• Political Science

Veto Players

How Political Institutions Work
Author: George Tsebelis
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400831456
Category: Political Science
Page: 344
View: 2306
Political scientists have long classified systems of government as parliamentary or presidential, two-party or multiparty, and so on. But such distinctions often fail to provide useful insights. For example, how are we to compare the United States, a presidential bicameral regime with two weak parties, to Denmark, a parliamentary unicameral regime with many strong parties? Veto Players advances an important, new understanding of how governments are structured. The real distinctions between political systems, contends George Tsebelis, are to be found in the extent to which they afford political actors veto power over policy choices. Drawing richly on game theory, he develops a scheme by which governments can thus be classified. He shows why an increase in the number of "veto players," or an increase in their ideological distance from each other, increases policy stability, impeding significant departures from the status quo. Policy stability affects a series of other key characteristics of polities, argues the author. For example, it leads to high judicial and bureaucratic independence, as well as high government instability (in parliamentary systems). The propositions derived from the theoretical framework Tsebelis develops in the first part of the book are tested in the second part with various data sets from advanced industrialized countries, as well as analysis of legislation in the European Union. Representing the first consistent and consequential theory of comparative politics, Veto Players will be welcomed by students and scholars as a defining text of the discipline. From the preface to the Italian edition: ? "Tsebelis has produced what is today the most original theory for the understanding of the dynamics of contemporary regimes. . . . This book promises to remain a lasting contribution to political analysis."--Gianfranco Pasquino, Professor of Political Science, University of Bologna

    • Social Science

Nested Games

Rational Choice in Comparative Politics
Author: George Tsebelis
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520911970
Category: Social Science
Page: 288
View: 4875
Clearly written and easily understood by the nonspecialist, Nested Games provides a systematic, empirically accurate, and theoretically coherent account of apparently irrational political actions.

    • Political Science

Reform Processes and Policy Change

Veto Players and Decision-Making in Modern Democracies
Author: Thomas König,George Tsebelis,Marc Debus
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441958099
Category: Political Science
Page: 284
View: 8162
George Tsebelis’ veto players approach has become a prominent theory to analyze various research questions in political science. Studies that apply veto player theory deal with the impact of institutions and partisan preferences of legislative activity and policy outcomes. It is used to measure the degree of policy change and, thus, reform capacity in national and international political systems. This volume contains the analysis of leading scholars in the field on these topics and more recent developments regarding theoretical and empirical progress in the area of political reform-making. The contributions come from research areas of political science where veto player theory plays a significant role, including, positive political theory, legislative behavior and legislative decision-making in national and supra-national political systems, policy making and government formation. The contributors to this book add to the current scholarly and public debate on the role of veto players, making it of interest to scholars in political science and policy studies as well as policymakers worldwide.

    • Political Science

Patterns of Democracy

Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries
Author: Arend Lijphart
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300172028
Category: Political Science
Page: 368
View: 3648
In this updated and expanded edition of his classic text, Arend Lijphart offers a broader and deeper analysis of worldwide democratic institutions than ever before. Examining thirty-six democracies during the period from 1945 to 2010, Lijphart arrives at important—and unexpected—conclusions about what type of democracy works best. Praise for the previous edition: "Magnificent. . . . The best-researched book on democracy in the world today."—Malcolm Mackerras, American Review of Politics "I can't think of another scholar as well qualified as Lijphart to write a book of this kind. He has an amazing grasp of the relevant literature, and he's compiled an unmatched collection of data."—Robert A. Dahl, Yale University "This sound comparative research . . . will continue to be a standard in graduate and undergraduate courses in comparative politics."—Choice

    • Political Science

Political Institutions

Democracy and Social Choice
Author: Josep M. Colomer
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191529257
Category: Political Science
Page: 266
View: 2788
The role of institutions is to establish the domains of public activity and the rules to select leaders. Democratic regimes organize in simple institutional frameworks to foster the concentration of power and alternative successive absolute winners and losers. They favour political satisfaction of relatively small groups, as well as policy instability. In contrast, pluralistic institutions produce multiple winners, including multiparty co-operation and agreements. They favour stable, moderate, and consensual policies that can satisfy large groups' interests on a great number of issues. The more complex the political institutions, the more stable and socially efficient the outcome will be. This book develops an extensive analysis of this relationship. It explores concepts, questions and insights based on social choice theory, while empirical focus is cast on more than 40 democratic countries and a few international organizations from late medieval times to the present. The book argues that pluralistic democratic institutions are judged to be better than simple formula of their higher capacity of producing socially satisfactory results.

    • Poetry

Making and Breaking Governments

Cabinets and Legislatures in Parliamentary Democracies
Author: Michael Laver,Kenneth A. Shepsle
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521438360
Category: Poetry
Page: 301
View: 3536
Making and Breaking Governments offers a theoretical argument about how parliamentary democracy works. The authors formulate a theoretical model of how parties create new governments and either maintain them in office or, after a resignation or no-confidence vote, replace them. The theory involves strategic interaction, derives consequences, formulates empirical hypotheses on the basis of these, and tests the hypotheses with data drawn from the postwar European experience with parliamentary democracy.

    • Political Science

Contemporary Democracies

Participation, Stability, and Violence
Author: G. Bingham POWELL,G. Bingham Powell
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674042352
Category: Political Science
Page: 294
View: 1027

    • Political Science

Bicameralism


Author: George Tsebelis,Jeannette Money
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521589727
Category: Political Science
Page: 250
View: 9949
This book examines how the chambers of bicameral legislatures interact when they produce legislation.

    • Political Science

Presidentialism and Democracy in Latin America


Author: Scott Mainwaring
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521576147
Category: Political Science
Page: 493
View: 8280
David J. Samuels and Matthew S. Shugart provide the first systematic analysis of how democratic constitutional design shapes party politics.

    • History

Policymaking in Latin America

How Politics Shapes Policies
Author: Ernesto Stein,Mariano Tommasi,Carlos G. Scartascini,Pablo Tomas Spiller
Publisher: Harvard Univ David Rockefeller
ISBN: 9781597820615
Category: History
Page: 500
View: 9271
Political institutions, policymaking, and policy: an introduction / Pablo T. Spiller, Ernesto Stein, and Mariano Tommasi -- Who's who in the PMP: an overview of actors, incentives, and the roles they play / Carlos Scartascini -- Political institutions, policymaking processes, and policy outcomes in Argentina / Pablo T. Spiller and Mariano Tommasi -- On the road to good governance: recovering from economic and political shocks in Brazil / Lee J. Alston ... [et. al] -- Political institutions, policymaking processes, and policy outcomes in Chile / Cristóbal Aninat ... [et. al] -- Political institutions and policy outcomes in Colombia: the effects of the 1991 constitution / Mauricio Cárdenas, Roberto Junguito, Mónica Pachòn -- Veto players, fickle institutions, and low-quality policies: the policymaking process in Ecuador / Andrés Mejia Acosta ... [et. al] -- Policymaking in Mexico under one-party hegemony and divided government / Fabrice Lehoucq ... [et. al] -- Political institutions, policymaking processes, and policy outcomes in Paraguay / José Molinas ... [et. al] -- Political institutions and policymaking in Venezuela: the rise and collapse of political cooperation / Francisco Monaldi ... [et. al].

    • Political Science

Presidents and Assemblies

Constitutional Design and Electoral Dynamics
Author: Matthew Soberg Shugart,John M. Carey
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521429900
Category: Political Science
Page: 316
View: 4621
In recent years renewed attention has been directed to the importance of the role of institutional design in democratic politics. Particular interest has concerned constitutional design and the relative merits of parliamentary versus presidential systems. In this book, the authors systematically assess the strengths and weaknesses of various forms of presidential systems, drawing on recent developments in the theoretical literature about institutional design and electoral rules. They develop a typology of democratic regimes structured around the separation of powers principle, including two hybrid forms, the premier-presidential and president-parliamentary systems, and they evaluate a number of alternative ways of balancing powers between the branches within these basic frameworks. They also demonstrate that electoral rules are critically important in determining how political authority is exercised.

    • Political Science

Elections as Instruments of Democracy

Majoritarian and Proportional Visions
Author: G. Bingham Powell
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 9780300080162
Category: Political Science
Page: 298
View: 4367
This text explores elections as instruments of democracy. Focusing on elections in 20 democracies over the last 25 years, it examines the differences between two visions of democracy - the majoritarian vision and the proportional influence vision.

    • Political Science

Dictators and Democracy in African Development

The Political Economy of Good Governance in Nigeria
Author: A. Carl LeVan
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107081149
Category: Political Science
Page: 308
View: 6675
This book argues that the structure of the policy-making process in Nigeria explains variations in government performance better than other commonly cited factors.

    • Business & Economics

Democracy and Development

Political Institutions and Well-Being in the World, 1950-1990
Author: Adam Przeworski
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521793797
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 321
View: 926
Examines impact of political regimes on economic development between 1950 and 1990.

    • Political Science

Reform Capacity


Author: Johannes Lindvall
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198766866
Category: Political Science
Page: 224
View: 2322
It is often said that effective government requires a concentration of power. If we want our political leaders to adjust public policies to changing economic, social, and political circumstances, we should, in this view, leave our leaders alone: we should put in place electoral procedures that identify a clear winner in each election, and then we should let the winning political party govern without having to cooperate with others. The argument of this book is that this view is mistaken, since it seriously underestimates the ability of political decision makers to overcome democratic paralysis by compensating losers (groups that stand to lose from a reform). Reform capacity - the ability of political decision makers to adopt and implement policy changes that benefit society as a whole - can therefore be achieved in both power-concentration systems (which enable governments to ignore losers) and power-sharing systems (where governments build support for reform by compensating losers). If political decision makers are able to solve the bargaining problems that sometimes complicate negotiations between winners and losers, power-sharing systems have certain advantages over power-concentration systems. The book argues that power sharing can lead to high reform capacity in societies where interest groups are powerful enough to block reforms; the book also argues that power sharing can lead to high reform capacity when reforms have short-term costs and long-term benefits, since power sharing helps to correct some of the short-sightedness that is inherent in democratic policymaking.

    • Political Science

Parliamentary Versus Presidential Government


Author: Arend Lijphart
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198780443
Category: Political Science
Page: 257
View: 3235
Parliamentary and presidential governments--exemplified by most European countries for the former and the United States and Latin America for the latter--are the two principal forms of democracy in the modern world. Their respective advantages and disadvantages have been long debated, at first mainly by British and American political observers but with increasing frequency in other parts of the world, especially in Latin America, but also in Western and Eastern Europe and Asia. The recent world-wide wave of democratization has intensified both the debate and its significance. This volume brings together the most important statement on the subject by advocates and analysts--from Montesquieu and Madison to Lipset and Linz. It also treats the merits of less frequently used democratic types, such as French-style semi-presidentialism, that may be regarded as intermediate forms between parliamentarism and presidentialism.

    • Political Science

The Principles of Representative Government


Author: Bernard Manin
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521458917
Category: Political Science
Page: 243
View: 1255
The thesis of this original and provocative book is that representative government should be understood as a combination of democratic and undemocratic elements. Challenging the conventionally held views on the subject, Professor Manin reminds us that while today representative institutions and democracy appear as virtually indistinguishable, when representative government was first established in Europe and America, it was designed in opposition to democracy proper. The author identifies the essential features of democratic institutions and reviews the history of their application.

    • Political Science

Experimental Political Science and the Study of Causality

From Nature to the Lab
Author: Rebecca B. Morton,Kenneth C. Williams
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139490532
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 5115
Increasingly, political scientists use the term 'experiment' or 'experimental' to describe their empirical research. One of the primary reasons for doing so is the advantage of experiments in establishing causal inferences. In this book, Rebecca B. Morton and Kenneth C. Williams discuss in detail how experiments and experimental reasoning with observational data can help researchers determine causality. They explore how control and random assignment mechanisms work, examining both the Rubin causal model and the formal theory approaches to causality. They also cover general topics in experimentation such as the history of experimentation in political science; internal and external validity of experimental research; types of experiments - field, laboratory, virtual, and survey - and how to choose, recruit, and motivate subjects in experiments. They investigate ethical issues in experimentation, the process of securing approval from institutional review boards for human subject research, and the use of deception in experimentation.

    • Political Science

Public Debt and the Birth of the Democratic State

France and Great Britain 1688–1789
Author: David Stasavage
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139439879
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 6554
This book develops new theory about the link between debt and democracy and applies it to a classic historical comparison: Great Britain in the eighteenth century which had strong representative institutions and sound public finance vs. ancient regime France, which had neither. The book argues that whether representative institutions improve commitment depends on the opportunities for government creditors to form new coalitions with other social groups, more likely to occur when a society is divided across multiple political cleavages. It then presents historical evidence to show that improved access to finance in Great Britain after 1688 had as much to do with the development of the Whig Party as with constitutional changes. In France, it is suggested that the balance of partisan forces made it unlikely that an early adoption of 'English-style' institutions would have improved credibility.

    • Business & Economics

The Calculus of Consent

Logical Foundations of Constitutional Democracy
Author: James M. Buchanan,Gordon Tullock
Publisher: Collected Works of James M. Bu
ISBN: 9780865972186
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 356
View: 2610
The Calculus of Consent was co-authored by Buchanan with Gordon Tullock, with whom Buchanan collaborated on many books and academic enterprises throughout their careers. As Robert D. Tollison states in the foreword, ?[this book] is a radical departure from the way democracies conduct their business. The Calculus is already a book for the ages.” This classic work analyzes the political organization of a free society through the lens of the economic organization of society. The authors acknowledge their unease as economists in analyzing the political organization, but they take the risk of forging into unfamiliar territory because they believe the benefits of their perspective will bear much fruit. As the authors state, their objective in this book is ?to analyze the calculus of the rational individual when he is faced with questions of constitutional choice . . . .We examine the [choice] process extensively only with reference to the problem of decision-making rules.” The authors describe their approach as ?economic individualism.” They believe that economists have explored individual choice extensively in the market sector while social scientists have largely ignored the dynamics of individual decision-making in the dynamics of forming group action in the public sector. Written in the early 1960s, The Calculus of Consent has become a bulwark of the public choice movement for which James M. Buchanan is so justly famous. James M. Buchanan is an eminent economist who won the Alfred Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1986 and is considered one of the greatest scholars of liberty in the twentieth century. The entire series includes: Volume 1: The Logical Foundations of Constitutional Liberty Volume 2: Public Principles of Public Debt Volume 3: The Calculus of Consent Volume 4: Public Finance in Democratic Process Volume 5: The Demand and Supply of Public Goods Volume 6: Cost and Choice Volume 7: The Limits of Liberty Volume 8: Democracy in Deficit Volume 9: The Power to Tax Volume 10: The Reason of Rules Volume 11: Politics by Principle, Not Interest Volume 12: Economic Inquiry and Its Logic Volume 13: Politics as Public Choice Volume 14: Debt and Taxes Volume 15: Externalities and Public Expenditure Theory Volume 16: Choice, Contract, and Constitutions Volume 17: Moral Science and Moral Order Volume 18: Federalism, Liberty, and the Law Volume 19: Ideas, Persons, and Events Volume 20: Indexes