• Social Science

The Will to Improve

Governmentality, Development, and the Practice of Politics
Author: Tania Murray Li
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 0822389789
Category: Social Science
Page: 390
View: 630
The Will to Improve is a remarkable account of development in action. Focusing on attempts to improve landscapes and livelihoods in Indonesia, Tania Murray Li carefully exposes the practices that enable experts to diagnose problems and devise interventions, and the agency of people whose conduct is targeted for reform. Deftly integrating theory, ethnography, and history, she illuminates the work of colonial officials and missionaries; specialists in agriculture, hygiene, and credit; and political activists with their own schemes for guiding villagers toward better ways of life. She examines donor-funded initiatives that seek to integrate conservation with development through the participation of communities, and a one-billion-dollar program designed by the World Bank to optimize the social capital of villagers, inculcate new habits of competition and choice, and remake society from the bottom up. Demonstrating that the “will to improve” has a long and troubled history, Li identifies enduring continuities from the colonial period to the present. She explores the tools experts have used to set the conditions for reform—tools that combine the reshaping of desires with applications of force. Attending in detail to the highlands of Sulawesi, she shows how a series of interventions entangled with one another and tracks their results, ranging from wealth to famine, from compliance to political mobilization, and from new solidarities to oppositional identities and violent attack. The Will to Improve is an engaging read—conceptually innovative, empirically rich, and alive with the actions and reflections of the targets of improvement, people with their own critical analyses of the problems that beset them.

    • Business & Economics

The will to improve

governmentality, development, and the practice of politics
Author: Tania Li
Publisher: Duke University Press Books
ISBN: N.A
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 374
View: 1434
Theoretical and anthropological study of how techniques of governance have been devised in the colonial and postcolonial context of Indonesia and their effect on current debates over economic development in the region.

    • Social Science

The Will to Improve

Governmentality, Development, and the Practice of Politics
Author: Tania Murray Li
Publisher: Duke University Press Books
ISBN: 9780822340270
Category: Social Science
Page: 390
View: 8615
The Will to Improve is a remarkable account of development in action. Focusing on attempts to improve landscapes and livelihoods in Indonesia, Tania Murray Li carefully exposes the practices that enable experts to diagnose problems and devise interventions, and the agency of people whose conduct is targeted for reform. Deftly integrating theory, ethnography, and history, she illuminates the work of colonial officials and missionaries; specialists in agriculture, hygiene, and credit; and political activists with their own schemes for guiding villagers toward better ways of life. She examines donor-funded initiatives that seek to integrate conservation with development through the participation of communities, and a one-billion-dollar program designed by the World Bank to optimize the social capital of villagers, inculcate new habits of competition and choice, and remake society from the bottom up. Demonstrating that the “will to improve” has a long and troubled history, Li identifies enduring continuities from the colonial period to the present. She explores the tools experts have used to set the conditions for reform—tools that combine the reshaping of desires with applications of force. Attending in detail to the highlands of Sulawesi, she shows how a series of interventions entangled with one another and tracks their results, ranging from wealth to famine, from compliance to political mobilization, and from new solidarities to oppositional identities and violent attack. The Will to Improve is an engaging read—conceptually innovative, empirically rich, and alive with the actions and reflections of the targets of improvement, people with their own critical analyses of the problems that beset them.

    • History

Red Tape

Bureaucracy, Structural Violence, and Poverty in India
Author: Akhil Gupta
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 0822351102
Category: History
Page: 368
View: 2436
Examining the chronic, widespread poverty in India, the world's fourth largest economy, Akhil Gupta theorizes the relation between the state in India and the poor as one of structural violence.

    • Political Science

Governmentality

Power and Rule in Modern Society
Author: Mitchell Dean
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1847873847
Category: Political Science
Page: 294
View: 301
Originally published in 1999 this exceptionally clear and lucid book quickly became the standard overview of what are now called 'governmentality studies'. With its emphasis on the relationship between governmentality and other key concepts drawn from Michel Foucault, such as bio-politics and sovereignty, the first edition anticipated and defined the terms of contemporary debate and analysis. In this timely second edition Mitchell Dean engages with the full textual basis of Foucault's lectures and once again provides invaluable insights into the traditions, methods and theories of political power identifying the authoritarian as well as liberal sides of governmentality. Every chapter has been fully revised and updated to incorporate, and respond to, new theoretical, social and political developments in the field; a new introduction surveying the state of governmentality today has also been added as well as a completely new chapter on international governmentality.

    • Social Science

Land’s End

Capitalist Relations on an Indigenous Frontier
Author: Tania Murray Li
Publisher: Duke University Press Books
ISBN: 9780822357056
Category: Social Science
Page: 239
View: 3716
Drawing on two decades of ethnographic research in Sulawesi, Indonesia, Tania Murray Li offers an intimate account of the emergence of capitalist relations among indigenous highlanders who privatized their common land to plant a boom crop, cacao. Spurred by the hope of ending their poverty and isolation, some prospered, while others lost their land and struggled to sustain their families. Yet the winners and losers in this transition were not strangers—they were kin and neighbors. Li's richly peopled account takes the reader into the highlanders' world, exploring the dilemmas they faced as sharp inequalities emerged among them. The book challenges complacent, modernization narratives promoted by development agencies that assume inefficient farmers who lose out in the shift to high-value export crops can find jobs elsewhere. Decades of uneven and often jobless growth in Indonesia meant that for newly landless highlanders, land's end was a dead end. The book also has implications for social movement activists, who seldom attend to instances where enclosure is initiated by farmers rather than coerced by the state or agribusiness corporations. Li's attention to the historical, cultural, and ecological dimensions of this conjuncture demonstrates the power of the ethnographic method and its relevance to theory and practice today.

    • Social Science

Anthropology and Development

Culture, Morality and Politics in a Globalised World
Author: Emma Crewe,Richard Axelby
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139789201
Category: Social Science
Page: N.A
View: 6095
In recent decades international development has grown into a world-shaping industry. But how do aid agencies work and what do they achieve? How does aid appear to the adults and children who receive it? And why has there been so little improvement in the position of the poor? Viewing aid and development from anthropological perspectives gives illuminating answers to questions such as these. This essential textbook reveals anthropologists' often surprising findings and details ethnographic case studies on the cultures of development. The authors use a fertile literature to examine the socio-political organisation of aid communities, agencies and networks, as well as the judgements they make about each other. The everyday practice of development work is about negotiating power and culture, but in vastly different ways in different contexts and for different social groups. Exploring the spaces between policy and practice, success and failure, the future and the past, this book provides a rounded understanding of development work that suggests new moral and political possibilities for an increasingly globalised world.

    • History

Instituting Nature

Authority, Expertise, and Power in Mexican Forests
Author: Andrew S. Mathews
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262016524
Category: History
Page: 304
View: 1664
Greater knowledge and transparency are often promoted as the keys to solving a widearray of governance problems. In Instituting Nature, Andrew Mathews describes Mexico's efforts overthe past hundred years to manage its forests through forestry science and biodiversity conservation.He shows that transparent knowledge was produced not by official declarations or scientists'expertise but by encounters between the relatively weak forestry bureaucracy and the indigenouspeople who manage and own the pine forests of Mexico. Mathews charts the performances, collusions,complicities, and evasions that characterize the forestry bureaucracy. He shows that the authorityof forestry officials is undermined by the tension between local realities and national policy;officials must juggle sweeping knowledge claims and mundane concealments, ambitious regulations androutine rule breaking. Moving from government offices in Mexico City to forests in the state ofOaxaca, Mathews describes how the science of forestry and bureaucratic practices came to Oaxaca inthe 1930s and how local environmental and political contexts set the stage for local resistance. Hetells how the indigenous Zapotec people learned the theory and practice of industrial forestry asemployees and then put these skills to use when they become the owners and managers of the area'spine forests--eventually incorporating forestry into their successful claims for autonomy from thestate. Despite the apparently small scale and local contexts of this balancing act between the powerof forestry regulations and the resistance of indigenous communities, Mathews shows that it haslarge implications--for how we understand the modern state, scientific knowledge, and power and forthe global carbon markets for which Mexican forests might become valuable. Thehardcover edition does not include a dust jacket.

    • Social Science

Logics of Empowerment

Development, Gender, and Governance in Neoliberal India
Author: Aradhana Sharma
Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
ISBN: 0816654522
Category: Social Science
Page: 260
View: 4890
Bringing much-needed specificity to the study of neoliberalism, 'Logics of Empowerment' fosters a deeper understanding of development and politics in contemporary India.

    • Social Science

Adventures in Aidland

The Anthropology of Professionals in International Development
Author: David Mosse
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 9780857451118
Category: Social Science
Page: 248
View: 1933
Anthropological interest in new subjects of research and contemporary knowledge practices has turned ethnographic attention to a wide ranging variety of professional fields. Among these the encounter with international development has perhaps been longer and more intimate than any of the others. Anthropologists have drawn critical attention to the interfaces and social effects of development's discursive regimes but, oddly enough, have paid scant attention to knowledge producers themselves, despite anthropologists being among them. This is the focus of this volume. It concerns the construction and transmission of knowledge about global poverty and its reduction but is equally interested in the social life of development professionals, in the capacity of ideas to mediate relationships, in networks of experts and communities of aid workers, and in the dilemmas of maintaining professional identities. Going well beyond obsolete debates about 'pure' and 'applied' anthropology, the book examines the transformations that occur as social scientific concepts and practices cross and re-cross the boundary between anthropological and policy making knowledge.

    • Social Science

Institutions Count

Their Role and Significance in Latin American Development
Author: Alejandro Portes,Lori D. Smith
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520273532
Category: Social Science
Page: 206
View: 6776
"Institutions Count is an impressively collaborative project and a valuable contribution, both for its lucid presentation of case study data across countries and cultures as well as its new insights to the roles institutions play in national development." —Bryan R. Roberts, Professor of Sociology at the University of Texas, Austin "Institutions Count by Portes and Smith is a significant addition to studies of institutions as well as studies of development. The main contributions include a clarification of the concept of institutions; an impeccable methodology for the empirical analysis of five institutions in five developing countries; and an innovative, comparative analysis of the outcomes of the individual studies. It is to be recommended to scholars across the social sciences who are frustrated by the lack of rigor in the existing literature on the increasingly popular topic of institutions."—Barbara Stallings, Wm. R. Rhodes Research Professor, Brown University

    • Business & Economics

Mobile Pastoralists

Development Planning and Social Change in Oman
Author: Dawn Chatty
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 9780231105491
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 230
View: 4781
Anthropological study of the nomadic Harasis.

    • Political Science

Governmentality

Critical Encounters
Author: William Walters
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136301534
Category: Political Science
Page: 200
View: 8356
First developed by Michel Foucault more than thirty years ago, "governmentality" has become an essential set of tools for many researchers in the social and political sciences today. What is "governmentality"? How does this perspective challenge the way we understand political power and its contestation? This new introduction offers advanced undergraduate and graduate students both a highly accessible guide and an original contribution to debates about power and governmentality. The book aims to serve four main functions: To situate governmentality as an intellectual development within Foucault’s thinking about the microphysics of power and his genealogical methods; To reveal how research in governmentality has changed as the idea encounters new academic fields, political contexts and regional settings; To examine one of the more recent encounters between governmentality and the social sciences - its interaction with international relations and global politics; To offer researchers some methodological suggestions for undertaking studies in governmentality, stressing that its critical edge becomes blunted if it is detached from historical/genealogical modes of inquiry. This book offers a set of conceptual and methodological observations intended to keep research in governmentality a living, critical thought project. Above all, it argues that the challenge of understanding the world calls for the addition of new thinking equipment to the governmentality toolbox. Governmentality: Critical Encounters will prove useful for students of social and political theory, international relations, political sociology, anthropology and geography.

    • History

Transforming the Frontier

Peace Parks and the Politics of Neoliberal Conservation in Southern Africa
Author: Bram Büscher
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 0822354209
Category: History
Page: 290
View: 1005
International peace parks—transnational conservation areas established and managed by two or more countries—have become a popular way of protecting biodiversity while promoting international cooperation and regional development. In Transforming the Frontier, Bram Büscher shows how cross-border conservation neatly reflects the neoliberal political economy in which it developed. Based on extensive research in southern Africa with the Maloti-Drakensberg Transfrontier Conservation and Development Project, Büscher explains how the successful promotion of transfrontier conservation as a "win-win" solution happens not only in spite of troubling contradictions and problems, but indeed because of them. This is what he refers to as the "politics of neoliberal conservation," which receives its strength from effectively combining strategies of consensus, antipolitics, and marketing. Drawing on long-term, multilevel ethnographic research, Büscher argues that transfrontier conservation projects are not as concerned with on-the-ground development as they are purported to be. Instead, they are reframing environmental protection and sustainable development to fit an increasingly contradictory world order.

    • Science

Power of Development


Author: Jonathan Crush
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134832966
Category: Science
Page: 340
View: 9465
Post-colonial, post-modern and feminist critiques have challenged the ways we theorise and practice development. Development is not just the conclusion of economic logic; its histories reveal a legacy of contested power, illuminating the contemporary battlefields of knowledge. These essays explore the language of development, its rhetoric and meaning within different political and institutional contexts. The contested ideas behind world development are explained, with illustrative material, sensitive to place and time, chiefly drawn from Asia, Africa and Latin America. This book examines the power of development to imagine new worlds and to constantly reinvent itself as the solution to problems of national and global disorder.

    • Social Science

Give a Man a Fish

Reflections on the New Politics of Distribution
Author: James Ferguson
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 0822375524
Category: Social Science
Page: 280
View: 1791
In Give a Man a Fish James Ferguson examines the rise of social welfare programs in southern Africa, in which states make cash payments to their low income citizens. More than thirty percent of South Africa's population receive such payments, even as pundits elsewhere proclaim the neoliberal death of the welfare state. These programs' successes at reducing poverty under conditions of mass unemployment, Ferguson argues, provide an opportunity for rethinking contemporary capitalism and for developing new forms of political mobilization. Interested in an emerging "politics of distribution," Ferguson shows how new demands for direct income payments (including so-called "basic income") require us to reexamine the relation between production and distribution, and to ask new questions about markets, livelihoods, labor, and the future of progressive politics.

    • Science

Enterprising Nature

Economics, Markets, and Finance in Global Biodiversity Politics
Author: Jessica Dempsey
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118640608
Category: Science
Page: 312
View: 7251
Enterprising Nature explores the rise of economic rationality in global biodiversity law, policy and science. To view Jessica's animation based on the book's themes please visit http://www.bioeconomies.org/enterprising-nature/ Examines disciplinary apparatuses, ecological-economic methodologies, computer models, business alliances, and regulatory conditions creating the conditions in which nature can be produced as enterprising Relates lively, firsthand accounts of global processes at work drawn from multi-site research in Nairobi, Kenya; London, Engl∧ and Nagoya, Japan Assesses the scientific, technical, geopolitical, economic, and ethical challenges found in attempts to 'enterprise nature' Investigates the implications of this 'will to enterprise' for environmental politics and policy

    • Political Science

Deconstructing the Dynamics of World-Societal Order

The Power of Governmentality in Palestine
Author: Jan Busse
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351362364
Category: Political Science
Page: 212
View: 8303
To get a better sense of power dynamics in global politics, this book presents an innovative theoretical framework, combining a critical engagement with, and further development of, Michel Foucault’s governmentality on the one hand, and the theory of world society of the Stanford School of Sociology on the other. Making an original contribution to academic debates about power and global political order, this book develops a comprehensive theoretical perspective on power relations and political dynamics. The book starts from the presupposition that any theoretical engagement of that kind requires nuanced empirical study as well. It therefore analyzes the dynamics of world-societal order in the concrete empirical example of Palestine, and raises the question of how its political and societal order comes into existence. The author argues that governmentality represents a fundamental pattern of political order in world society that also profoundly affects power dynamics in Palestine. This insight has two important implications: First, power relations do not follow dichotomous distinctions such as international/domestic or global/local, but manifest themselves within world society. Second, therefore, order that comes into existence in Palestine needs to be understood as world-societal order. Offering a comprehensive understanding of power relations and patterns of political order(ing) embedded in world society, the book provides a deeper understanding of the complex dynamics that contribute to the political and societal order of Palestine. This book will be of interest to scholars and students of Middle East Studies, Palestine Studies, International Relations, International Political Sociology, International Relations Theory, Governmentality Studies, and Political Theory.

    • Business & Economics

Powers of Exclusion

Land Dilemmas in Southeast Asia
Author: Derek Hall,Philip Hirsch,Tania Li
Publisher: University of Hawaii Press
ISBN: N.A
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 257
View: 735
Questions of who can access land and who is excluded from it underlie many recent social and political conflicts in Southeast Asia. Powers of Exclusion examines the key processes through which shifts in land relations are taking place, notably state land allocation and provision of property rights, the dramatic expansion of areas zoned for conservation, booms in the production of export-oriented crops, the conversion of farmland to post-agrarian uses, "intimate" exclusions involving kin and co-villagers, and mobilizations around land framed in terms of identity and belonging. In case studies drawn from seven countries, the authors find that four "powers of exclusion"--regulation, the market, force and legitimation--have combined to shape land relations in new and often surprising ways. Land debates are often presented as a conflict between market-oriented land use with full private property rights on the one side, and equitable access, production for subsistence, and respect for custom on the other. The authors step back from these debates to point out that any productive use of land requires the exclusion of some potential users, and that most projects for transforming land relations are thus accompanied by painful dilemmas. Rather than counterposing "exclusion" to "inclusion," the book argues that attention must be paid to who is excluded, how, why, and with what consequences. Powers of Exclusion is a path-breaking book that draws on insights from multiple disciplines to map out the new contours of struggles for land in Southeast Asia. The volume provides a framework for analyzing the dilemmas of land relations across the Global South and beyond.

    • Political Science

The Democratic Quality of European Security and Defence Policy

Between Practices of Governance and Practices of Freedom
Author: Evangelos Fanoulis
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1315388537
Category: Political Science
Page: 196
View: 1355
Due to the increase of security challenges in the proximity of Europe, the prominence of the EU's Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) has augmented. This book is a systematic effort to empirically approach the democratic deficit of CSDP, to understand its social construction and propose ways to remedy it. The book uses Foucault’s approach of governmentality to unravel the social construction of this deficit and to illuminate the power relations between the different actors participating in CSDP governance and the constraints upon them. Finally, applying the normative reading of agonistic democracy, the author suggests concrete ways for EU citizens to have a say in the political choices of statesmanship in CSDP governance. The Democratic Quality of European Security and Defence Policy will be of key interest to scholars, students and practitioners of EU foreign and security policy and more broadly of European governance, European Politics and democracy.