• Social Science

The Sociology of the State


Author: Bertrand Badie,Pierre Birnbaum
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226035499
Category: Social Science
Page: 171
View: 8573
Too often we think of the modern political state as a universal institution, the inevitable product of History rather than a specific creation of a very particular history. Bertrand Badie and Pierre Birnbaum here persuasively argue that the origin of the state is a social fact, arising out of the peculiar sociohistorical context of Western Europe. Drawing on historical materials and bringing sociological insights to bear on a field long abandoned to jurists and political scientists, the authors lay the foundations for a strikingly original theory of the birth and subsequent diffusion of the state. The book opens with a review of the principal evolutionary theories concerning the origin of the institution proposed by such thinkers as Marx, Durkheim, and Weber. Rejecting these views, the authors set forward and defend their thesis that the state was an "invention" rather than a necessary consequence of any other process. Once invented, the state was disseminated outside its Western European birthplace either through imposition or imitation. The study concludes with concrete analyses of the differences in actual state institutions in France, Prussia, Great Britain, the United States, and Switzerland.

    • Political Science

Limits of Citizenship

Migrants and Postnational Membership in Europe
Author: Yasemin Nuhoglu Soysal
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226768427
Category: Political Science
Page: 244
View: 6085
3. Explaining incorporation regimes

    • Political Science

Rising Tide

Gender Equality and Cultural Change Around the World
Author: Ronald Inglehart,Pippa Norris
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521529501
Category: Political Science
Page: 226
View: 1755
The twentieth century gave rise to profound changes in traditional sex roles. However, the force of this 'rising tide' has varied among rich and poor societies around the globe, as well as among younger and older generations. Rising Tide sets out to understand how modernization has changed cultural attitudes towards gender equality and to analyze the political consequences of this process. The core argument suggests that women and men's lives have been altered in a two-stage modernization process consisting of (i) the shift from agrarian to industrialized societies and (ii) the move from industrial towards post industrial societies. This book is the first to systematically compare attitudes towards gender equality worldwide, comparing almost 70 nations that run the gamut from rich to poor, agrarian to postindustrial. Rising Tide is essential reading for those interested in understanding issues of comparative politics, public opinion, political behavior, political development, and political sociology.

    • History

Citizenship and Nationhood in France and Germany


Author: Rogers BRUBAKER
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674028945
Category: History
Page: 284
View: 3386
"The difference between French and German definitions of citizenship is instructive - and, for millions of immigrants from North Africa, Turkey, and Eastern Europe, decisive. Rogers Brubaker shows how this difference - between the territorial basis of the French citizenry and the German emphasis on blood descent - was shaped and sustained by sharply differing understandings of nationhood, rooted in distinctive French and German paths to nation-statehood". --Publisher.

    • Social Science

Culture and Power

The Sociology of Pierre Bourdieu
Author: David Swartz
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022616165X
Category: Social Science
Page: 342
View: 8668
Pierre Bourdieu is one of the world's most important social theorists and is also one of the great empirical researchers in contemporary sociology. However, reading Bourdieu can be difficult for those not familiar with the French cultural context, and until now a comprehensive introduction to Bourdieu's oeuvre has not been available. David Swartz focuses on a central theme in Bourdieu's work—the complex relationship between culture and power—and explains that sociology for Bourdieu is a mode of political intervention. Swartz clarifies Bourdieu's difficult concepts, noting where they have been misinterpreted by critics and where they have fallen short in resolving important analytical issues. The book also shows how Bourdieu has synthesized his theory of practices and symbolic power from Durkheim, Marx, and Weber, and how his work was influenced by Sartre, Levi-Strauss, and Althusser. Culture and Power is the first book to offer both a sympathetic and critical examination of Bourdieu's work and it will be invaluable to social scientists as well as to a broader audience in the humanities.

    • Philosophy

The Leviathan in the State Theory of Thomas Hobbes

Meaning and Failure of a Political Symbol
Author: Carl Schmitt,George Schwab,Tracy B. Strong
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226738949
Category: Philosophy
Page: 121
View: 9881
Writing in 1938, under the guise of studying the significance of the symbol of the leviathan in Thomas Hobbes's theory of the state, Carl Schmitt, the Hobbes of the 20th century, provides insights into totalitarian forms of government, attacks totalitarianism, and alludes to the demise of the Third Reich.

    • Social Science

Visions of the Sociological Tradition


Author: Donald N. Levine
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226475479
Category: Social Science
Page: 365
View: 8854
Don Levine moves from the origins of systematic knowledge in ancient Greece to the present day to present an account that is at once a history of the social science enterprise and an introduction to the cornerstone works of Western social thought. "Visions" has three meanings, each of which corresponds to a part of the book. In Part 1, Levine presents the ways previous sociologists have rendered accounts of their discipline, as a series of narratives—or "life stories"—that build upon each other, generation to generation, a succession of efforts to envisage a coherent past for the sake of a purposive present. In Part 2, the heart of the book, Levine offers his own narrative, reconnecting centuries of voices into a richly textured dialogue among the varied strands of the sociological tradition: Hellenic, British, French, German, Marxian, Italian, and American. Here, in a tour de force of clarity and conciseness, he tracks the formation of the sociological imagination through a series of conversations across generations. From classic philosophy to pragmatism, Aristotle to W. I. Thomas, Levine maps the web of visionary statements—confrontations and oppositions—from which social science has grown. At the same time, this is much more than an expert synthesis of social theory. Throughout each stage, Levine demonstrates social knowledge has grown in response to three recurring questions: How shall we live? What makes humans moral creatures? How do we understand the world? He anchors the creation of social knowledge to ethical foundations, and shows for the first time how differences in those foundations disposed the shapers of modern social science—among them, Marshall and Spencer, Comte and Durkheim, Simmel and Weber, Marx and Mosca, Dewey and Park—to proceed in vastly different ways. In Part 3, Levine offers a vision of the contemporary scene, setting the crisis of fragmentation in social sciences against the fragmentation of experience and community. By reconstructing the history of social thought as a series of fundamentally moral engagements with common themes, he suggests new uses for sociology's intellectual resources: not only as insight about the nature of modernity, but also as a model of mutually respectful communication in an increasingly fractious world.

    • Social Science

Symbolic Power, Politics, and Intellectuals

The Political Sociology of Pierre Bourdieu
Author: David L. Swartz
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226925021
Category: Social Science
Page: 304
View: 5453
Power is the central organizing principle of all social life, from culture and education to stratification and taste. And there is no more prominent name in the analysis of power than that of noted sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. Throughout his career, Bourdieu challenged the commonly held view that symbolic power—the power to dominate—is solely symbolic. He emphasized that symbolic power helps create and maintain social hierarchies, which form the very bedrock of political life. By the time of his death in 2002, Bourdieu had become a leading public intellectual, and his argument about the more subtle and influential ways that cultural resources and symbolic categories prevail in power arrangements and practices had gained broad recognition. In Symbolic Power, Politics, and Intellectuals, David L. Swartz delves deeply into Bourdieu’s work to show how central—but often overlooked—power and politics are to an understanding of sociology. Arguing that power and politics stand at the core of Bourdieu’s sociology, Swartz illuminates Bourdieu’s political project for the social sciences, as well as Bourdieu’s own political activism, explaining how sociology is not just science but also a crucial form of political engagement.

    • Social Science

The Chicago School of Sociology

Institutionalization, Diversity, and the Rise of Sociological Research
Author: Martin Bulmer
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226080055
Category: Social Science
Page: 285
View: 4776
From 1915 to 1935 the inventive community of social scientists at the University of Chicago pioneered empirical research and a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods, shaping the future of twentieth-century American sociology and related fields as well. Martin Bulmer's history of the Chicago school of sociology describes the university's role in creating research-based and publication-oriented graduate schools of social science. "This is an important piece of work on the history of sociology, but it is more than merely historical: Martin Bulmer's undertaking is also to explain why historical events occurred as they did, using potentially general theoretical ideas. He has studied what he sees as the period, from 1915 to 1935, when the 'Chicago School' most flourished, and defines the nature of its achievements and what made them possible . . . It is likely to become the indispensible historical source for its topic."—Jennifer Platt, Sociology

    • Social Science

Jane Addams and the Men of the Chicago School, 1892-1918


Author: Mary Jo Deegan
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351511149
Category: Social Science
Page: 369
View: 6213
Jane Addams is well known for her leadership in urban reform, social settlements, pacifism, social work, and women's suffrage.The men of the Chicago School are well known for their leadership in founding sociology and the study of urban life.What has remained hidden however, is that Jane Addams played a pivotal role in the development of sociology and worked closely with the male faculty at the Department of Sociology at the University of Chicago. By using extensive archival material, Mary Jo Deegan is the first to document Addams's sociological significance and the existence of a sexual division of labor during the founding years of the discipline. As the leader of the women's network, Addams was able to bridge these two spheres of work and knowledge.Through an analysis of the changing relations between the male and female networks, Deegan shows that the Chicago men varied widely in their understanding and acceptance of her sociological though and action.Despite this variation, it was through her work with the men of the Chicago School that Addams left a legacy for sociology as a way of thinking, an area of study, and a methodological approach to data collecting. This previously unexamined heritage of American sociology will be of value to anyone interested in the history of the social sciences, especially sociology and social work, the development of American social thought, the role of professional women, the Progressive Era, and the intellectual contributions of Jane Addams.

The Hobo

The Sociology of the Homeless Man
Author: Nels Anderson,Robert E. Park
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781258154028
Category:
Page: 338
View: 5082

    • Social Science

On Cultural Freedom

An Exploration of Public Life in Poland and America
Author: Jeffrey C. Goldfarb
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226301006
Category: Social Science
Page: 173
View: 6444
In this timely study, Jeffrey C. Goldfarb explores the nature and prospects of cultural freedom by examining the conditions that favor or threaten its development in the political East and West. Goldfarb—who examines conditions in the Soviet Union, the United States, and their respective European allies—focuses most closely upon Poland and the United States. He investigates a wide range of concrete cases, including the Polish opposition movement and Solidarity, the migration of artists, the American television and magazine industries, American philanthropy, and communist cultural conveyor belts. From these cases, Goldfarb derives a definitive set of sociological conditions for cultural freedom: critical creativity which resists systematic constraints, continuity of cultural tradition, and a relatively autonomous public realm for the reception of culture. Cultural freedom, Goldfarb shows, is not a static state but a process of achievement. Its parameters and content are determined by social practice in cultural institutions and by their relations with other components and the totality of social structure. So defined, cultural freedom is transformed from an ideological concept into one with real critical and analytical power. Through it we can appreciate the invisible nature of constraint in the West and the unapparent but acting supports of cultural freedom existing in socialist countries. Most importantly, Goldfarb's conclusions provide a framework for understanding more clearly than before the circumstance of cultural freedom in both East and West so that citizens may utilize their full creative abilities as they address the problems of the present day.

    • Social Science

Profession of Medicine

A Study of the Sociology of Applied Knowledge
Author: Eliot Freidson
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226262284
Category: Social Science
Page: 419
View: 3022
"Must be judged as a landmark in medical sociology."—Norman Denzin, Journal of Health and Social Behavior "Profession of Medicine is a challenging monograph; the ideas presented are stimulating and thought provoking. . . . Given the expanding domain of what illness is and the contentions of physicians about their rights as professionals, Freidson wonders aloud whether expertise is becoming a mask for privilege and power. . . . Profession of Medicine is a landmark in the sociological analysis of the professions in modern society."—Ron Miller, Sociological Quarterly "This is the first book that I know of to go to the root of the matter by laying open to view the fundamental nature of the professional claim, and the structure of professional institutions."—Everett C. Hughes, Science

    • Science

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

50th Anniversary Edition
Author: Thomas S. Kuhn
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226458148
Category: Science
Page: 264
View: 9935
A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.

    • Political Science

The Many Hands of the State

Theorizing Political Authority and Social Control
Author: Kimberly J. Morgan,Ann Shola Orloff
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 110713529X
Category: Political Science
Page: 424
View: 7477
This book offers a sampling of cutting-edge research on the state, pointing to future directions for research and providing innovative ways of theorizing states.

    • Social Science

Rich Democracies, Poor People

How Politics Explain Poverty
Author: David Brady
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199736677
Category: Social Science
Page: 280
View: 1718
Poverty is not simply the result of an individual's characteristics, behaviors or abilities. Rather, as David Brady demonstrates, poverty is the result of politics. In Rich Democracies, Poor People, Brady investigates why poverty is so entrenched in some affluent democracies whereas it is a solvable problem in others. Drawing on over thirty years of data from eighteen countries, Brady argues that cross-national and historical variations in poverty are principally driven by differences in the generosity of the welfare state. An explicit challenge to mainstream views of poverty as an inescapable outcome of individual failings or a society's labor markets and demography, this book offers institutionalized power relations theory as an alternative explanation.

    • Social Science

The Social Construction of Reality

A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge
Author: Peter L. Berger,Thomas Luckmann
Publisher: Open Road Media
ISBN: 1453215468
Category: Social Science
Page: 219
View: 7464
The classic work that redefined the sociology of knowledge and has inspired a generation of philosophers and thinkers In this seminal book, Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann examine how knowledge forms and how it is preserved and altered within a society. Unlike earlier theorists and philosophers, Berger and Luckmann go beyond intellectual history and focus on commonsense, everyday knowledge—the proverbs, morals, values, and beliefs shared among ordinary people. When first published in 1966, this systematic, theoretical treatise introduced the term social construction,effectively creating a new thought and transforming Western philosophy.

    • Psychology

The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance


Author: K. Anders Ericsson,Robert R. Hoffman,Aaron Kozbelt,A. Mark Williams
Publisher: Cambridge Handbooks in Psychol
ISBN: 1107137551
Category: Psychology
Page: 908
View: 2300
In this book, some of the world's foremost 'experts on expertise' provide scientific knowledge on expertise and expert performance.

    • Political Science

The Politics of Resentment

Rural Consciousness in Wisconsin and the Rise of Scott Walker
Author: Katherine J. Cramer
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022634925X
Category: Political Science
Page: 256
View: 9166
Since the election of Scott Walker, Wisconsin has been seen as ground zero for debates about the appropriate role of government in the wake of the Great Recession. In a time of rising inequality, Walker not only survived a bitterly contested recall that brought thousands of protesters to Capitol Square, he was subsequently reelected. How could this happen? How is it that the very people who stand to benefit from strong government services not only vote against the candidates who support those services but are vehemently against the very idea of big government? With The Politics of Resentment, Katherine J. Cramer uncovers an oft-overlooked piece of the puzzle: rural political consciousness and the resentment of the “liberal elite.” Rural voters are distrustful that politicians will respect the distinct values of their communities and allocate a fair share of resources. What can look like disagreements about basic political principles are therefore actually rooted in something even more fundamental: who we are as people and how closely a candidate’s social identity matches our own. Using Scott Walker and Wisconsin’s prominent and protracted debate about the appropriate role of government, Cramer illuminates the contours of rural consciousness, showing how place-based identities profoundly influence how people understand politics, regardless of whether urban politicians and their supporters really do shortchange or look down on those living in the country. The Politics of Resentment shows that rural resentment—no less than partisanship, race, or class—plays a major role in dividing America against itself.