• Science

Tracers in the sea


Author: Wallace S. Broecker,Tsung-hung Peng,Zonghong Beng
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Science
Page: 690
View: 9535

    • Science

Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics


Author: Jorge L. Sarmiento
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400849071
Category: Science
Page: 528
View: 2813
Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics provides a broad theoretical framework upon which graduate students and upper-level undergraduates can formulate an understanding of the processes that control the mean concentration and distribution of biologically utilized elements and compounds in the ocean. Though it is written as a textbook, it will also be of interest to more advanced scientists as a wide-ranging synthesis of our present understanding of ocean biogeochemical processes. The first two chapters of the book provide an introductory overview of biogeochemical and physical oceanography. The next four chapters concentrate on processes at the air-sea interface, the production of organic matter in the upper ocean, the remineralization of organic matter in the water column, and the processing of organic matter in the sediments. The focus of these chapters is on analyzing the cycles of organic carbon, oxygen, and nutrients. The next three chapters round out the authors' coverage of ocean biogeochemical cycles with discussions of silica, dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity, and CaCO3. The final chapter discusses applications of ocean biogeochemistry to our understanding of the role of the ocean carbon cycle in interannual to decadal variability, paleoclimatology, and the anthropogenic carbon budget. The problem sets included at the end of each chapter encourage students to ask critical questions in this exciting new field. While much of the approach is mathematical, the math is at a level that should be accessible to students with a year or two of college level mathematics and/or physics.

    • Science

Tracers in Hydrology


Author: Christian Leibundgut,Piotr Maloszewski,Christoph K?lls
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119965012
Category: Science
Page: 432
View: 5046
Tracers in Hydrology and Water Research is a comprehensive overview of the application of natural and artificial tracers in hydrology and environmental research. Taking a unique approach by providing the reader with a systematic and state of the art description of natural and artificial tracers, the book also covers key analytical techniques and applications, and modern tracer methods in the context of systematic hydrology. Tracers have become a primary tool for process investigation, qualitative and quantitative system analysis and integrated resource management. This book will outline the fundamentals of the subject, and examine the latest research findings, clearly showing the entire process of tracer application through the inclusion of numerous integrated case studies. As many techniques derive from different scientific disciplines (chemistry, biology, physics), the effort of compilation and integration into modern hydrology and environmental science research and application requires substantial continuity and experience, which certifies this group of authors. This book will be an invaluable reference not only for students and researchers within the field of Hydrology and Hydrogeology but also for engineers and other tracer techniques applying users.

    • Science

Primary Productivity and Biogeochemical Cycles in the Sea


Author: Paul G. Falkowski,Avril D. Woodhead
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1489907629
Category: Science
Page: 550
View: 7923
Biological processes in the oceans play a crucial role in regulating the fluxes of many important elements such as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, phosphorus, and silicon. As we come to the end of the 20th century, oceanographers have increasingly focussed on how these elements are cycled within the ocean, the interdependencies of these cycles, and the effect of the cycle on the composition of the earth's atmosphere and climate. Many techniques and tools have been developed or adapted over the past decade to help in this effort. These include satellite sensors of upper ocean phytoplankton distributions, flow cytometry, molecular biological probes, sophisticated moored and shipboard instrumentation, and vastly increased numerical modeling capabilities. This volume is the result of the 37th Brookhaven Symposium in Biology, in which a wide spectrum of oceanographers, chemists, biologists, and modelers discussed the progress in understanding the role of primary producers in biogeochemical cycles. The symposium is dedicated to Dr. Richard W. Eppley, an intellectual giant in biological oceanography, who inspired a generation of scientists to delve into problems of understanding biogeochemical cycles in the sea. We gratefully acknowledge support from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Electric Power Research Institute, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Special thanks to Claire Lamberti for her help in producing this volume.

    • Science

The Atmosphere and Ocean

A Physical Introduction
Author: Neil C. Wells
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119979846
Category: Science
Page: 448
View: 3984
The Atmosphere and Ocean is a fully revised and updated student friendly physical introduction to the atmosphere and ocean. Now in its Third Edition, the book continues to provide students with an accessible description of the atmosphere and ocean with emphasis on their physical properties and inter-dependence. Clearly structured throughout, the book demonstrates that the atmosphere and ocean are both subject to the influence of the earth's rotation and therefore they have a common dynamical basis. The author clearly demonstrates the fundamental differences between the two environments and provides the reader with a much better understanding of the atmosphere and the ocean and an appreciation of their closest interactive relationship. There have been many developments in the field over the past ten years and this latest edition of a highly successful textbook brings together new material on the ocean-atmosphere system and climate, the observed circulation of the atmosphere and ocean and radiation in the atmosphere and ocean. Fully revised and updated 3rd Edition of student friendly physical introduction to the atmosphere and ocean. Now includes new chapters on observed circulation of the atmosphere and ocean, energy flows in the ocean atmosphere system, modeling the ocean and atmosphere, the ocean atmosphere system and climate. Well structured and written in an authoritative yet accessible style suitable for 2nd and 3rd year students taking courses in meteorology, oceanography and related Earth Sciences or as an introduction for graduate students. Emphasis placed on physical properties and inter-dependence of the ocean and climate. Part of the RMetS (Royal Meteorological Society) book series, Advancing Weather and Climate Science

    • Science

Chemistry in the Marine Environment


Author: R E Hester,R M Harrison
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1847550452
Category: Science
Page: 112
View: 1261
The oceans cover more than 70% of the earth's surface to an average depth of almost 4000 metres. It is therefore not surprising that exchanges that occur between ocean and atmosphere exert major influences on the global climate. In addition, there is great variety within the expanses of the ocean, including large temperature differences, and enormous biodiversity brought about by the great chemical diversity within the marine environment. Written by international experts in the field, Chemistry in the Marine Environment offers a multidisciplinary and authoritative review of this important topic. Included is a review of the opportunities and challenges in developing new pharmaceuticals from the sea and an examination of contamination and pollution in the marine environment, which is a cause of great concern world-wide. The international perspective of this book will engage the interest and attention of a wide readership, from chemical oceanographers to policymakers, from students in environmental science to those in oceanography programmes.

    • Science

Marine Geochemistry


Author: Roy Chester
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401094888
Category: Science
Page: 702
View: 1745
The past two or three decades have seen many important advances in our knowledge of the chemistry, physics, geology and biology of the oceans. It has also become apparent that in order to understand the manner in which the oceans work as a 'chemical system', it is necessary to use a framework which takes account of these interdisciplinary advances. Marine geochemistry has been written in response to the need for a single state-of-the-art text that addresses the subject of treating the sea water, sediment and rock reservoirs as a unified system. In taking this approach, a process-orientated framework has been adopted in which the emphasis is placed on identifying key processes operating within the 'unified ocean'. In doing this, particular attention has been paid to making the text accessible to students from all disciplines in such a way that future advances can readily be understood. I would like to express my thanks to those people who have helped with the writing of this volume. In particular, I wish to put on record my sincere appreciation of extremely helpful suggestions made by Professor John Edmond, FRS. In addition, I thank Dr S. Rowlatt for his comments on the sections covering the geochemistry of oceanic sediments, and Dr G. Wolff for his invaluable advice on the organic geochemistry of biota, water and sediments. It is a great pleasure to acknowledge the help of Dr K. J. T.

    • Science

The Changing Carbon Cycle

A Global Analysis
Author: John R. Trabalka,David E. Reichle
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475719159
Category: Science
Page: 592
View: 2120
The United States Government, cognizant of its responsibilities to future generations, has been sponsoring research for nine years into the causes, effects, and potential impacts of increased concentrations of carbon dioxide (C0 ) in the atmosphere. Agencies such as the National Science Foun 2 dation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cooperatively spent about $100 million from FY 1978 through FY 1984 directly on the study of CO • The DOE, as the 2 lead government agency for coordinating the government' s research ef forts, has been responsible for about 60% of these research efforts. William James succinctly defined our purpose when he stated science must be based upon " ... irreducible and stubborn facts." Scientific knowledge can and will reduce the present significant uncertainty sur rounding our understanding of the causes, effects, and potential impacts of increasing atmospheric CO2• We have come far during the past seven years in resolving some underlyinig doubts and in narrowing the ranges of disagreement. Basic concepts have become less murky. Yet, much more must be accomplished; more irreducible and stubborn facts are needed to reduce the uncertainties so that we can improve our knowledge base. Uncertainty can never be reduced to zero. However, with a much improved knowledge base, we will be able to learn, under stand, and be in a position to make decisions.

    • Science

The Role of Air-Sea Exchange in Geochemical Cycling


Author: Patrick Buat-Ménard
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789027723185
Category: Science
Page: 568
View: 328
This book arises from a NATO-sponsored Advanced Study Institute on 'The Role of Air-Sea Exchange in Geochemical Cycling' held at [email protected]§. near Bordeaux, France. from 16 to 27 September 1985. The chapters of the book are the written versions of the lectures given at the Institute. The aim of the book is to give a comprehensive up-to-date coverage of the subject. presented in a teaching mode. The chapters contain much recent research material and attempt to give the reader an understanding of how the role of air-sea exchange in geochemical cycling can be quantitatively assessed. In the last decade, major advances in the fields of marine and atmospheric chemistry have underlined the role of physical, chemical and biological processes at and near the air-sea interface in a number of geochemical cycles (C. S, N, metals etc ... ). Further, there is strong concern over the anthropogenic perturbation of these cycles on both regional and global scales. The first part of the book (Chapters 1 to 8) provides a review of topics fundamental to such studies. These topics include concepts in geochemical modelling, assessment of atmospheric transport from sources to the oceans. description of mixing and transport processes within the ocean for both dissolved and particulate materials, quantification of air-sea fluxes for both gases and particles, photochemical transformations in the atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers.

    • Nature

The Sea Floor

An Introduction to Marine Geology
Author: Eugen Seibold,Wolfgang H. Berger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540601913
Category: Nature
Page: 356
View: 5725
The "Sea Floor" is designed to acquaint students with the most important results achieved in marine geology over the last three decades and the scientists who brought them about. Written by two of marine geology's leading exponents, it lays the groundwork for studies in geology, oceanography and environmental sciences by summarizing modern insights into tectonics and marine morphology, the geological processes at work on the sea floor, and the Earth's climatic history as recorded in deep sea sediments.

    • Science

Primary Productivity and Biogeochemical Cycles in the Sea


Author: Paul G. Falkowski,Avril D. Woodhead
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780306441929
Category: Science
Page: 550
View: 6150
Biological processes in the oceans play a crucial role in regulating the fluxes of many important elements such as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, phosphorus, and silicon. As we come to the end of the 20th century, oceanographers have increasingly focussed on how these elements are cycled within the ocean, the interdependencies of these cycles, and the effect of the cycle on the composition of the earth's atmosphere and climate. Many techniques and tools have been developed or adapted over the past decade to help in this effort. These include satellite sensors of upper ocean phytoplankton distributions, flow cytometry, molecular biological probes, sophisticated moored and shipboard instrumentation, and vastly increased numerical modeling capabilities. This volume is the result of the 37th Brookhaven Symposium in Biology, in which a wide spectrum of oceanographers, chemists, biologists, and modelers discussed the progress in understanding the role of primary producers in biogeochemical cycles. The symposium is dedicated to Dr. Richard W. Eppley, an intellectual giant in biological oceanography, who inspired a generation of scientists to delve into problems of understanding biogeochemical cycles in the sea. We gratefully acknowledge support from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Electric Power Research Institute, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Special thanks to Claire Lamberti for her help in producing this volume.

    • Science

The Turbulent Ocean


Author: S. A. Thorpe
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139445795
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 5588
The subject of ocean turbulence is in a state of discovery and development with many intellectual challenges. This book describes the principal dynamic processes that control the distribution of turbulence, its dissipation of kinetic energy and its effects on the dispersion of properties such as heat, salinity, and dissolved or suspended matter in the deep ocean, the shallow coastal and the continental shelf seas. It focuses on the measurement of turbulence, and the consequences of turbulent motion in the oceanic boundary layers at the sea surface and near the seabed. Processes are illustrated by examples of laboratory experiments and field observations. The Turbulent Ocean provides an excellent resource for senior undergraduate and graduate courses, as well as an introduction and general overview for researchers. It will be of interest to all those involved in the study of fluid motion, in particular geophysical fluid mechanics, meteorology and the dynamics of lakes.

    • Science

The South Atlantic in the Late Quaternary

Reconstruction of Material Budgets and Current Systems
Author: Gerold Wefer,Stefan Mulitza,Volker Ratmeyer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642189172
Category: Science
Page: 722
View: 4610
The South Atlantic plays a critical role in the couplingofoceanic processes between the Antarctic and the lower latitudes. The Antarctic Ocean, along with the adjacent southern seas, is of substantial importance for global climate and for the distributionofwater masses because itprovides large regions ofthe world ocean with intermediate and bottom waters. In contrast to the North Atlantic, the Southern Ocean acts more as an "information distributor", as opposed to an amplifier. Just as the North Atlantic is influencedby the South Atlantic through the contributionofwarm surface water,the incomingsupply ofNADW - in the area of the Southern Ocean as Circumantarctic Deep Water - influences the oceanography ofthe Antarctic. The competing influences from the northern and southern oceans on the current and mass budget systems can be best studied in the South Atlantic. Not only do changes in the current systems in the eastern Atlantic high-production regions affect the energy budget, they also influence the nutrient inventories, and therefore impact the entire productivity ofthe ocean. In addition, the broad region of the polar front is a critical area with respect to productivity-related circulation since it is the source of Antarctic Intermediate Water. Although theAntarctic Intermediate Watertoday liesdeeper than the water that rises in the upwelling regions, it is the long-term source ofnutrients that are ultimately responsible for the supply oforganic matter to the sea floor and to sediments.

    • Science

50 Years of Ocean Discovery:

National Science Foundation 1950-2000
Author: Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Ocean Studies Board,National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309063981
Category: Science
Page: 276
View: 7328
This book describes the development of ocean sciences over the past 50 years, highlighting the contributions of the National Science Foundation (NSF) to the field's progress. Many of the individuals who participated in the exciting discoveries in biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, physical oceanography, and marine geology and geophysics describe in the book how the discoveries were made possible by combinations of insightful individuals, new technology, and in some cases, serendipity. In addition to describing the advance of ocean science, the book examines the institutional structures and technology that made the advances possible and presents visions of the field's future. This book is the first-ever documentation of the history of NSF's Division of Ocean Sciences, how the structure of the division evolved to its present form, and the individuals who have been responsible for ocean sciences at NSF as "rotators" and career staff over the past 50 years.

    • Climatic changes

Ocean Research for Understanding Climatic Variations

Priorities and Goals for the 1980's
Author: N.A
Publisher: National Academies
ISBN: N.A
Category: Climatic changes
Page: 58
View: 8061
Report prepared to start a dialogue among ocean scientists on the steps that must be taken in order to advance significantly our understanding of the role that oceans play in climatic variation, and to identify ocean research needed in the context of the developing national (U.S.) and international climate research plans.

    • Science

Data Analysis Methods in Physical Oceanography


Author: William J. Emery,Richard E. Thomson
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780444507563
Category: Science
Page: 638
View: 7190
This is a practical reference guide to established and modern data analysis techniques in earth and ocean sciences. This second and revised edition has an additional appendix on Convolution and Fourier transforms. Intended for both students and established scientists, the five major chapters of the book cover data acquisition and recording, data processing and presentation, statistical methods and error handling, analysis of spatial data fields, and time series analysis methods. Chapter 5, on time series analysis, spans a wide diversity of topics - from stochastic processes and stationarity, coherence functions, Fourier analysis, tidal harmonic analysis, spectral and cross-spectral analysis, wavelet and other related methods for processing nonstationary data series, digital filters, and fractals. The seven appendices include unit conversions, approximation methods and nondimensional numbers used in geophysical fluid dynamics, presentations on convolution, statistical terminology, and distribution functions, and a number of important statistical tables.

    • Fiction

Untraceable


Author: Laura Griffin
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1439163189
Category: Fiction
Page: 400
View: 4853
ALEX LOVELL MAKES PEOPLE DISAPPEAR. TURNS OUT, SHE'S NOT THE ONLY ONE. Private investigator Alexandra Lovell uses computer skills and cunning to help clients drop off the radar and begin new lives in safety. Melanie Bess, desperate to escape her abusive cop husband, was one of those clients. But when Melanie vanishes for real, Alex fears the worst, and sets out to discover what happened. Using every resource she can get her hands on -- including an elite team of forensic scientists known as the Tracers, and a jaded, sexy Austin PD detective -- Alex embarks on a mission to uncover the truth. As far as homicide cop Nathan Deveraux is concerned, no body means no case. But as much as he wants to believe that Alex's hunch about Melanie's murder is wrong, his instincts -- and their visceral attraction -- won't let him walk away. As a grim picture of what really happened begins to emerge, Nathan realizes this investigation runs deeper than they could ever have guessed. And each step nearer the truth puts Alex in danger of being the next to disappear....

    • Science

Descriptive Physical Oceanography

An Introduction
Author: George L. Pickard,William J. Emery
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780750627597
Category: Science
Page: 320
View: 8040
'Descriptive Physical Oceanography: An Introduction' 5th edition provides an introduction to descriptive (synoptic) physical oceanography for science undergraduates and early graduate students. There has been an updating of topics such as the heat budget, instruments (particularly the use of satellites), a complete revision of the material on equatorial oceanography, sea-ice physics and distribution and El Nino and information has been added on thermohaline circulation, mixing nad coral reef oceanography.

    • Science

The Noble Gases as Geochemical Tracers


Author: Pete Burnard
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642288367
Category: Science
Page: 391
View: 9314
The twelve chapters of this volume aim to provide a complete manual for using noble gases in terrestrial geochemistry, covering applications which range from high temperature processes deep in the Earth’s interior to tracing climatic variations using noble gases trapped in ice cores, groundwaters and modern sediments. Other chapters cover noble gases in crustal (aqueous, CO2 and hydrocarbon) fluids and laboratory techniques for determining noble gas solubilities and diffusivities under geologically relevant conditions. Each chapter deals with the fundamentals of the analysis and interpretation of the data, detailing sampling and sampling strategies, techniques for analysis, sources of error and their estimation, including data treatment and data interpretation using recent case studies.

    • Science

Air-Sea Exchange of Gases and Particles


Author: P.S. Liss,W.G.N. Slinn
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789027716101
Category: Science
Page: 561
View: 5198
Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute, Durham, New Hampshire, U.S.A., July 19-30, 1982