Urban Legends

Gang Identity in the Post-Industrial City
Author: Alistair Fraser
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780198728610
Category:
Page: 304
View: 1839
Urban Legends: Gang Identity in the Post-Industrial City tells a unique and powerful story of young people, gang identity and social change in post-industrial Glasgow, challenging the perceptions of gangs as a novel, universal, or pathological phenomenon. Though territorial gangs have been reported in Glasgow for over a century, with striking continuities over this time, there are similarities with street-based groups elsewhere. Using this similarity asthe foundation, the book goes on to argue that Glaswegian gangs have a specific historical trajectory that is particular to the city.

    • Social Science

Policing the 2012 London Olympics

Legacy and Social Exclusion
Author: Gary Armstrong,Richard Giulianotti,Dick Hobbs
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131774702X
Category: Social Science
Page: 214
View: 4924
The summer Olympic Games are renowned for producing the world’s biggest single-city cultural event. While the Olympics and other sport mega-events have received growing levels of academic investigation from a variety of disciplinary approaches, relatively little is known about how such occasions are experienced directly by local host communities and publics. This ethnography examines the everyday policing of the London Borough of Newham in relation to the London 2012 Olympics. It explains how police defined, monitored, prioritized, contained and investigated ‘Olympic-related’ crime, and how ‘Olympic-related’ policing connected to the policing of Newham. The authors examine how the threat of terrorism impacted on the everyday policing of the 2012 Olympics, as well as the exaggeration of other threats to the Games – such as youth gangs – for political reasons. The book also explores local resistance to Olympic policing, and the legacy of the Games with regard to policing, local housing, demographics and social exclusion. Discussing the lessons that can be learned for the future staging of sporting mega-events, this book will appeal to scholars and students with interests in sport, policing, crime and criminology, mega-events, event management, urban studies, global studies and sociology.

    • Social Science

Gangs & Crime

Critical Alternatives
Author: Alistair Fraser
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1526421860
Category: Social Science
Page: 264
View: 3723
This book takes students on a guided tour of the gang phenomenon through history, as well as current representations of gangs in literature and media. It includes: - A detailed global overview of gang culture, covering, amongst others, Glasgow, Chicago, Hong Kong, and Shanghai - A chapter on researching gangs which covers quantitative and qualitative methods - Extra chapter features such as key terms, chapter overviews, study questions and further reading suggestions. Fraser brings together gang-literature and critical perspectives in a refreshingly new way, exploring ‘gangs’ as a social group with a long and fascinating history.

    • Political Science

Demeaned But Empowered

The Social Power of the Urban Poor in Jamaica
Author: Obika Gray
Publisher: University of West Indies Press
ISBN: 9789766401535
Category: Political Science
Page: 429
View: 2509
Gray's central thesis asserts that the Jamaican state is a form of predatory state that incorporates contradictory social forces into an arrangement that is hierarchical, often brutal and ultimately debilitating to democracy. He introduces a series of constructs to support this argument, but the more interesting and novel theses are to be found in his vivid description of the social forces that resist the predatory state and how they have carved out a modicum of autonomy based on what he describes as an elaborate value system of badness/honour.

    • Social Science

The Urban Fabric of Crime and Fear


Author: Vania Ceccato
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940074210X
Category: Social Science
Page: 354
View: 6060
How does the city’s urban fabric relate to crime and fear, and how is that fabric affected by crime and fear? Does the urban environment affect one’s decision to commit an offence? Is there a victimisation-related inequality within cities? How do crime and fear interrelate to inequality and segregation in cities of developing countries? What are the challenges to planning cities which are both safe and sustainable? This book searches for answers to these questions in the nature of the city, particularly in the social interactions that take place in urban space distinctively guided by different land uses and people’s activities. In other words, the book deals with the urban fabric of crime and fear. The novelty of the book is to place safety and security issues on the urban scale by (1) showing links between urban structure, and crime and fear, (2) illustrating how different disciplines deal with urban vulnerability to (and fear of) crime (3) including concrete examples of issues and challenges found in European and North American cities, and, without being too extensive, also in cities of the Global South.

    • Political Science

Contemporary Anarchist Studies

An Introductory Anthology of Anarchy in the Academy
Author: Randall Amster,Abraham DeLeon,Luis Fernandez,Anthony J. Nocella, II,Deric Shannon
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134026439
Category: Political Science
Page: 336
View: 3697
This volume of collected essays by some of the most prominent academics studying anarchism bridges the gap between anarchist activism on the streets and anarchist theory in the academy. Focusing on anarchist theory, pedagogy, methodologies, praxis, and the future, this edition will strike a chord for anyone interested in radical social change. This interdisciplinary work highlights connections between anarchism and other perspectives such as feminism, queer theory, critical race theory, disability studies, post-modernism and post-structuralism, animal liberation, and environmental justice. Featuring original articles, this volume brings together a wide variety of anarchist voices whilst stressing anarchism's tradition of dissent. This book is a must buy for the critical teacher, student, and activist interested in the state of the art of anarchism studies.

    • Social Science

International Handbook of Juvenile Justice


Author: Scott H. Decker,Nerea Marteache
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319450905
Category: Social Science
Page: 550
View: 2495
This comprehensive reference work presents an in-depth analysis of juvenile justice systems across the world. The second edition of this Handbook has been updated with 13 new chapters, now covering a total of 34 countries, across North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East from an international and comparative perspective. The International Handbook of Juvenile Justice is the result of research conducted by a group of outstanding scholars working in the field of juvenile justice. It reflects a collective concern about trends in juvenile justice over the past two decades, trends that have begun to blur the difference between criminal and juvenile justice. Also new to the second edition, each chapter is formatted to increase the comparative aspect of the book, highlighting: · The legal status of juveniles · Age of majority · The country’s stance toward the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child · Trends in juvenile crime over the period 2004-2014 · Causes of juvenile crime · Policing and juveniles · Courts and juveniles · Custodial rules for juveniles (detention, prison, mixing juveniles with adults) · Alternative sanctions for juveniles: home confinement, restorative justice, restitution, etc. · Differences in treatment of boys and girls This seminal work highlights similarities and differences between the various systems, and will be an important reference for researchers in criminology and criminal justice, particularly interested in juvenile delinquency and youth crime, as well as related disciplines like sociology, social work, and public policy.

    • Social Science

Taking Care of Business

Police Detectives, Drug Law Enforcement and Proactive Investigation
Author: Matthew Bacon
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191511218
Category: Social Science
Page: 352
View: 5482
Taking Care of Business: Police Detectives, Drug Law Enforcement and Proactive Investigation offers a rich and insightful empirical study of drug investigations, based on extensive fieldwork undertaken with the specialist detective units of two English police services. It fills a significant gap in criminological literature by providing a timely and thought-provoking ethnography of detective culture, investigative practice, and drug law enforcement. Drawing on data collected from over five hundred hours of direct observation of ordinary police work, both on and off the streets, the chapters are skilfully interwoven with fieldnotes, informal conversations, interviews and analysis of official documents. Taken together, they explore how police officers perceive the drug world and their role in it, translate policy from its written form into action, and utilise intelligence-led policing strategies to instigate covert operations and make cases. There is in-depth examination of the everyday realities of the 'war on drugs', alongside the associated working rules, tacit understandings and underlying assumptions that operate behind the public face of police organizations. The book also critically examines the most pertinent legislative initiatives, organizational reforms, and shifts in thinking concerning the values, objectives and norms of policing that have occurred over recent decades, which, between them, have contributed to significant changes in the ways that detectives are trained and investigations are controlled and carried out. With highly salient insights regarding operational policing and drug control policy in the current social, economic and political climate, Taking Care of Business is a compelling and important work on contemporary criminal investigation and the policing of drugs. It will be of interest to scholars of criminology, sociology, law, and policy studies, especially those researching and studying policing, regulation, surveillance, drug control policy and the informal economy, as well as policymakers, police practitioners, and criminal justice professionals.

    • Political Science

Empowered Participation

Reinventing Urban Democracy
Author: Archon Fung
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400835638
Category: Political Science
Page: 304
View: 7527
Every month in every neighborhood in Chicago, residents, teachers, school principals, and police officers gather to deliberate about how to improve their schools and make their streets safer. Residents of poor neighborhoods participate as much or more as those from wealthy ones. All voices are heard. Since the meetings began more than a dozen years ago, they have led not only to safer streets but also to surprising improvements in the city's schools. Chicago's police department and school system have become democratic urban institutions unlike any others in America. Empowered Participation is the compelling chronicle of this unprecedented transformation. It is the first comprehensive empirical analysis of the ways in which participatory democracy can be used to effect social change. Using city-wide data and six neighborhood case studies, the book explores how determined Chicago residents, police officers, teachers, and community groups worked to banish crime and transform a failing city school system into a model for educational reform. The author's conclusion: Properly designed and implemented institutions of participatory democratic governance can spark citizen involvement that in turn generates innovative problem-solving and public action. Their participation makes organizations more fair and effective. Though the book focuses on Chicago's municipal agencies, its lessons are applicable to many American cities. Its findings will prove useful not only in the fields of education and law enforcement, but also to sectors as diverse as environmental regulation, social service provision, and workforce development.

    • Social Science

Transnational Flows and Permissive Polities

Ethnographies of Human Mobilities in Asia
Author: Barak Kalir,Malini Sur
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
ISBN: 9089644083
Category: Social Science
Page: 264
View: 6661
This book is a collection of ethnographies of transnational migration and border crossings in Asia. Interdisciplinary in scope, it addresses issues of mobility and Diaspora from various vantage points. Unique to this volume is an emphasis of studying globalisation from below, privileging the narratives and views of “people on the move” – or the transnational underclass – and their sense of belonging to places and communities. The collection is further distinguished by its focus on the sources of authority and the social configurations that are created in the intersections between legality and illegality across Asia. Though previous studies on transnational flows have deconstructed the notion of nation-states as having fixed political boundaries, and have engaged in spaces beyond the nation-states, seldom has an entire region, Asia, been privileged in one integrated volume. We emphasize hitherto marginalized debates that have significant policy relevance. Other than a serious academic interest from lecturers and students, we are confident that book will be of significant interest for development practitioners and NGOs.

    • Political Science

Northern Ireland after the troubles

A society in transition
Author: Colin Coulter,Michael Murray
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 1847794882
Category: Political Science
Page: 280
View: 8402
In the last generation, Northern Ireland has undergone a tortuous yet remarkable process of social and political change. This collection of essays aims to capture the complex and shifting realities of a society in the process of transition from war to peace. The book brings together commentators from a range of academic backgrounds and political perspectives. As well as focusing upon those political divisions and disputes that are most readily associated with Northern Ireland, it provides a rather broader focus than is conventionally found in books on the region. It examines the cultural identities and cultural practices that are essential to the formation and understanding of Northern Irish society but are neglected in academic analyses of the six counties. While the contributors often approach issues from rather different angles, they share a common conviction of the need to challenge the self-serving simplifications and choreographed optimism that frequently define both official discourse and media commentary on Northern Ireland. Taken together, the essays offer a comprehensive and critical account of a troubled society in the throes of change.

    • Social Science

Subcultures

Cultural Histories and Social Practice
Author: Ken Gelder
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134181264
Category: Social Science
Page: 200
View: 8939
This book presents a cultural history of subcultures, covering a remarkable range of subcultural forms and practices. It begins with London’s ‘Elizabethan underworld’, taking the rogue and vagabond as subcultural prototypes: the basis for Marx’s later view of subcultures as the lumpenproletariat, and Henry Mayhew’s view of subcultures as ‘those that will not work’. Subcultures are always in some way non-conforming or dissenting. They are social - with their own shared conventions, values, rituals, and so on – but they can also seem ‘immersed’ or self-absorbed. This book identifies six key ways in which subcultures have generally been understood: through their often negative relation to work: idle, parasitical, hedonistic, criminal their negative or ambivalent relation to class their association with territory - the ‘street’, the ‘hood’, the club - rather than property their movement away from home into non-domestic forms of ‘belonging’ their ties to excess and exaggeration (as opposed to restraint and moderation) their refusal of the banalities of ordinary life and in particular, of massification. Subcultures looks at the way these features find expression across many different subcultural groups: from the Ranters to the riot grrrls, from taxi dancers to drag queens and kings, from bebop to hip hop, from dandies to punk, from hobos to leatherfolk, and from hippies and bohemians to digital pirates and virtual communities. It argues that subcultural identity is primarily a matter of narrative and narration, which means that its focus is literary as well as sociological. It also argues for the idea of a subcultural geography: that subcultures inhabit places in particular ways, their investment in them being as much imaginary as real and, in some cases, strikingly utopian.

    • Literary Criticism

Constructing the Criminal Tribe in Colonial India

Acting Like a Thief
Author: Henry Schwarz
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444317342
Category: Literary Criticism
Page: 176
View: 7034
Constructing the Criminal Tribe in Colonial India provides a detailed overview of the phenomenon of the “criminal tribe” in India from the early days of colonial rule to the present. Traces and analyzes historical debates in historiography, anthropology and criminology Argues that crime in the colonial context is used as much to control subject populations as to define morally repugnant behavior Explores how crime evolved as the foil of political legitimacy under military Examines the popular movement that has arisen to reverse the discrimination against the millions of people laboring under the stigma of criminal inheritance, producing a radical culture that contests stereotypes to reclaim their humanity

    • Law

Cyber Criminology

Exploring Internet Crimes and Criminal Behavior
Author: K. Jaishankar
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439829509
Category: Law
Page: 461
View: 8003
Victimization through the Internet is becoming more prevalent as cyber criminals have developed more effective ways to remain anonymous. And as more personal information than ever is stored on networked computers, even the occasional or non-user is at risk. A collection of contributions from worldwide experts and emerging researchers, Cyber Criminology: Exploring Internet Crimes and Criminal Behavior explores today’s interface of computer science, Internet science, and criminology. Topics discussed include: The growing menace of cyber crime in Nigeria Internet gambling and digital piracy Sexual addiction on the Internet, child pornography, and online exploitation of children Terrorist use of the Internet Cyber stalking and cyber bullying The victimization of women on social networking websites Malware victimization and hacking The Islamic world in cyberspace and the propagation of Islamic ideology via the Internet Human rights concerns that the digital age has created Approaching the topic from a social science perspective, the book explores methods for determining the causes of computer crime victimization by examining an individual’s lifestyle patterns. It also publishes the findings of a study conducted on college students about online victimization. Advances in information and communications technologies have created a range of new crime problems that did not exist two decades ago. Opportunities for various criminal activities to pervade the Internet have led to the growth and development of cyber criminology as a distinct discipline within the criminology framework. This volume explores all aspects of this nascent field and provides a window on the future of Internet crimes and theories behind their origins. K. Jaishankar was the General Chair of the First International Conference of the South Asian Society of Criminology and Victimology (SASCV), held January 15-17, 2011 at the Hotel Jaipur Greens in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.

    • Social Science

Understanding Street Culture

Poverty, Crime, Youth and Cool
Author: Jonathan Ilan
Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education
ISBN: 1137028602
Category: Social Science
Page: 216
View: 4988
How do poverty, youth and crime relate to the concept of being 'cool'? Jonathan Ilan presents a unique, theoretically informed overview of street culture in various parts of the world – its origins, functions, manifestations and appeal – examining both its bearing on criminal lifestyles and on the cultivation of 'cool.' Drawing on contemporary research and original examples to evidence new ways of thinking about street culture - from the favelas of Brazil to housing projects in the USA - the text locates street culture within its particular social, cultural and economic contexts. Covering diverse subjects from brutal violence to contemporary fashion it explores the ways in which street culture is intertwined with processes of social exclusion and inclusion. An in-depth and even-handed guide to understanding the practices, styles and struggles associated with a particular section of the socio-economically disadvantaged, this text stands as an invaluable resource for students and academics across a range of disciplines, including youth studies, urban studies, criminology, sociology, cultural studies and geography.

    • Nation-building

The Remake of a State: Post-conflict Challenges and State Building in Nepal


Author: Bishnu Raj Upreti,Sagar Raj Sharma,Kailash Nath Pyakuryal,Safal Ghimire
Publisher: Kathmandu University and NCCR (North-South)
ISBN: 9937224632
Category: Nation-building
Page: 312
View: 1738
Contributed articles.

    • Law

The Oxford Handbook of Organized Crime


Author: Letizia Paoli
Publisher: Oxford University Press (UK)
ISBN: 019973044X
Category: Law
Page: 692
View: 6817
The Oxford Handbook of Organized Crime provides an informed, authoritative, and comprehensive overview of current knowledge about the nature and effects of the principal forms of organized crime, as well as the type and effectiveness of efforts to prevent and control them. Reflecting the transnational dimensions of criminal organizations and their activities, and the growing role of international organizations reacting to organized crime, The Handbook takes a global perspective with first-rate contributions from around the world covering the main regions and countries in which organized crime activity is at its greatest. It is divided into four sections: concepts and research methods, actors and interactions, markets and activities, and, finally, national and international policies to fight criminal organizations. While there are a number of organized crime texts available, none delivers a systematic, high-quality and truly global approach to the topic as is available inThe Oxford Handbook of Organized Crime. Its insights illuminate both traditional areas of study in the field and pathways for developing cutting-edge research questions.

    • Law

Restorative Justice & Responsive Regulation


Author: John Braithwaite
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0195158393
Category: Law
Page: 314
View: 1282
Braithwaite's argument against punitive justice systems and for restorative justice systems establishes that there are good theoretical and empirical grounds for anticipating that well designed restorative justice processes will restore victims, offenders, and communities better than existing criminal justice practices. Counterintuitively, he also shows that a restorative justice system may deter, incapacitate, and rehabilitate more effectively than a punitive system. This is particularly true when the restorative justice system is embedded in a responsive regulatory framework that opts for deterrence only after restoration repeatedly fails, and incapacitation only after escalated deterrence fails. Braithwaite's empirical research demonstrates that active deterrence under the dynamic regulatory pyramid that is a hallmark of the restorative justice system he supports, is far more effective than the passive deterrence that is notable in the stricter "sentencing grid" of current criminal justice systems.

    • Social Science

Multiculturalism and Integration

A Harmonious Relationship
Author: Michael Clyne,James Jupp
Publisher: ANU E Press
ISBN: 1921862157
Category: Social Science
Page: 228
View: 3287
Multiculturalism has been the official policy of all Australian governments (Commonwealth and State) since the 1970s. It has recently been criticised, both in Australia and elsewhere. Integration has been suggested as a better term and policy. Critics suggest it is a reversion to assimilation. However integration has not been rigorously defined and may simply be another form of multiculturalism, which the authors believe to have been vital in sustaining social harmony.

    • Social Science

A World of Gangs

Armed Young Men and Gangsta Culture
Author: John Hagedorn
Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
ISBN: 0816650667
Category: Social Science
Page: 198
View: 1709
"On the street with gangs in three world cities - Chicago, Rio de Janeiro, and Capetown - Hagedorn discovers that many of them have institutionalized as a strategy to confront a hopeless cycle of poverty, racism, and oppression. The mhilistic appeal of gangsta rap and its ethic of survival "by any means necessary," he argues, provides vital insights into the ideology and persistence of gangs around the world. Proposing how gangs can be encouraged to overcome their violent tendencies, Hagedorn appeals to community leaders to use the urgency, outrage, and resistance common to both gang life and hip-hop to bring gangs into broader movements for social justice."--BOOK JACKET.