• Science

Upwelling Systems of the World

A Scientific Journey to the Most Productive Marine Ecosystems
Author: Jochen Kämpf,Piers Chapman
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319425242
Category: Science
Page: 433
View: 1198
Upwelling systems are special places in the oceans where nutrient-enriched water is brought into the euphotic zone to fuel phytoplankton blooms that, via marine food-web interactions, create the world’s richest fish resources. This book introduces the reader to the interdisciplinary science of upwelling and provides a comprehensive overview of the world’s most productive marine ecosystems in the context of climate variability, climate change and human exploitation. This material presented is suitable for undergraduate and postgraduate study or just for anyone interested to learn about the creation of life in the oceans and how this is compromised by human activities.

    • Science

Upwelling in the Ocean

Modern Processes and Ancient Records
Author: C. P. Summerhayes,K.-C. Emeis,M. V. Angel,R. L. Smith,B. Zeitzschel
Publisher: John Wiley & Son Limited
ISBN: N.A
Category: Science
Page: 422
View: 5643
Upwelling is one of the major physical processes driving the biogeochemistry of the ocean system. It dominates primary productivity in the world?s oceans, accounting for 80?90% of new production. However, because of the physical conditions that have to be met to generate upwelling, this production is concentrated in just a few places, e.g., in the coastal waters of major eastern boundary currents off California, Peru, Mauritania, and Namibia, where productivity leads to major fishing grounds. These areas account for about 50% of the world?s fish catch, underlining the importance of upwelling to humankind. Source rocks for oil formed in ancient coastal upwelling environments, making their study useful for improving oil exploration models. Upwelling also occurs in the open ocean, especially along the equator and beneath the westerly winds in the subarctic Pacific and the Southern Ocean, where the ocean?s silica budget is transformed by the deposition of the remains of siliceous phytoplankton. Because phytoplankton, the grass of the sea, can extract CO2 from the atmosphere, changes in the intensity of upwelling and associated biological productivity through time may have influenced climate. This volume uses an interdisciplinary approach to establish how upwelling systems work, how they vary through time, and whether or not they have a significant influence on the global carbon cycle. An understanding of how these largely wind-driven biogeochemical systems work today, and how they responded to past fluctuations in climate, is essential in predicting how they and their associated living resources may change in the future. One conclusion is that these systems exert a major influence on the global cycle of nutrients, a factor that contributes to making the coastal regions major sinks for organic carbon. This book recommends new strategies for observation, sampling, monitoring, experimentation, and modeling as the basis for improving forecasts of the behavior of upwelling systems. It will be of interest to physical oceanographers, marine biologists, fisheries scientists, marine organic and inorganic chemists, marine geologists, petroleum explorers, paleoceanographers, and paleoclimatologists.

    • Education

The Earth System


Author: CTI Reviews
Publisher: Cram101 Textbook Reviews
ISBN: 1619065932
Category: Education
Page: 706
View: 3895
Facts101 is your complete guide to Earth System, The. In this book, you will learn topics such as as those in your book plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.

    • Education

Physical Geography, Science and Systems of the Human Environment


Author: CTI Reviews
Publisher: Cram101 Textbook Reviews
ISBN: 1478447427
Category: Education
Page: 788
View: 7445
Facts101 is your complete guide to Physical Geography, Science and Systems of the Human Environment. In this book, you will learn topics such as as those in your book plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.

    • Technology & Engineering

Cephalopods

Ecology and Fisheries
Author: Peter Boyle,Paul Rodhouse
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1405145439
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 464
View: 420
Squid, cuttlefish and octopuses, which form the marine mollusc group the cephalopods, are of great and increasing interest to marine biologists, physiologists, ecologists, environmental biologists and fisheries scientists. Cephalopods: ecology and fisheries is a thorough review of this most important animal group. The first introductory section of the book provides coverage of cephalopod form and function, origin and evolution, Nautilus, and biodiversity and zoogeography. The following section covers life cycles, growth, physiological ecology, reproductive strategies and early life histories. There follows a section on ecology, which provides details of slope and shelf species, oceanic and deep sea species, population ecology, trophic ecology and cephalopods as prey. The final section of the book deals with fisheries and ecological interactions, with chapters on fishing methods and scientific sampling, fisheries resources, fisheries oceanography and assessment and management methods. This scientifically comprehensive and beautifully illustrated book is essential reading for marine biologists, zoologists, ecologists and fisheries managers. All libraries in universities and research establishments where biological sciences and fisheries are studied and taught should have multiple copies of this landmark publication on their shelves.

    • Science

Coral Reefs of the Indian Ocean

Their Ecology and Conservation
Author: T. R. McClanahan,C. R. C. Sheppard,D. O. Obura
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195352177
Category: Science
Page: 552
View: 6621
Coral reefs are among Earth's most diverse, productive, and beautiful ecosystems, but until recently, their ecology and the means to manage them have been poorly understood and documented. In response to the inadequate information base for coral reefs, this book reviews the ecological and conservation status of coral reefs of the Western Indian Ocean, bringing together presentations of the region's leading scientists and managers working on coral reefs. Coral Reefs of the Indian Ocean: Their Ecology and Conservation starts with a general overview of the biogeography of the region and a historical account of attempts to conserve this ecosystem. It goes on to describe the state of the reefs in each of the countries with coral reefs, and it concludes with a series of management case studies. The book also summarizes most of the existing ecological information on reefs in this region and efforts at management, making it useful for students, teachers, and investigators interested in tropical or marine ecology, conservation biology and management, and environmental sciences.

    • Science

Ocean Biogeochemistry

The Role of the Ocean Carbon Cycle in Global Change
Author: Michael J.R. Fasham
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642558445
Category: Science
Page: 301
View: 8080
Oceans account for 50% of the anthropogenic CO2 released into the atmosphere. During the past 15 years an international programme, the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), has been studying the ocean carbon cycle to quantify and model the biological and physical processes whereby CO2 is pumped from the ocean's surface to the depths of the ocean, where it can remain for hundreds of years. This project is one of the largest multi-disciplinary studies of the oceans ever carried out and this book synthesises the results. It covers all aspects of the topic ranging from air-sea exchange with CO2, the role of physical mixing, the uptake of CO2 by marine algae, the fluxes of carbon and nitrogen through the marine food chain to the subsequent export of carbon to the depths of the ocean. Special emphasis is laid on predicting future climatic change.

    • Science

Nitrogen in the Marine Environment


Author: Edward J. Carpenter,Douglas G. Capone
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483288293
Category: Science
Page: 900
View: 9384
Nitrogen in the Marine Environment provides information pertinent to the many aspects of the nitrogen cycle. This book presents the advances in ocean productivity research, with emphasis on the role of microbes in nitrogen transformations with excursions to higher trophic levels. Organized into 24 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the abundance and distribution of the various forms of nitrogen in a number of estuaries. This text then provides a comparison of the nitrogen cycling of various ecosystems within the marine environment. Other chapters consider chemical distributions and methodology as an aid to those entering the field. This book discusses as well the enzymology of the initial steps of inorganic nitrogen assimilation. The final chapter deals with the philosophy and application of modeling as an investigative method in basic research on nitrogen dynamics in coastal and open-ocean marine environments. This book is a valuable resource for plant biochemists, microbiologists, aquatic ecologists, and bacteriologists.

    • Education

Visualizing Weather and Climate Paperback


Author: CTI Reviews
Publisher: Cram101 Textbook Reviews
ISBN: 1467269263
Category: Education
Page: 63
View: 7446
Facts101 is your complete guide to Visualizing Weather and Climate Paperback. In this book, you will learn topics such as as those in your book plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.

    • Climatic changes

Global Versus Local Changes in Upwelling Systems


Author: Marie-Hélène Durand
Publisher: IRD Orstom
ISBN: N.A
Category: Climatic changes
Page: 594
View: 3177
This volume brings together thirty-three contributions presented at an international conference held on 6-8 September 1994 in Monterey, California, USA under the auspices of the Climate and Eastern Ocean Systems Project (CEOS). The CEOS was a collaborative project linking a variety of research institutions and devoted to study the potential effects of global versus local changes on the pelagic marine fish resources of upwelling systems. These stocks of small pelagics, such as sardines, anchovies or mackerel, account for about one third of the world's yield of marine fish and thus are of key importance to many, especially developing countries. The dynamics of theses stocks appear to be closely related to physical oceanographic processes. The goals of this international research project were to understand the changes that affect environment and consequently the resources in upwelling areas, to desentangle the observed changes in terms of their origins and scale and to analyse the links between environment and resource. The contributions in this volume cover the most important upwelling areas of the world, and describe, compare and assess the observed changes and their impacts. Some initial scenarios already available are presented. It is hoped that these contributions will prove useful to fisheries managers, and also lead to new research ideas and projects. Cet ouvrage rassemble trente-trois contributions présentées lors d'une conférence qui s'est tenue à Monterey en Californie du 6 au 8 septembre 1994 dans le cadre du programme CEOS. Le programme de recherche CEOS a permis à un grand nombre d'institutions de divers pays d'Amérique, d'Afrique et d'Europe de collaborer pour étudier dans une perspective comparative l'impact des changements climatiques sur les ressources en espèces pélagiques dans les différentes zones d'upwelling mondiales. Il est maintenant établi que la dynamique de ces stocks dépend très étroitement de l'environnement physique et des modifications des processus océanographiques. Les recherches ont porté plus spécialement sur la manière d'évaluer et de caractériser les changements observés en distinguant l'origine et l'échelle, globale ou locale, de ces phénomènes. Les changements climatiques sont décrits, analysés et comparés, leurs impacts sur les ressources pélagiques sont évalués, quelques scénarios d'évolution dorénavant identifiés sont présentés. Cet ouvrage, qui enrichit la connaissance des relations entre environnement et ressources, pourra être utilement mis à profit par les gestionnaires des pêches. Nous espérons qu'il participera également à la production de nouvelles idées et projets de recherche.

    • Education

Environmental Geography , Science, Land Use, and Earth Systems


Author: CTI Reviews
Publisher: Cram101 Textbook Reviews
ISBN: 1467292346
Category: Education
Page: 76
View: 6060
Facts101 is your complete guide to Environmental Geography , Science, Land Use, and Earth Systems. In this book, you will learn topics such as as those in your book plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.

    • Pets

Fur Seals

Maternal Strategies on Land and at Sea
Author: Roger L. Gentry,Gerald L. Kooyman
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400854695
Category: Pets
Page: 312
View: 1612
The contributors to this volume have accomplished a breakthrough in our ability to collect data on ocean-dwelling mammals. In the first large-scale comparison of fur seals, they have employed quantitative methods and a special instrument called a Time-Depth-Recorder to study the strategies used by females in six species of cared seals to rear and wean their young in different environments. Originally published in 1986. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    • Science

Ecosystem Sustainability and Global Change


Author: Patrick Prouzet
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119007720
Category: Science
Page: 234
View: 3500
This volume provides various examples and dimensions, chemical, biological, climatic, or related to extreme (hazards). It describes, by reciprocity, the vulnerability of ecosystems, resources, heritage, human health and, consequently, economic and social sectors. it considers climate scenarios and socio-economic status indicators research, design strategies and patterns of adaptation, development of innovative monitoring systems, analysis of perceptions of major hazards and valuation of ecosystem services.

    • Science

Space of Service to Humanity

Preserving Earth and Improving Life
Author: G. Haskell,Michael J Rycroft
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401156921
Category: Science
Page: 320
View: 3408
G. Haskell, Symposium Convenor & Vice President for Academic Services and Outreach, International Space University By taking "Space of Service to Humanity" as the theme for the inaugural event in its series of annual symposia, the International Space University (ISU) is asserting that this application of space technology requires special attention at this time. Future symposia will examine the issues of the day from different perspectives. In keeping with the fundamental principles of ISU, the symposium took a global perspective, as distinct from national or regional perspectives, and treated both technical and non-technical topics. Oral and poster presentations were delivered in the scientific, engineering, economic, legal, political and philosophical domains. All oral papers were delivered in plenary session to encourage cross fertilization between specialities, and posters were readily available for viewing throughout the three-day event. As an international and interdisciplinary forum for the sharing of experience and for discussion and debate, the symposium proved to be a stimulating and worthwhile event for the 135 participants from 25 countries and 5 international organizations with backgrounds in industry, government and academia.

    • Science

Hypogene Karst Regions and Caves of the World


Author: Alexander Klimchouk,Arthur N. Palmer,Jo De Waele,Augusto S. Auler,Philippe Audra
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319533487
Category: Science
Page: 911
View: 8245
This book illustrates the diversity of hypogene speleogenetic processes and void-conduit patterns depending on variations of the geological environments by presenting regional and cave-specific case studies. The cases include both well-known and newly recognized hypogene karst regions and caves of the world. They all focus on geological, hydrogeological, geodynamical and evolutionary contexts of hypogene speleogenesis. The last decade has witnessed the boost in recognition of the possibility, global occurrence, and practical importance of hypogene karstification (speleogenesis), i.e. the development of solutional porosity and permeability by upwelling flow, independent of recharge from the overlying or immediately adjacent surface. Hypogene karst has been identified and documented in many regions where it was previously overlooked or misinterpreted. The book enriches the basis for generalization and categorization of hypogene karst and thus improves our ability to adequately model hypogene karstification and predict related porosity and permeability. It is a book which benefits every researcher, student, and practitioner dealing with karst.

    • Nature

Review of the State of World Marine Capture Fisheries Management

Indian Ocean
Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.
ISBN: 9789251054994
Category: Nature
Page: 458
View: 9824
Analyses the trends in legal and administrative frameworks, management regimes and status of marine capture fisheries for 32 countries in the Indian Ocean. This book presents an informative reference for policy decision-makers, fishery managers and stakeholders, on the impetus for countries to strengthen their fisheries management.

    • Science

State of the World's Oceans


Author: Michelle Allsopp,Stefan E. Pambuccian,Paul Johnston,David Santillo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402091168
Category: Science
Page: 256
View: 3251
The world’s oceans cover 70% of the earth’s surface and are home to a myriad of amazing and beautiful creatures. However, the biodiversity of the oceans is incre- ingly coming under serious threat from many human activities including overfi- ing, use of destructive fishing methods, pollution and commercial aquaculture. In addition, climate change is already having an impact on some marine ecosystems. This book discusses some of the major threats facing marine ecosystems by cons- ering a range of topics, under chapters discussing biodiversity (Chapter 1), fisheries (Chapter 2), aquaculture (Chapter 3), pollution (Chapter 4) and the impacts of increasing greenhouse gas emissions (Chapter 5). It goes on to explore solutions to the problems by discussing equitable and sustainable management of the oceans (Chapter 6) and protecting marine ecosystems using marine reserves (Chapter 7). Presently, 76% of the oceans are fully or over-exploited with respect to fishing, and many species have been severely depleted. It is abundantly clear that, in general, current fisheries management regimes are to blame for much of the widespread degradation of the oceans. Many policy-makers and scientists now agree that we must adopt a radical new approach to managing the seas – one that is precautionary in nature and has protection of the whole marine ecosystem as its primary objective. This ‘ecosystem-based approach’ is vital if we are to ensure the health of our oceans for future generations.

    • Science

Dynamics of Marine Ecosystems

Biological-Physical Interactions in the Oceans
Author: K. H. Mann,John R. N. Lazier
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118687914
Category: Science
Page: 512
View: 9350
The new edition of this widely respected text provides comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of the effects of biological–physical interactions in the oceans from the microscopic to the global scale. considers the influence of physical forcing on biological processes in a wide range of marine habitats including coastal estuaries, shelf-break fronts, major ocean gyres, coral reefs, coastal upwelling areas, and the equatorial upwelling system investigates recent significant developments in this rapidly advancing field includes new research suggesting that long-term variability in the global atmospheric circulation affects the circulation of ocean basins, which in turn brings about major changes in fish stocks. This discovery opens up the exciting possibility of being able to predict major changes in global fish stocks written in an accessible, lucid style, this textbook is essential reading for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students studying marine ecology and biological oceanography

    • Science

Coastal Ocean Observing Systems


Author: Yonggang Liu,Heather Kerkering,Robert H. Weisberg
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 012802061X
Category: Science
Page: 490
View: 5921
Coastal Ocean Observing Systems provides state-of-the-art scientific and technological knowledge in coastal ocean observing systems, along with guidance on establishing, restructuring, and improving similar systems. The book is intended to help oceanographers understand, identify, and recognize how oceanographic research feeds into the various designs of ocean observing systems. In addition, readers will learn how ocean observing systems are defined and how each system operates in relation to its geographical, environmental, and political region. The book provides further insights into all of these problem areas, offering lessons learned and results from the types of research sponsored and utilized by ocean observing systems and the types of research design and experiments conducted by professionals specializing in ocean research and affiliated with observing systems. Includes international contributions from individuals working in academia, management, and industry Showcases the application of science and technology in coastal observing systems Highlights lessons learned on partnerships, governance structure, data management, and stakeholder relationships required for successful implementation Provides insight into how ocean research transfers to application and societal benefit

    • Science

Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms


Author: Patricia M. Glibert,Elisa Berdalet,Michele A. Burford,Grant C. Pitcher,Mingjiang Zhou
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319700693
Category: Science
Page: 461
View: 5327
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) - blooms that cause fish kills, contaminate seafood with toxins, or cause human or ecological health impacts and harm to local economies - are occurring more often, in more places and lasting longer than in past decades. This expansion is primarily the result of human activities, through increased nutrient inputs and various aspects of climate change. The Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (GEOHAB) programme promoted international collaboration to understand HAB population dynamics in various oceanographic regimes and to improve the prediction of HABs. This volume introduces readers to the overarching framework of the GEOHAB programme, factors contributing to the global expansion of harmful algal blooms, the complexities of HABs in different habitats, and the forward-looking issues to be tackled by the next generation of GEOHAB, GlobalHAB. The programme brought together an international team of contributing scientists and ecosystem managers, and its outcomes will greatly benefit the international research community.