• Nature

Transport Processes in Nature

Propagation of Ecological Influences Through Environmental Space
Author: William A. Reiners,Kenneth L. Driese
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521804844
Category: Nature
Page: 302
View: 1875
A conceptual framework for the study and understanding of the propagation of ecological influences in nature.

    • Science

Ecosystem Function in Heterogeneous Landscapes


Author: Gary M. Lovett,Clive G. Jones,Monica G. Turner,Kathleen C. Weathers
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387240918
Category: Science
Page: 489
View: 9716
This groundbreaking work connects the knowledge of system function developed in ecosystem ecology with landscape ecology's knowledge of spatial structure. The book elucidates the challenges faced by ecosystem scientists working in spatially heterogeneous systems, relevant conceptual approaches used in other disciplines and in different ecosystem types, and the importance of spatial heterogeneity in conservation resource management.

    • Architecture

The Humane Metropolis

People and Nature in the 21st-century City
Author: Rutherford H. Platt
Publisher: Univ of Massachusetts Press
ISBN: 1558495541
Category: Architecture
Page: 326
View: 1413
Four-fifths of Americans now live in the nation's sprawling metropolitan areas, and half of the world's population is now classified as "urban." As cities become the dominant living evironment for humans, there is growing concern about how to make such places more habitable, more healthy and safe, more ecological, and more equitable -- in short, more "humane." This book explores the prospects for a more humane metropolis through a series of essays and case studies that consider why and how urban places can be made greener and more amenable. Its point of departure is the legacy of William H. Whyte (1917-1999), one of America's most admired urban thinkers. From his eyrie high above Manhattan in the offices of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, Whyte laid the foundation for today's "smart growth" and "new urbanist" movements with books such as The Last Landscape (1968). His passion for improving the habitability of cities and suburbs is reflected in the diverse grassroots urban design and regreening strategies discussed in this volume. Topics examined in this book include urban and regional greenspaces, urban ecological restoration, social equity, and green design. Some of the contributors are recognized academic experts, while others offer direct practical knowledge of particular problems and initiatives. The editor's introduction and epilogue set the individual chapters in a broader context and suggest how the strategies described, if widely replicated, may help create more humane urban environments. In addition to Rutherford H. Platt, contributors to the volume include Carl Anthony, Thomas Balsley, Timothy Beatley, Eugenie L. Birch, Edward J. Blakely, Colin M. Cathcart, Steven E. Clemants, Christopher A. De Sousa, Steven N. Handel, Peter Harnik, Michael C. Houck, Jerold S. Kayden, Albert LaFarge, Andrew Light, Charles E. Little, Anne C. Lusk, Thalya Parilla, Deborah E. Popper, Frank J. Popper, Mary V. Rickel, Cynthia Rosenzweig, Robert L. Ryan, Laurin N. Sievert, Andrew G. Wiley-Schwartz, and Ann Louise Strong. Included in the back of the book is a DVD of a 22-minute film created by Ted White, which serves as a companion to the text.

    • Mathematics

Animal Movement

Statistical Models for Telemetry Data
Author: Mevin B. Hooten,Devin S. Johnson,Brett T. McClintock,Juan M. Morales
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466582154
Category: Mathematics
Page: 320
View: 1622
The study of animal movement has always been a key element in ecological science, because it is inherently linked to critical processes that scale from individuals to populations and communities to ecosystems. Rapid improvements in biotelemetry data collection and processing technology have given rise to a variety of statistical methods for characterizing animal movement. The book serves as a comprehensive reference for the types of statistical models used to study individual-based animal movement. Animal Movement is an essential reference for wildlife biologists, quantitative ecologists, and statisticians who seek a deeper understanding of modern animal movement models. A wide variety of modeling approaches are reconciled in the book using a consistent notation. Models are organized into groups based on how they treat the underlying spatio-temporal process of movement. Connections among approaches are highlighted to allow the reader to form a broader view of animal movement analysis and its associations with traditional spatial and temporal statistical modeling. After an initial overview examining the role that animal movement plays in ecology, a primer on spatial and temporal statistics provides a solid foundation for the remainder of the book. Each subsequent chapter outlines a fundamental type of statistical model utilized in the contemporary analysis of telemetry data for animal movement inference. Descriptions begin with basic traditional forms and sequentially build up to general classes of models in each category. Important background and technical details for each class of model are provided, including spatial point process models, discrete-time dynamic models, and continuous-time stochastic process models. The book also covers the essential elements for how to accommodate multiple sources of uncertainty, such as location error and latent behavior states. In addition to thorough descriptions of animal movement models, differences and connections are also emphasized to provide a broader perspective of approaches.

    • Science

Bayesian Models

A Statistical Primer for Ecologists
Author: N. Thompson Hobbs,Mevin B. Hooten
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400866553
Category: Science
Page: 320
View: 8014
Bayesian modeling has become an indispensable tool for ecological research because it is uniquely suited to deal with complexity in a statistically coherent way. This textbook provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the latest Bayesian methods—in language ecologists can understand. Unlike other books on the subject, this one emphasizes the principles behind the computations, giving ecologists a big-picture understanding of how to implement this powerful statistical approach. Bayesian Models is an essential primer for non-statisticians. It begins with a definition of probability and develops a step-by-step sequence of connected ideas, including basic distribution theory, network diagrams, hierarchical models, Markov chain Monte Carlo, and inference from single and multiple models. This unique book places less emphasis on computer coding, favoring instead a concise presentation of the mathematical statistics needed to understand how and why Bayesian analysis works. It also explains how to write out properly formulated hierarchical Bayesian models and use them in computing, research papers, and proposals. This primer enables ecologists to understand the statistical principles behind Bayesian modeling and apply them to research, teaching, policy, and management. Presents the mathematical and statistical foundations of Bayesian modeling in language accessible to non-statisticians Covers basic distribution theory, network diagrams, hierarchical models, Markov chain Monte Carlo, and more Deemphasizes computer coding in favor of basic principles Explains how to write out properly factored statistical expressions representing Bayesian models

    • Nature

Resilience and the Cultural Landscape

Understanding and Managing Change in Human-Shaped Environments
Author: Tobias Plieninger,Claudia Bieling
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139789511
Category: Nature
Page: N.A
View: 7153
All over the world, efforts are being made to preserve landscapes facing fundamental change as a consequence of widespread agricultural intensification, land abandonment and urbanisation. The 'cultural landscape' and 'resilience' approaches have, until now, largely been viewed as distinct methods for understanding the effects of these dynamics and the ways in which they might be adapted or managed. This book brings together these two perspectives, providing new insights into the social-ecological resilience of cultural landscapes by coming to terms with, and challenging, the concepts of 'driving forces', 'thresholds', 'adaptive cycles' and 'adaptive management'. By linking these research communities, this book develops a new perspective on landscape changes. Based on firm conceptual contributions and rich case studies from Europe, the Americas and Australia, it will appeal to anyone interested in analysing and managing change in human-shaped environments in the context of sustainability.

    • Science

Frontiers in Ecology, Evolution and Complexity


Author: Mariana Benítez,Octavio Miramontes,Alfonso Valiente-Banuet
Publisher: CopIt ArXives
ISBN: 1938128052
Category: Science
Page: 266
View: 1791
Advances in molecular biology, remote sensing, systems biology, bioinformatics, non-linear science, the physics of complex systems and other fields have rendered a great amount of data that remain to be integrated into models and theories that are capable of accounting for the complexity of ecological systems and the evolutionary dynamics of life. It is thus necessary to provide a solid basis to discuss and reflect on these and other challenges both at the local and global scales. This volume aims to delineate an integrative and interdisciplinary view that suggests new avenues in research and teaching, critically discusses the scope of the diverse methods in the study of complex systems, and points at key open questions. Finally, this book will provide students and specialists with a collection of high quality open access essays that will contribute to integrate Ecology, Evolution and Complexity in the context of basic research and in the field of Sustainability Sciences.

    • Ecology

Handbook of Environmental and Ecological Statistics


Author: Alan E. Gelfand,Montserrat Fuentes,Jennifer A. Hoeting,Richard Lyttleton Smith
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781498752022
Category: Ecology
Page: 1036
View: 6524
This handbook focuses on the enormous literature applying statistical methodology and modelling to environmental and ecological processes. The 21st century statistics community has become increasingly interdisciplinary, bringing a large collection of modern tools to all areas of application in environmental processes. In addition, the environmental community has substantially increased its scope of data collection including observational data, satellite-derived data, and computer model output. The resultant impact in this latter community has been substantial; no longer are simple regression and analysis of variance methods adequate. The contribution of this handbook is to assemble a state-of-the-art view of this interface. Features: An internationally regarded editorial team. A distinguished collection of contributors. A thoroughly contemporary treatment of a substantial interdisciplinary interface. Written to engage both statisticians as well as quantitative environmental researchers. 34 chapters covering methodology, ecological processes, environmental exposure, and statistical methods in climate science. About the Editors: Alan E. Gelfand is the James B. Duke Professor of Statistical Science at Duke University. He is a leader in Bayesian spatial modeling and analysis including a successful book in this area with Banerjee and Carlin. Montse Fuentes is the Dean of the Virginia Commonwealth University College of Humanities and Sciences and a Professor of Statistics. She leads a broad research program in statistical methods for spatial large scale environmental health studies. Jennifer A. Hoeting is Professor of Statistics at Colorado State University. Her research is focused on Bayesian, computational, and spatial statistics applied to address challenging problems in ecology. Richard L. Smith is the Mark L. Reed III Distinguished Professor of Statistics and Professor of Biostatistics at the University of North Carolina. His research covers theoretical and applied aspects of environmental statistics including extreme value theory, spatial statistics and applications to climate change, air pollution and health.

    • Architecture

The Dynamic Landscape

Design, Ecology and Management of Naturalistic Urban Planting
Author: Nigel Dunnett,James Hitchmough
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 0415438101
Category: Architecture
Page: 332
View: 2008
The last quarter of the twentieth century witnessed a burgeoning interest in ecological or naturally inspired use of vegetation in the designed landscape. More recently a strong aesthetic element has been added to what was formerly a movement aimed at creating nature-like landscapes. The Dynamic Landscape advances a fusion of scientific and ecological planning design philosophy that can address the need for more sustainable designed landscapes. It is a major statement on the design, implementation and management of ecologically inspired landscape vegetation. With contributions from people at the forefront of developments in this field, in both Europe and North America, it provides a valuable synthesis of current thinking.

    • Science

Biological Invasions and Animal Behaviour


Author: Judith S. Weis,Daniel Sol
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 110707777X
Category: Science
Page: 375
View: 3737
This book provides a comprehensive look at the critical role of animal behaviour in the success and impact of biological invasions.

    • Business & Economics

The Transport System and Transport Policy

An Introduction
Author: Bert van Wee,Jan Anne Annema,David Banister
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 0857936905
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 399
View: 8692
ÔThis very interesting book provides an excellent multi-disciplinary introduction into the functioning of transport systems and the interaction with their environments.Õ Ð Erik Verhoef, VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands ÔThe editors of this important book have clearly identified that few writings on transport treat the transport system as a whole. Implicit in this is a need for a genuinely multidisciplinary approach. An impressive list of contributors ensures that the book draws on the latest research whilst providing new insights into some of the key challenges facing transport students and researchers, transport providers and policy makers.Õ Ð Roger Vickerman, University of Kent, UK ÔSince ancient times transportation has brought our world together. But the need for connectivity and accessibility in a spatially differentiated world has prompted the emergence of very complex transportation systems. This book offers a fresh and operational contribution to a better understanding of the complexity and manageability of a mobile world, by addressing in a balanced way both conceptual and applied or policy aspects of modern transportation systems.Õ Ð Peter Nijkamp, Free University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands Transport impacts on people and businesses in many different ways, and presents some of the key problems that decision-makers need to address. This comprehensive textbook introduces the transport system in a holistic and multidisciplinary way, bringing together the myriad components of transport. This textbook is written for an international readership of undergraduate and postgraduate students in transport and related subjects, as well as for professionals and policy decision-makers across both public and private sectors. Key features include: ¥ Discussion of the importance of transport accessibility and the impacts of transport on the environment and safety ¥ Policy issues relating to all of the discussed issues and prescribed future options. ¥ Transport evaluation methods and modelling approaches. ¥ Examples to highlight the linkages between components of the transport system Ð for example infrastructures, land-use, vehicle technologies Ð and the relevance of these linkages for decision making.

    • Science

The Theory of Ecology


Author: Samuel M. Scheiner,Michael R. Willig
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226736865
Category: Science
Page: 404
View: 7743
Despite claims to the contrary, the science of ecology has a long history of building theories. Many ecological theories are mathematical, computational, or statistical, though, and rarely have attempts been made to organize or extrapolate these models into broader theories. The Theory of Ecology brings together some of the most respected and creative theoretical ecologists of this era to advance a comprehensive, conceptual articulation of ecological theories. The contributors cover a wide range of topics, from ecological niche theory to population dynamic theory to island biogeography theory. Collectively, the chapters ably demonstrate how theory in ecology accounts for observations about the natural world and how models provide predictive understandings. It organizes these models into constitutive domains that highlight the strengths and weaknesses of ecological understanding. This book is a milestone in ecological theory and is certain to motivate future empirical and theoretical work in one of the most exciting and active domains of the life sciences.

    • Science

Alaska's Changing Arctic

Ecological Consequences for Tundra, Streams, and Lakes
Author: John E. Hobbie,George W. Kling
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199360138
Category: Science
Page: 376
View: 7692
In this edition of the Long Term Ecological Research Network series, editors John Hobbie and George Kling and 58 co-authors synthesize the findings from the NSF-funded Arctic LTER project based at Toolik Lake, Alaska, a site that has been active since the mid-1970s. The book presents research on the core issues of climate-change science in the treeless arctic region of Alaska. As a whole, it examines both terrestrial and freshwater-aquatic ecosystems, and their three typical habitats: tundra, streams, and lakes. The book provides a history of the Toolik Lake LTER site, and discusses its present condition and future outlook. It features contributions from top scientists from many fields, creating a multidisciplinary survey of the Alaskan arctic ecosystem. Chapter topics include glacial history, climatology, land-water interactions, mercury found in the Alaskan arctic, and the response of these habitats to environmental change. The final chapter predicts the consequences that arctic Alaska faces due to global warming and climate change, and discusses the future ecology of the LTER site in the region. Alaska's Changing Arctic is the definitive scientific survey of the past, present, and future of the ecology of the Alaskan arctic.

    • Science

Complexity in Landscape Ecology


Author: David G. Green,Nicholas Klomp,Glyn Rimmington,Suzanne Sadedin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402042876
Category: Science
Page: 208
View: 7296
Interactions matter. To understand the distributions of plants and animals in a landscape you need to understand how they interact with each other, and with their environment. The resulting networks of interactions make ecosystems highly complex. Recent research on complexity and artificial life provides many new insights about patterns and processes in landscapes and ecosystems. This book provides the first overview of that work for general readers. It covers such topics as connectivity, criticality, feedback, and networks, as well as their impact on the stability and predictability of ecosystem dynamics. With over 60 years of research experience of both ecology and complexity, the authors are uniquely qualified to provide a new perspective on traditional ecology. They argue that understanding ecological complexity is crucial in today’s globalized and interconnected world. Successful management of the world's ecosystems needs to combine models of ecosystem complexity with biodiversity, environmental, geographic and socioeconomic information.

    • Science

Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Environmental Change in a Tropical Mountain Ecosystem of South Ecuador


Author: Jörg Bendix,Erwin Beck,Achim Bräuning,Franz Makeschin,Reinhard Mosandl,Stefan Scheu,Wolfgang Wilcke
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642381375
Category: Science
Page: 440
View: 3830
An interdisciplinary research unit consisting of 30 teams in the natural, economic and social sciences analyzed biodiversity and ecosystem services of a mountain rainforest ecosystem in the hotspot of the tropical Andes, with special reference to past, current and future environmental changes. The group assessed ecosystem services using data from ecological field and scenario-driven model experiments, and with the help of comparative field surveys of the natural forest and its anthropogenic replacement system for agriculture. The book offers insights into the impacts of environmental change on various service categories mentioned in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005): cultural, regulating, supporting and provisioning ecosystem services. Examples focus on biodiversity of plants and animals including trophic networks, and abiotic/biotic parameters such as soils, regional climate, water, nutrient and sediment cycles. The types of threats considered include land use and climate changes, as well as atmospheric fertilization. In terms of regulating and provisioning services, the emphasis is primarily on water regulation and supply as well as climate regulation and carbon sequestration. With regard to provisioning services, the synthesis of the book provides science-based recommendations for a sustainable land use portfolio including several options such as forestry, pasture management and the practices of indigenous peoples. In closing, the authors show how they integrated the local society by pursuing capacity building in compliance with the CBD-ABS (Convention on Biological Diversity - Access and Benefit Sharing), in the form of education and knowledge transfer for application.

    • Nature

Biological Diversity and Function in Soils


Author: Richard Bardgett,David Hopkins,Michael Usher
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521609876
Category: Nature
Page: 411
View: 8039
The dynamic nature of current research into soil biodiversity is reflected in this excellent volume.

    • Nature

Bird Ecology and Conservation

A Handbook of Techniques
Author: William J. Sutherland,Ian Newton,Rhys Green
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198520863
Category: Nature
Page: 386
View: 6596
Outlining the main methods and techniques available to ornithologists, this book brings together in one authoritative source contributions containing information on avian ecology and conservation.

    • Science

Seaweed Ecology and Physiology


Author: Catriona L. Hurd,Paul J. Harrison,Kai Bischof,Christopher S. Lobban
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521145953
Category: Science
Page: 562
View: 7035
A synthesis of concepts and examples of how physiological processes influence seaweed communities worldwide, authored by experts in the field.

    • Business & Economics

More people, less erosion

environmental recovery in Kenya
Author: Mary Tiffen,Michael Mortimore,Francis Gichuki
Publisher: John Wiley & Son Ltd
ISBN: N.A
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 311
View: 5219
Uses conventional data, oral history and photographic records to examine the interactions between people and their environment over a period of 60 years. Challenges the view that population growth inevitably leads to environmental deterioration. Features valuable lessons on how resource management technologies, the right social and economic milieu and supportive policies can lead to sustainable development.

    • Science

Modelling Community Structure in Freshwater Ecosystems


Author: Sovan Lek,Michele Scardi,P.F.M Verdonschot,J.-P. Descy,Young-Seuk Park
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540239406
Category: Science
Page: 518
View: 752
This volume presents approaches and methodologies for predicting the structure and diversity of key aquatic communities (namely, diatoms, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish), under natural conditions and under man-made disturbance. The intent is to offer an organized means for modeling, evaluating and restoring freshwater ecosystems.