• Political Science

The History of Political and Social Concepts

A Critical Introduction
Author: Melvin Richter
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195358520
Category: Political Science
Page: 224
View: 1020
Since the 1960s, German scholars have developed distinctive methods for writing the history of political, social, and philosophical concepts. Applied to France as well as Germany, their work has set new standards for the historical study of political and social language, Begriffsgeschichte. The questions these scholars address, and the methods they apply systematically to a broad range of sources, differ as much from the styles of Hegel, Dilthey, and Meinecke as from those of A.O. Lovejoy, J.G.A. Pocock, and Quentin Skinner. Begriffsgeschichte treats political language neither as autonomous discourse, nor as the product of ideology, social structure, or elite manipulation. Although conceptual historians agree that the field of action is defined by language, they place concept formation and use within historical contexts. By surveying political and social discourses systematically, this genre traces how the great modern revolutions have been conceptualized in sharply contested forms by competing political and social formations, as well as by individual thinkers. Combining intellectual with social history, historians of concepts track linguistically the advent, mentalities, and effects of modernity. In The History of Political and Social Concepts, Melvin Richter analyzes the theories which have generated conceptual history, and their reinterpretation of key concepts such as Max Weber's three types of legitimate Herrschaft, and that of civilit?? in France. What is it that we know when we learn the history of a concept? What difference does it make that we know it? After assessing the programs and achievements of Begriffsgeschichte, the author argues the need for an analogous project to chart the careers of political and social concepts used in English-speaking societies. Addressed not only to historians of political and social thought, this work will interest students and scholars of political culture, social historians, and historians of ideas, historiography, law, language, and rhetoric.

    • Political Science

Contemporary Political Concepts

A Critical Introduction
Author: Georgina Blakeley,Valerie Bryson
Publisher: Pluto Press
ISBN: 9780745317960
Category: Political Science
Page: 240
View: 6373
The language of political debate and analysis has changed dramatically in recent years. Today, both academics and practitioners have largely abandoned the vocabulary of the left and replaced it with a set of concepts that structure debate and set the political agenda. Thus, the world economy is discussed in terms of globalization instead of international capitalism, analysis of the capitalist state has given way to the study of governance, and gender and ethnicity are treated as more significant dimensions of inequality than class. Moreover, the apparently benign concepts of civil society, citizenship and stakeholder have replaced those of class and class conflict, poverty is about social exclusion rather than exploitation, and consumer choice and worker empowerment have replaced the pursuit of class interests. In today's political climate, socialism is seen as old-fashioned or utopian. In contrast, capitalism is seen as realistic, and the 'third way' is presented as the solution to all our ills.This book explores the real issues behind these catchphrases of modern politics, explaining what they mean, and offering a critique of the ideology of which they are a part. With chapters written by experts in each field, this is an excellent guide for students of politics, and anybody who is looking for a critical introduction to the key ideas, so often shrouded in rhetoric, that we hear about in the news. Chapters cover postmodernism, gender, citizenship, civil society, stakeholding, globalization, governance, the Third Way, ethnicity, social exclusion, empowerment and sustainable development.

    • Political Science

A Brief History of Neoliberalism


Author: David Harvey
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 019162294X
Category: Political Science
Page: 256
View: 3485
Neoliberalism - the doctrine that market exchange is an ethic in itself, capable of acting as a guide for all human action - has become dominant in both thought and practice throughout much of the world since 1970 or so. Its spread has depended upon a reconstitution of state powers such that privatization, finance, and market processes are emphasized. State interventions in the economy are minimized, while the obligations of the state to provide for the welfare of its citizens are diminished. David Harvey, author of 'The New Imperialism' and 'The Condition of Postmodernity', here tells the political-economic story of where neoliberalization came from and how it proliferated on the world stage. While Thatcher and Reagan are often cited as primary authors of this neoliberal turn, Harvey shows how a complex of forces, from Chile to China and from New York City to Mexico City, have also played their part. In addition he explores the continuities and contrasts between neoliberalism of the Clinton sort and the recent turn towards neoconservative imperialism of George W. Bush. Finally, through critical engagement with this history, Harvey constructs a framework not only for analyzing the political and economic dangers that now surround us, but also for assessing the prospects for the more socially just alternatives being advocated by many oppositional movements.

    • Philosophy

Critical Theory: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Stephen Eric Bronner
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190692693
Category: Philosophy
Page: 168
View: 6618
Critical theory emerged in the 1920s from the work of the Frankfurt School, the circle of German-Jewish academics who sought to diagnose -- and, if at all possible, cure -- the ills of society, particularly fascism and capitalism. In this book, Stephen Eric Bronner provides sketches of leading representatives of the critical tradition (such as George Lukács and Ernst Bloch, Theodor Adorno and Walter Benjamin, Herbert Marcuse and Jurgen Habermas) as well as many of its seminal texts and empirical investigations. This Very Short Introduction sheds light on the cluster of concepts and themes that set critical theory apart from its more traditional philosophical competitors. Bronner explains and discusses concepts such as method and agency, alienation and reification, the culture industry and repressive tolerance, non-identity and utopia. He argues for the introduction of new categories and perspectives for illuminating the obstacles to progressive change and focusing upon hidden transformative possibilities. In this newly updated second edition, Bronner targets new academic interests, broadens his argument, and adapts it to a global society amid the resurgence of right-wing politics and neo-fascist movements.

    • Law

Anthropology and Law

A Critical Introduction
Author: Mark Goodale,Sally Engle Merry
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 1479895512
Category: Law
Page: 320
View: 2432
An introduction to the anthropology of law that explores the connections between law, politics, and technology. From legal responsibility for genocide to rectifying past injuries to indigenous people, the anthropology of law addresses some of the crucial ethical issues of our day. Over the past twenty-five years, anthropologists have studied how new forms of law have reshaped important questions of citizenship, biotechnology, and rights movements, among many others. Meanwhile, the rise of international law and transitional justice has posed new ethical and intellectual challenges to anthropologists. Anthropology and Law provides a comprehensive overview of the anthropology of law in the post-Cold War era. Mark Goodale introduces the central problems of the field and builds on the legacy of its intellectual history, while a foreword by Sally Engle Merry highlights the challenges of using the law to seek justice on an international scale. The book’s chapters cover a range of intersecting areas including language and law, history, regulation, indigenous rights, and gender. For a complete understanding of the consequential ways in which anthropologists have studied, interacted with, and critiqued, the ways and means of law, Anthropology and Law is required reading.

    • Political Science

Glocalization

A Critical Introduction
Author: Victor Roudometof
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317936299
Category: Political Science
Page: 188
View: 6053
This book seeks to provide a critical introduction to the under-theorized concept of Glocalization. While the term has been slowly diffused into social-scientific vocabulary, to date, there is no book in circulation that specifically discusses this concept. Historically theorists have intertwined the concepts of the ‘global’ and the ‘glocal’ or have subsumed the ‘glocal’ under other concepts – such as cosmopolitanization. Moreover, theorists have failed to give ‘local’ due attention in their theorizing. The book argues that the terms ‘global’, the ‘local’ and the ‘glocal’ are in need of unambiguous and theoretically and methodologically sound definitions. This is a prerequisite for their effective operationalization and application into social research. Glocalization is structured in two parts: Part I introduces the term, seeking to provide a history and critical assessment of theorists' past use of glocalization and offering an alternative perspective and a clear, effective and applicable definition of the term, explaining the limitations of the term globalization and the value of defining glocalization. Part II then moves on to illustrate how the concept of glocalization can be used to broaden our understanding and analysis of a wide range of issues in world politics including the 21st century culture of consumption, transnationalism & cosmopolitanism, nationalism, and religious traditions. Utilizing a wide range of historical, ethnographic and real-life examples from various domains this work will be essential reading for students and scholars of Globalization and will be of great interest to those in the field of Global, Transnational and Cosmopolitan Studies.

    • Language Arts & Disciplines

New Media

A Critical Introduction
Author: Martin Lister,Jon Dovey,Seth Giddings,Iain Grant,Kieran Kelly
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134083831
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 464
View: 1905
New Media: A Critical Introduction is a comprehensive introduction to the culture, history, technologies and theories of new media. Written especially for students, the book considers the ways in which 'new media' really are new, assesses the claims that a media and technological revolution has taken place and formulates new ways for media studies to respond to new technologies. The authors introduce a wide variety of topics including: how to define the characteristics of new media; social and political uses of new media and new communications; new media technologies, politics and globalization; everyday life and new media; theories of interactivity, simulation, the new media economy; cybernetics, cyberculture, the history of automata and artificial life. Substantially updated from the first edition to cover recent theoretical developments, approaches and significant technological developments, this is the best and by far the most comprehensive textbook available on this exciting and expanding subject. At www.newmediaintro.com you will find: additional international case studies with online references specially created You Tube videos on machines and digital photography a new ‘Virtual Camera’ case study, with links to short film examples useful links to related websites, resources and research sites further online reading links to specific arguments or discussion topics in the book links to key scholars in the field of new media.

    • History

Why Concepts Matter

Translating Social and Political Thought
Author: Martin Burke,Melvin Richter
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004194266
Category: History
Page: 242
View: 4737
The volume explores distinctive issues involved in translating political and social thought. Thirteen contributors consider problems arising from the study of translation and cultural transfers of texts, in particular in terms of translation studies, and the history of concepts (Begriffsgeschichte).

    • Philosophy

Alain Badiou

A Critical Introduction
Author: Jason Barker
Publisher: Pluto Press
ISBN: 9780745318004
Category: Philosophy
Page: 189
View: 5457
A clear and concise introduction to the political philosophy of Alain Badiou, centred in a political context.

    • Philosophy

Multiculturalism

A Critical Introduction
Author: Michael Murphy
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136520104
Category: Philosophy
Page: 208
View: 5342
What is multiculturalism and what are the different theories used to justify it? Are multicultural policies a threat to liberty and equality? Can liberal democracies accommodate minority groups without sacrificing peace and stability? In this clear introduction to the subject, Michael Murphy explores these questions and critically assesses multiculturalism from the standpoint of political philosophy and political practice. The book explores the origins and contemporary usage of the concept of multiculturalism in the context of debates about citizenship, egalitarian justice and conflicts between individual and collective rights. The ideas of some of the most influential champions and critics of multiculturalism, including Will Kymlicka, Chandran Kukathas, Susan Okin and Brian Barry, are also clearly explained and evaluated. Key themes include the tension between multiculturalism and gender equality, cultural relativism and the limits of liberal toleration, and the impact of multicultural policies on social cohesion ethnic conflict. Murphy also surveys the legal practices and policies enacted to accommodate multiculturalism, drawing on examples from the Americas, Australasia, Europe, Asia and the Middle East. Multiculturalism: A Critical Introduction is an ideal starting point for anyone coming to the topic for the first time as well as those already familiar with some of the key issues.

    • Political Science

Political Theory and Social Science

Cutting Against the Grain
Author: J. Gunnell
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230117589
Category: Political Science
Page: 189
View: 8740
This work is devoted to a critical analytical examination of the history, character, and conduct of contemporary academic political theory and to a reconsideration of significant elements of this field of inquiry from the perspective of the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein.

    • Literary Criticism

The Architecture of Concepts

The Historical Formation of Human Rights
Author: Peter de Bolla
Publisher: Fordham University Press
ISBN: 0823254402
Category: Literary Criticism
Page: 308
View: 1262
The Architecture of Concepts proposes a radically new way of understanding the history of ideas. Taking as its example human rights, it develops a distinctive kind of conceptual analysis that enables us to see with precision how the concept of human rights was formed in the eighteenth century. The first chapter outlines an innovative account of concepts as cultural entities. The second develops an original methodology for recovering the historical formation of the concept of human rights based on data extracted from digital archives. This enables us to track the construction of conceptual architectures over time. Having established the architecture of the concept of human rights, the book then examines two key moments in its historical formation: the First Continental Congress in 1775 and the publication of Tom Paine's Rights of Man in 1792. Arguing that we have yet to fully understand or appreciate the consequences of the eighteenth-century invention of the concept "rights of man," the final chapter addresses our problematic contemporary attempts to leverage human rights as the most efficacious way of achieving universal equality

    • Political Science

Disobedience in Western Political Thought

A Genealogy
Author: Raffaele Laudani
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107244773
Category: Political Science
Page: 200
View: 1273
The global age is distinguished by disobedience, from the protests in Tiananmen Square to the fall of the Berlin Wall, to the anti-G8 and anti-WTO demonstrations. In this book, Raffaele Laudani offers a systematic review of how disobedience has been conceptualised, supported, and criticised throughout history. Laudani documents the appearance of 'disobedience' in the political lexicon from ancient times to the present, and explains the word's manifestations, showing how its semantic wealth transcended its liberal interpretations in the 1960s and 1970s. Disobedience, Laudani finds, is not merely an alternative to revolution and rebellion, but a different way of conceiving radical politics, one based on withdrawal of consent and defection in relation to the established order.

    • Political science

At the Limits of the Political

Affect, Life, Things
Author: Inna Viriasova
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781786604569
Category: Political science
Page: 214
View: 5636
Offering a critical introduction to the philosophical debate on the concept of the political, this book explores recent developments in continental philosophy. Inna Viriasova engages with key contemporary thinkers including Agamben, Esposito, Henry and Meillassoux and explores the debate in the context of the Italian concept of the impolitical.

    • History

Futures Past

On the Semantics of Historical Time
Author: Reinhart Koselleck
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231502044
Category: History
Page: 348
View: 8607
Modernity in the late eighteenth century transformed all domains of European life -intellectual, industrial, and social. Not least affected was the experience of time itself: ever-accelerating change left people with briefer intervals of time in which to gather new experiences and adapt. In this provocative and erudite book Reinhart Koselleck, a distinguished philosopher of history, explores the concept of historical time by posing the question: what kind of experience is opened up by the emergence of modernity? Relying on an extraordinary array of witnesses and texts from politicians, philosophers, theologians, and poets to Renaissance paintings and the dreams of German citizens during the Third Reich, Koselleck shows that, with the advent of modernity, the past and the future became 'relocated' in relation to each other.The promises of modernity -freedom, progress, infinite human improvement -produced a world accelerating toward an unknown and unknowable future within which awaited the possibility of achieving utopian fulfillment. History, Koselleck asserts, emerged in this crucial moment as a new temporality providing distinctly new ways of assimilating experience. In the present context of globalization and its resulting crises, the modern world once again faces a crisis in aligning the experience of past and present. To realize that each present was once an imagined future may help us once again place ourselves within a temporality organized by human thought and humane ends as much as by the contingencies of uncontrolled events.

    • Social Science

The Reception of Bodin


Author: N.A
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004259805
Category: Social Science
Page: 480
View: 7992
The transmission of ideas in ‘early-modern’ Europe has attracted wide interest in recent decades. In The Reception of Bodin seventeen scholars investigate the jurist-philosopher Jean Bodin’s significance in processes that cross-fertilised European intellectual life from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment.

    • Education

Hermeneutics, History and Memory


Author: Philip Gardner
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134261624
Category: Education
Page: 208
View: 3958
History is the true record of an absent past. The trust between historians and their readers has always been founded upon this traditional claim. In a postmodern world, that claim and that trust have both been challenged as never before, drawing either angry or apologetic responses from historians. Hermeneutics, History and Memory answers differently. It sees the sceptical challenge as an opportunity for reflection on history’s key processes and practices, and draws upon methodological resources that are truly history’s own, but from which it has become estranged. In seeking to restore these resources, to return history to its roots, this book presents a novel contribution to topical academic debate, focusing principally upon: the challenges and detours of historical methodology hermeneutic interpretation in history the work of Paul Ricoeur the relation between history and memory. Hermeneutics, History and Memory will appeal to experienced historical researchers who seek to explore the theoretical and methodological foundations of their empirical investigations. It will also be highly beneficial to research students in history and the social sciences concerned with understanding the principles and practices through which documentary analysis and in-depth interview can be both validated and conducted.

    • History

Marxism and History

A Critical Introduction
Author: N.A
Publisher: Manchester University Press
ISBN: 9780719056123
Category: History
Page: 314
View: 3081
Marx's theory of history is often regarded as the most enduring and fruitful aspect of his intellectual legacy. His "historical materialism" has been the inspiration for some of the best historical writing in the works of scholars such as Eric Hobsbawm, E.P.Thompson, Rodney Hilton and Robert Brenner. S.H. Rigby establishes Marx's claims about social structure and historical change, discusses their use in his own and his followers' writings, and assesses the validity of his theories. He argues that Marx's social theories were profoundly contradictory and that Marxism has proved most useful when it is seen as a source of questions, concepts and hypotheses rather than as a philosophy of historical development.

    • Welfare

Welfare and the State

Critical Concepts in Political Science
Author: Nicholas Deakin,Catherine Jones Finer
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 9780415262880
Category: Welfare
Page: 328
View: 6043

    • History

The Tory World

Deep History and the Tory Theme in British Foreign Policy, 1679-2014
Author: Jeremy Black
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1472414306
Category: History
Page: 412
View: 1358
Political decisions are never taken in a vacuum but are shaped both by current events and historical context. In other words, long-term developments and patterns in which the accumulated memory of what came earlier, can greatly (and sometimes subconsciously) influence subsequent policy choices. Working forward from the later seventeenth century, this book explores the ‘deep history’ of the changing and competing understandings within the Tory party of the role Britain has aspired to play on a world stage. Conservatism has long been one of the major British political tendencies, committed to the defence of established institutions, with a strong sense of the ‘national interest’, and embracing both ‘liberal’ and ‘authoritarian’ views of empire. The Tory party has, moreover, at several times been deeply divided, if not convulsed, by different perspectives on Britain’s international orientation and different positions on foreign and imperial policy. Underlying Tory beliefs upon which views of Britain’s global role were built were often not stated but assumed. As a result they tend to be obscured from historical view. This book seeks to recover and reconsider those beliefs, and to understand how the Tory party has sought to navigate its way through the difficult pathways of foreign and imperial politics, and why this determination outlasted Britain’s rapid decolonisation and was apparently remarkably little affected by it. With a supporting cast from Pitt to Disraeli, Churchill to Thatcher, the book provides a fascinating insight into the influence of history over politics. Moreover it argues that there has been an inherent politicisation of the concept of national interests, such that strategic culture and foreign policy cannot be understood other than in terms of a historically distorted political debate.