issue is to establish a new framework for quantitative analysis of networks using the theory of categories, in which computational neuroscientists and network theorists may tackle in more efficient ways the dynamics of brain cognitive networks. The intended audience of the book is researchers who wish to explore the validity of mathematical principles in the understanding of cognitive systems. All the actors in cognitive science: philosophers, engineers, neurobiologists, cognitive psychologists, computer scientists etc. are akin to discover along its pages new unforeseen connections through the development of concepts and formal theories described in the book. Practitioners of both pure and applied mathematics e.g., network theorists, will be delighted with the mapping of abstract mathematical concepts in the terra incognita of cognition.

    • Computers

Contagious Architecture

Computation, Aesthetics, and Space
Author: Luciana Parisi
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262018632
Category: Computers
Page: 370
View: 4351
A proposal that algorithms are not simply instructions to be performed but thinking entities that construct digital spatio-temporalities. In Contagious Architecture, Luciana Parisi offers a philosophical inquiry into the status of the algorithm in architectural and interaction design. Her thesis is that algorithmic computation is not simply an abstract mathematical tool but constitutes a mode of thought in its own right, in that its operation extends into forms of abstraction that lie beyond direct human cognition and control. These include modes of infinity, contingency, and indeterminacy, as well as incomputable quantities underlying the iterative process of algorithmic processing. The main philosophical source for the project is Alfred North Whitehead, whose process philosophy is specifically designed to provide a vocabulary for "modes of thought" exhibiting various degrees of autonomy from human agency even as they are mobilized by it. Because algorithmic processing lies at the heart of the design practices now reshaping our world--from the physical spaces of our built environment to the networked spaces of digital culture--the nature of algorithmic thought is a topic of pressing importance that reraises questions of control and, ultimately, power. Contagious Architecture revisits cybernetic theories of control and information theory's notion of the incomputable in light of this rethinking of the role of algorithmic thought. Informed by recent debates in political and cultural theory around the changing landscape of power, it links the nature of abstraction to a new theory of power adequate to the complexities of the digital world.

    • Philosophy

Mathematics without Numbers

Towards a Modal-Structural Interpretation
Author: Geoffrey Hellman
Publisher: Clarendon Press
ISBN: 019152011X
Category: Philosophy
Page: 166
View: 5178
Geoffrey Hellman presents a detailed interpretation of mathematics as the investigation of structural possibilities, as opposed to absolute, Platonic objects. After dealing with the natural numbers and analysis, he extends his approach to set theory, and shows how to dispense with a fixed universe of sets. Finally, he addresses problems of application to the physical world.

    • Business & Economics

Computable Foundations for Economics


Author: K. Vela Velupillai
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134253362
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 512
View: 5619
Computable Foundations for Economics is a unified collection of essays, some of which are published here for the first time and all of which have been updated for this book, on an approach to economic theory from the point of view of algorithmic mathematics. By algorithmic mathematics the author means computability theory and constructive mathematics. This is in contrast to orthodox mathematical economics and game theory, which are formalised with the mathematics of real analysis, underpinned by what is called the ZFC formalism, i.e., set theory with the axiom of choice. This reliance on ordinary real analysis and the ZFC system makes economic theory in its current mathematical mode completely non-algorithmic, which means it is numerically meaningless. The book provides a systematic attempt to dissect and expose the non-algorithmic content of orthodox mathematical economics and game theory and suggests a reformalization on the basis of a strictly rigorous algorithmic mathematics. This removes the current schizophrenia in mathematical economics and game theory, where theory is entirely divorced from algorithmic applicability – for experimental and computational exercises. The chapters demonstrate the uncomputability and non-constructivity of core areas of general equilibrium theory, game theory and recursive macroeconomics. The book also provides a fresh look at the kind of behavioural economics that lies behind Herbert Simon’s work, and resurrects a role for the noble classical traditions of induction and verification, viewed and formalised, now, algorithmically. It will therefore be of particular interest to postgraduate students and researchers in algorithmic economics, game theory and classical behavioural economics.

    • Science

Consistent Quantum Theory


Author: Robert B. Griffiths
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521539296
Category: Science
Page: 408
View: 1428
A clear and accessible presentation of quantum theory, suitable for researchers yet accessible to graduates.